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Encyclopedia > Lighting

Lighting includes both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. Lighting represents a major component of energy consumption, accounting for a significant part of all energy consumed worldwide. Artificial lighting is provided today by electric lights, but previously by gas lighting, candles or oil lamps. Proper lighting can enhance task performance or aesthetics, while there can be energy wastage and adverse health effects of lighting. Indoor lighting is a form of fixture or furnishing, and a key part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscaping. For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye, or in a more general sense, any electromagnetic radiation in the range from infrared to ultraviolet. ... Look up daylight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) An oil lamp is a device used for lighting or for preserving a flame that is fueled by animal, vegetable or mineral oil. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... In the law of real property, fixtures are anything that would otherwise be a chattel that have, by reason of incorporation or affixation, become permanently attached to the real property. ... Furnishings (aka art objects, decorative arts, knick-knacks, bric-a-brac) are the objects, other than furniture, that occupy an interior space. ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of...

Dark lighting and haze in a concert hall allows laser effects to be visible
Dark lighting and haze in a concert hall allows laser effects to be visible

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 348 KB) Classical Specatular featured state of the art laser and lighting designed by Durham Marenghi Photo taken at ISO 1600 with no tripod File links The following pages link to this file: Laser Lighting ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 348 KB) Classical Specatular featured state of the art laser and lighting designed by Durham Marenghi Photo taken at ISO 1600 with no tripod File links The following pages link to this file: Laser Lighting ...

Fixtures

Main article: Light fixture

Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions. Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the heat and is in keeping with safety codes. A chandelier light fixture A light fixture or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light or illumination in architecture. ...


Proper selection of fixtures is complicated by the requirement to minimize the veiling reflections off of printed material. Since the exact orientation of printed material may not be closed controlled, a visual comfort probability can be calculated for a given set of lighting fixtures.


Types

Lighting is classified by intended use as general, localized, or task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the light produced by the fixture.

  • General lighting fills in between the two and is intended for general illumination of an area. Indoors, this would be a basic lamp on a table or floor, or a fixture on the ceiling. Outdoors, general lighting for a parking lot may be as low as 10-20 lux (1-2 footcandles) since pedestrians and motorists already used to the dark will need little light for crossing the area.
  • Task lighting is mainly functional and is usually the most concentrated, for purposes such as reading or inspection of materials. For example, reading poor-quality reproductions may require task lighting levels up to 1500 lux (150 footcandles), and some inspection tasks or surgical procedures require even higher levels.
  • Accent lighting is mainly decorative, intended to highlight pictures, plants, or other elements of interior design or landscaping.

Look up Lamp in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This intricate ceiling is part of the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne, Australia, designed by architect Walter Burley Griffin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Driving is the controlled operation of a vehicle, usually a motor vehicle such as a truck, bus, motorcycle, or car (for bicycles and mounted animals and—at least in the U.K. and U.S.—motorcycles, the corresponding activity is called riding). ... Often task lighting refers to office task lighting, where the task light is used to increase illuminance on the reading area. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... Inspection in software engineering, refers to peer review of any work product by trained individuals who look for defects using a well defined process. ... The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance or illumination. ... A foot-candle (sometimes designated footcandle; abbreviated fc, lm/ft², or sometimes ft-c) is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity. ... Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... For images in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Images. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of...

Methods

  • Downlighting is most common, with fixtures on or recessed in the ceiling casting light downward. This tends to be the most used method, used in both offices and homes. Although it is easy to design it has dramatic problems with glare and excess energy consumption due to large number of fittings.
  • Uplighting is less common, often used to bounce indirect light off of the ceiling and back down. It is commonly used in lighting applications that require minimal glare and uniform general illuminance levels. Uplighting (indirect) uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a space and can minimize disabling glare on computer displays and other dark glossy surfaces. It gives a more uniform presentation of the light output in operation.
  • Front lighting is also quite common, but tends to make the subject look flat as its casts almost no visible shadows. Lighting from the side is the less common, as it tends to produce glare near eye level. Backlighting either around or through an object is mainly for accent.
Wall-mounted light with shadows.

