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Encyclopedia > Lignite
Strip mining lignite at Tagebau Garzweiler near Grevenbroich, Germany
Strip mining lignite at Tagebau Garzweiler near Grevenbroich, Germany

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It is brownish-black and has a high inherent moisture content, sometimes as high as 66%, and very high ash content compared with bituminous coal. It is also a heterogeneous mixture of compounds for which no single structural formula will suffice. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,828 × 1,213 pixels, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Strip mine for lignite at Garzweiler near Köln, Germany September 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,828 × 1,213 pixels, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Strip mine for lignite at Garzweiler near Köln, Germany September 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it. ... Grevenbroich(known as capital of energy) is a town and a municipality in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Northern Pacific Railway Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Idaho railroads | Minnesota railroads | Montana railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Coal assay techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Look up Heterogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The heat content of lignite ranges from 10 to 20 MJ/kg (9 to 17 million Btu per short ton) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 13 million Btu/ton (15 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). When reacted with quaternary amine, amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a unit of energy used in the Power, Steam Generation and Heating and Air Conditioning industry globally. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Because of its low energy density, brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines, such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Carbon dioxide emissions from brown coal fired plants are generally much higher than for comparable black coal plants. The continued operation of brown coal plants, particularly in combination with strip mining and in the absence of emissions-avoiding technology like carbon sequestration, is politically contentious.[1][2] The Latrobe Valley is nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges and the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, Australia. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ...

Contents

Types

Lignite can be separated into two types. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood the second form the compact lignite or perfect lignite. petrified softwood Fossil wood is wood that is preserved in the fossil record. ...


Although the xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible the woody tissue has experienced a great modification. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable quantity of ulmic acid.[3] Trituration is the grinding of powders in a mortar with a pestle. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ...


Production

Lignite mined in millions of metric tons: A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...

1970 1980 1990 2000 2001
1. Germany 369,300 388,000 356,500 167,700 175,400
2. Russia 127,000 141,000 137,300 86,400 83,200
3. USA 5,400 42,300 82,600 83,500 80,500
4. Australia 24,200 32,900 46,000 65,000 67,800
5. Greece 8,100 23,200 51,700 63,300 67,000
6. Poland 32,800 36,900 67,600 61,300 59,500
7. Turkey 4,400 15,000 43,800 63,000 57,200
8. Czech Republic 67,000 87,000 71,000 50,100 50,700
9. People's Republic of China 13,000 22,000 38,000 40,000 47,000
10. SFR Yugoslavia 26,000 43,000 60,000 - -
10. FR Yugoslavia - - - 35,500 35,500
11. Romania 14,100 27,100 33,500 17,900 29,800
12. North Korea 5,700 10,000 10,000 26,000 26,500
Total 804,000 1.028,000 1.214,000 877,400 894,800

Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the year. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ...

See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... The energy value of coal, or the fuel content, is the amount of potential energy in coal that can be converted into actual heating ability. ... Coal assay techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals. ... Karrick Process, from U.S. Patent #1,958,918. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

External links

  • Geographyinaction - an Irish case study
  • Photograph of lignite
  • Environmental Clean Technologies - What is brown coal?
  • Why Brown Coal Should Stay in the Ground

References

  1. ^ The Greens Won't Line Up For Dirty Brown Coal In The Valley. Australian Greens Victoria (2006-08-18). Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  2. ^ Greenpeace Germany Protests Brown Coal Power Stations. Environment News Service (2004-05-28). Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  3. ^ Mackie, Samuel Joseph (1861). The Geologist. Original from Harvard University: Reynolds, Page 197 -200. 
Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lignite (741 words)
In 1988, a 221,799 ton sample of Arkansas lignite mined in Saline County was successfully test-burned in a local power plant as a blend of up to 20 percent lignite and coal from the western United States.
Lignite is present at shallow depths in sedimentary strata of Eocene age in the West Gulf Coastal Plain and along Crowley's Ridge in the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain.
Lignite beds in the Claiborne Group are lenticular, generally of limited areal extent, and may locally exceed 10 feet in thickness, their average thickness is much less.
BNI Coal - Mining lignite coal for our energy future (172 words)
BNI Coal Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of ALLETE (NYSE-ALE), owns and operates the Center Mine near Center, N.D. This surface mine supplies lignite coal to fuel the nearby Milton R. Young steam electric Generating Station, Units I and II.
Each year, BNI Coal mines 4.5 million tons of lignite coal.
BNI’s 140 employees are committed to producing a low-cost fuel that supports our region’s economy, while protecting the quality of our state’s land, air and water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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