Forms of Lighting include alcove lighting, which like most other uplighting is indirect. This is often done with fluorescent lighting or rope light, or occasionally with neon lighting. It is a form of backlighting. Downlighting is a type of lighting. ... Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Martha Byrne from As the World Turns, exhibiting the effects of back lighting on ones hair. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 323 KB) Black and white photo (unaltered) of a wall lamp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 323 KB) Black and white photo (unaltered) of a wall lamp. ... Alcove (through the Spanish, alcova, from the Arabic, al-, the, and quobbah, a vault) is an architectural term for a recess in a room, usually screened off by pillars, balustrade or drapery. ... A compact fluorescent lamp with an integrated electronic ballast A fluorescent lamp is a type of lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, producing short-wave ultraviolet light. ... Lighting neon lamp, two 220/230 Volt and 110 V neon lamps and a screwdriver with neon lamp inside A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing neon gas at low pressure. ...


Soffit or close to wall lighting can be general or a decorative wall-wash, sometimes used to bring out texture (like stucco or plaster) on a wall, though this may also show its defects as well. The effect depends heavily on the exact type of lighting source used. Soffit (from French soffite, Italian soffitto, formed as a ceiling; from suffictus for suffixus, Latin suffigere, to fix underneath). ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... This article is about the building material. ... Defect is the n00b of the animating world, everybody knows that he cannot and will not animate. ...


Recessed lighting (often called "pot lights" in Canada, "can lights" or 'high hats" in the U.S.) is popular, with fixtures mounted into the ceiling structure so as to appear flush with it. These downlights can use narrow beam spotlights, or wider-angle floodlights, both of which are bulbs having their own reflectors. There are also downlights with internal reflectors designed to accept common 'A' lamps (light bulbs) which are generally less costly than reflector lamps. Downlights can be incandescent, fluorescent, HID (high intensity discharge) or LED, though only reflector incandescent or HID lamps are available in spot configuration.  A recessed light is a ceiling light fixture that is installed into a hollow opening in the ceiling. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Look up flush in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spotlight can refer to at least two types of lighting: a searchlight; stage lighting used in theatre to focus an audiences attention on a performer or event. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. ... A reflector can mean one of several things: a reflecting telescope a device or a part of an antenna that reflects radio waves a device that causes reflection, for example, a mirror or a retroreflector a 1981 album by Pablo Cruise In LAPACK the term reflector with the types block... External links LEd Category: TeX ... Incandescence is the release of electromagnetic radiation from a hot body due to its high temperature. ...


Track lighting, invented by Lightolier, was popular at one point because it was much easier to install then recessed lighting, and individual fixtures are decorative and can be easily aimed at a wall. It has regained some popularity recently in low-voltage tracks, which often look nothing like their predecessors because they do not have the safety issues that line-voltage systems have, and are therefore less bulky and more ornamental in themselves. A master transformer feeds all of the fixtures on the track or rod with 12 or 24 volts, instead of each light fixture having its own line-to-low voltage transformer. There are traditional spots and floods, as well as other small hanging fixtures. A modified version of this is cable lighting, where lights are hung from or clipped to bare metal cables under tension. Lightolier is a company that manufactures and sells a wide array of lighting fixtures. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ... Figure 1:Three-phase pole-mounted step-down transformer. ... Track lighting is a method of lighting where light fixtures are attached to a track which conducts electricity. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ...


A sconce is a wall-mounted fixture, particularly one that shines up and sometimes down as well. A torchiere (tour-she-AIR or tour-SHARE) is an uplight intended for ambient lighting. It is typically a floor lamp but may be wall-mounted like a sconce. Sconce on the Medici palace, Florence, Italy. ... A torchiere is a lamp with a tall stand of wood or metal. ...


The portable or table lamp is probably the most common fixture, found in every home and many offices. The standard lamp and shade that sits on a table is general lighting, while the desk lamp is considered task lighting. Magnifier lamps are also task lighting. Look up Lamp in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not physical size. ...


The illuminated ceiling was once popular in the 1960s and 1970s but fell out of favor after the 1980s. This uses diffuser panels hung like a suspended ceiling below fluorescent lights, and is considered general lighting. Other forms include neon, which is not usually intended to illuminate anything else, but to actually be an artwork in itself. This would probably fall under accent lighting, though in a dark nightclub it could be considered general lighting. Underwater accent lighting is also used for koi ponds, fountains, swimming pools and the like. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Diffuser can refer to any device that diffuses in some manner such as: Diffuser (automotive), a shaped section of a cars underbody which improves the cars aerodynamic properties Diffuser (breathing set part), a device fitted over an underwater breathing sets blowoff hole to break up the resulting... In construction and architecture, a dropped ceiling, also referred to as a drop or suspended ceiling, is used as a secondary ceiling formed to conceal piping, wiring, or ductwork, into an area called the plenum. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Koi ) (IPA: ), or more specifically nishikigoi ) (IPA: , literally brocaded carp), are ornamental domesticated varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ...


In a movie theater each step in the aisles is usually marked with a row of small lights, for convenience and safety when the film has started, hence the other lights are off. Traditionally made up of small low wattage, low voltage lamps in a track or translucent tube, these are rapidly being replaced with LED based versions. A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ...


Vehicle use

Vehicles typically include headlights and tail lights. Headlights are white or yellow lights placed in the front of the vehicle, designed to illuminate the upcoming road and to make the vehicle more visible. Tail lights are always red and are placed in the rear to quickly alert other drivers about the vehicle's direction of travel. The white portion of the tail light is the back-up lamp, which when lit, is used to indicate that the vehicle's transmission has been placed in the reverse gear, warning anyone behind the vehicle that it is moving backwards, or about to do so. Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ... A SAAB headlight with combination projector/reflector optics A headlight or headlamp is a lamp, usually attached to the front of a vehicle such as a car, with the purpose of illuminating the road ahead during periods of low visibility, such as night or precipitation. ... This article is about the color. ... A yellow Tulip. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ...


In addition to lighting for useful purposes, and early 1970s, manufacturers would sometimes backlight their logos and or other translucent panelling. In the 1990s, a popular trend was to customize vehicles with neon lighting, especially underneath the body of a car. In the 2000s, neon lighting is increasingly yielding to digital vehicle lighting, in which bright LEDs are placed on the car and operated by a computer which can be customized and programmed to display a range of changing patterns and colors, a technology borrowed from Christmas lights. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Backlights are lights that are attached to LCD displays so that they can be seen at night. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... a neon sign at night Neon signage is produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. ... The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... // History of Ornamental Vehicle Lighting External lighting on vehicles for ornamental purposes is not entirely a recent phenomenon. ... “LED” redirects here. ...


Lamps

Main article: Light bulb

Commonly called 'light bulbs', lamps are the removable and replaceable portion of a luminaire which converts electrical energy to both visible and non-visible electromagnetic energy. Specialists who work with lighting, carefully avoid energetic units for measuring of the light output of sources of light. For example, instead of watt per steradian, the special unit candela is used; 1 candela=(1/683) W/steradian. Common characteristics used to evaluate lamp quality include efficiency measured in lumens per watt, typical lamp life measured in hours, and Color Rendering Index on a scale of 0 to 100. Cost of replacement lamps is also an important factor in any design. [1] The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... The steradian (ste from Greek stereos, solid) is the SI derived unit of solid angle, and the 3-dimensional equivalent of the radian. ... Photopic (black) and scotopic [1] (green) luminosity functions. ... Lighting efficiency is a measure of how much visible light is given off from a light source per unit of energy. ... The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI unit of luminous flux. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... Colour rendering index, or CRI, is a measure of the quality of colour light, devised by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). ...


Design

Architect lamps
Architect lamps

Lighting design as it applies to the built environment, also known as 'architectural lighting design', is both a science and an art. Comprehensive lighting design requires consideration of the amount of functional light provided, the energy consumed, as well as the aesthetic impact supplied by the lighting system. Some buildings, like surgical centers and sports facilities, are primarily concerned with providing the appropriate amount of light for the associated task. Some buildings, like warehouses and office buildings, are primarily concerned with saving money through the energy efficiency of the lighting system. Other buildings, like casinos and theatres, are primarily concerned with enhancing the appearance and emotional impact of architecture through lighting systems. Therefore, it is important that the sciences of light production and luminaire photometrics are balanced with the artistic application of light as a medium in our built environment. These electrical lighting systems should also consider the impacts of, and ideally be integrated with, daylighting systems. Factors involved in lighting design are essentially the same as those discussed above in energy conservation analysis. The skyline of Singapore at night; Many buildings can be seen illuminated for aesthetic reasons. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ...


Mathematical modeling is normally used for complex lighting design, whereas, for simple configurations, tables and simple hand calculations can be used. Based on the positions and mounting heights of the fixtures, and their photometric characteristics, the proposed lighting layout can be checked for uniformity and quantity of illumination. For larger projects or those with irregular floor plans, lighting design software can be used. Each fixture has its location entered, and the reflectance of walls, ceiling, and floors can be entered. The computer program will then produce a set of contour charts overlaid on the project floor plan, showing the light level to be expected at the working height. More advanced programs can include the effect of light from windows or skylights, allowing further optimization of the operating cost of the lighting installation.


The Zonal Cavity Method is used as a basis for both hand, tabulated, and computer calculations. This method uses the reflectance coefficients of room surfaces to model the contribution to useful illumination at the working level of the room due to light reflected from the walls and the ceiling. Simplified photometric values are usually given by fixture manufacturers for use in this method.


Computer modelling of outdoor flood lighting usually proceeds directly from photometric data. The total lighting power of a lamp is divided into small solid angular regions. Each region is extended to the surface which is to be lit and the area calculated, giving the light power per unit of area. Where multiple lamps are used to illuminate the same area, each one's contribution is summed. Again the tabulated light levels (in lux or foot-candles) can be presented as contour lines of constant lighting value, overlaid on the project plan drawing. Hand calculations might only be required at a few points, but computer calculations allow a better estimate of the uniformity and lighting level. A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance or illumination. ... A foot-candle (sometimes designated footcandle; abbreviated fc, lm/ft², or sometimes ft-c) is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity. ...


Practical lighting design must take into account the gradual decrease in light levels from each lamp owing to lamp aging, lamp burnout, and dirt accumulation on fixture and lamp surfaces. Empirically-established depreciation factors are listed in lighting design handbooks.


Energy consumption

Artificial lighting consumes a significant part of all electrical energy consumed worldwide. In homes and offices from 20 to 50 percent of total energy consumed is due to lighting (Hawkin, 2000). Most importantly, for some buildings over 90 percent of lighting energy consumed can be an unnecessary expense through over-illumination (Hawken, 2000). Thus lighting represents a critical component of energy use today, especially in large office buildings where there are many alternatives for energy utilization in lighting. There are several strategies available to minimize energy requirements in any building: This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... This article is about traditional meanings of the word office. ...

  • Specification of illumination requirements for each given use area.
  • analysis of lighting quality to insure that adverse components of lighting (for example, glare or incorrect color spectrum) are not biasing the design.
  • Integration of space planning and interior architecture (including choice of interior surfaces and room geometries) to lighting design.
  • Design of time of day use that does not expend unnecessary energy.
  • Selection of fixture and lamp types that reflect best available technology for energy conservation.
  • Training of building occupants to utilize lighting equipment in most efficient manner.
  • Maintenance of lighting systems to minimize energy wastage.
  • Use of natural light - some big box stores are being built (Ca 2006 on) with numerous plastic bubble skylights, in many cases completely obviating the need for interior artificial lighting for many hours of the day.

Illumination is either Illumination as the practice of living in Love and Light lighting — supplying light to an area Enlightenment (Satori), see also Illuminati the art of decorating letters or pages with ink and embossing techniques. ... In the law of real property, fixtures are anything that would otherwise be a chattel that have, by reason of incorporation or affixation, become permanently attached to the real property. ... Look up Lamp in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Health effects

It is valuable to provide the correct light intensity and color spectrum for each task or environment. Otherwise, energy not only could be wasted but over-illumination can lead to adverse health and psychological effects.


Specification of illumination requirements is the basic concept of deciding how much illumination is required for a given task. Clearly, much less light is required to illuminate a hallway or bathroom compared to that needed for a word processing work station. Prior to 1970 (and too often even today), a lighting engineer would simply apply the same level of illumination design to all parts of the building without considering usage. Generally speaking, the energy expended is proportional to the design illumination level. For example, a lighting level of 80 footcandles might be chosen for a work environment involving meeting rooms and conferences, whereas a level of 40 footcandles could be selected for building hallways. If the hallway standard simply emulates the conference room needs, then twice the amount of energy will be consumed as is needed for hallways. Unfortunately, most of the lighting standards even today have been specified by industrial groups who manufacture and sell lighting, so that a historical commercial bias exists in designing most building lighting, especially for office and industrial settings. Beyond the energy factors being considered, it is important not to over-design illumination, lest adverse health effects such as headache frequency, stress, and increased blood pressure be induced by the higher lighting levels. In addition, glare or excess light can decrease worker efficiency (DiLouie, 2006). Illumination is either Illumination as the practice of living in Love and Light lighting — supplying light to an area Enlightenment (Satori), see also Illuminati the art of decorating letters or pages with ink and embossing techniques. ... Word processing, in its now-usual meaning, is the use of a word processor to create documents using computers. ... A foot-candle (sometimes designated footcandle; abbreviated fc, lm/ft², or sometimes ft-c) is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity widely used in photography, film, television, and the lighting industry. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ...


Analysis of lighting quality particularly emphasizes use of natural lighting, but also considers spectral content if artificial light is to be used. Not only will greater reliance on natural light reduce energy consumption, but will favorably impact human health and performance. For example, it is clear that student test scores are improved for children who learn in the presence of greater natural light (Bain, 1997). Artificial nightlighting has been associated with irregular menstrual cycles. Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of several mammals, including human beings and apes. ...


Military use

See:

Edisons classical searchlight cart. ... A World War I-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ...

Professional organizations

The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), in conjunction with organizations like ANSI and ASHRAE, publishes guidelines, standards, and handbooks that allow categorization of the illumination needs of different built environments. Manufacturers of lighting equipment publish photometric data for their products, which defines the distribution of light released by a specific luminaire. This data is typically expressed in standardized form defined by the IESNA. The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an international voluntary organization for people involved in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, or refrigeration (HVAC&R). ...


The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) is an organization which focuses on the advancement of lighting design education and the recognition of independent professional lighting designers. Those fully independent designers who meet the requirements for professional membership in the association typically append the abbreviation IALD to their name.


The National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting Professions (NCQLP) offers the Lighting Certification Examination which tests rudimentary lighting design principles. Individuals who pass this exam become ‘Lighting Certified’ and may append the abbreviation LC to their name. This certification process is one of three national examinations (the others are CLEP and CLMC) in the lighting industry and is open not only to designers, but to lighting equipment manufacturers, electric utility employees, etc. Generally speaking there is no legal or practical requirement for the lighting design team to possess the certifications discussed.


Indian Society of Lighting Engineers (ISLE) is a society in India, which has various professionals such as physicists, lighting engineers, architects, medical professionals and ophthalmologists, light source and fitting manufacturers. ISLE promotes lighting education, helps research and exchange of information and knowledge among the professionals. Visit http://kb.isle-karnataka.org and http://www.isleind.org for more information.


ISLE has introduced courses on Lighting Design, Engineering and Architecture in Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal (Karnataka), Jadhavpur University, Kolkata, (West Bengal) School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi and Maeer Institute of Technology, Pune, (Maharashtra).


ISLE Karnataka State Center <http://www.isle-karnatak.org/> has organised in cooperation with the European Union under the EU ASIA INVEST program a series of training programs in the field of Street Lighting and Outdoor Lighting,[2] which is of particular interest to the municipalities and to tourism developers, with emphasis on techniques, standards, energy conservation, safety, and security.


See also

The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, sides and rear of the vehicle. ... Three-point lighting is a very common lighting technique used in both still photography and in film. ... 3D computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that utilize a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. ... The first production Anglepoise lamp The Anglepoise lamp was the twentieth centurys most successful and innovative desk lamp design. ... History of Ornamental Vehicle Lighting External lighting on vehicles for ornamental purposes is not entirely a recent phenomenon. ... Domotics is the application of computer and/or robotic technology to household appliances and buildings. ... A fishing light attractor is an underwater light that can be used to attract fish of many species, including baitfish, and larger fish. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Luminous efficacy is a property of light sources, which indicates what portion of the emitted electromagnetic radiation is usable for human vision. ... This article is about lighting design in theater. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, also known as winter depression or winter blues is an affective, or mood, disorder. ... This is a current Stagecraft collaboration! Please help improve it to good article standard. ...

Inventors

Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (1847 – 1923) (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин in Russian) was a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, one of inventors of the Incandescent light bulb. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... This article concerns the Irish-based inventor and lighthouse engineer, not his cousin the shipbuilder John Wigham Richardson John Richardson Wigham (1829 - 1906) was one of the greatest figures in lighthouse engineering. ...

Lists

There are numerous health hazards that can affect people in their natural environment. ... A Standard Household Light bulb This page is a list of sources of light. ... Timeline of lighting technology Since the world began, people used the sun as their main source of light. ...

Bibliography

  • Bain, A. (1997). "The Hindenburg Disaster: A Compelling Theory of Probable Cause and Effect". Procs. NatL Hydr. Assn. 8th Ann. Hydrogen Meeting, March 11–13: 125–128. 
  • DiLouie, Craig (2006). Advanced Lighting Controls: Energy Savings, Productivity, Technology and Applications. The Fairmont Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-88173-510-8. 
  • Lindsey, Jack L. (1991). Applied Illumination Engineering. Lilburn, Georgia: The Fairmont Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-88173-060-2. 
  • Fetters, John L (1997). The Handbook of Lighting Surveys & Audits. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9972-6. 
  • Hawken, Paul; Lovins, Amory; Lovins, L. Hunter (2000). Natural Capitalism. Back Bay Press, Time Warner Book Group. ISBN 0-316-35300-0. 

References

  1. ^ Don't be Dim. Light up your life. Cost comparisons ICLs, CFLs and LEDs
  2. ^ http://www.isle-karnatak.org/eu/

A lamp, in technical usage, is a replaceable component such as an incandescent light bulb, which is designed to produce light from electricity. ... “Light bulb” redirects here. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... A Parabolic Aluminized Reflector light, or PAR light, is a type of light commonly used in motion picture production when a substantial amount of light is required for a scene. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1276, 92 KB) Description: en: de: Glühlampe der Marke Neolux mit klarem Glaskolben. ... A spiral type compact fluorescent lamp. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrodeless lamps the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro)magnetic fields. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium (Son), low-pressure sodium (Sox) and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... A Mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses mercury in an excited state to produce light. ... Example of a light source using a broad spectrum metal halide lamp pointing upward towards the sky. ... Lighting neon lamp, two 220/230 volt and 110 V neon lamps and a screwdriver with neon lamp inside A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing primarily neon gas at low pressure. ... A LPS / SOX streetlight at full power A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp. ... An HMI on a stand. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... A Yablochkov candle (sometimes electric candle) is a type of electric carbon arc lamp, invented in 1876 by Pavel Yablochkov. ... Lit carbide lamp A French manufactured Carbide of Calcium lamp on a bicycle Carbide of Calcium lamp in a coal mine Carbide lamps also known as Acetylene Gas lamps are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene gas (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... Swiss kerosene lamp. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) An oil lamp is a device used for lighting or for preserving a flame that is fueled by animal, vegetable or mineral oil. ... Safety lamp is the name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against coal dust, methane, or firedamp, a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kerosene lamp. ... A Rushlight is a type of candle formed using the dried pith of the rush plant as its wick. ... LBNL researcher examines prototype sulfur lamp. ... “LED” redirects here. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Solid State Lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Electroluminescent wire (often abbreviated to EL wire) is a thin copper wire coated in a phosphor which glows when an AC voltage is applied to it. ... A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ... Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp clearly showing characteristic hydrogen emission lines (sharp peaks at 656 nm and 486 nm) and continuum emission in the ~160-400 nm region. ... Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which luminescence is produced in a material by the bombardment of ionizing radiation such as beta particles. ... A mirror is a reflective surface that is smooth enough to form an image. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. ... This article is about the optical device. ...

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The Light Group, Las Vegas Nightclubs, Restaurants, Bars, Lounges, and Real Estate, the Best Las Vegas Night Clubs and ... (1969 words)
Light Las Vegas night club was thoughtfully, artistically designed by Lian Waisbrod with Studio Gaia of New York City.
Whether you prefer a high-energy Las Vegas nightclub or more intimate Las Vegas night club experience, Light Las Vegas Nightclub is sure to satisfy with various distinct VIP service areas with Las Vegas table reservations and European bottle service dedicated to suit your comfort.
The Light Group, renowned for providing VIP service at its sophisticated and stylish Las Vegas nightlife and Las Vegas restaurant properties, brings its exceptional operational prowess to Bare Pool Lounge at The Mirage, providing an exclusive adult alternative to the typical Las Vegas pool experience.
light. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1379 words)
The term “light” is often extended to adjacent wavelength ranges that the eye cannot detect—to infrared radiation, which has a frequency less than that of visible light, and to ultraviolet radiation and fl light, which have a frequency greater than that of visible light.
Light that is all of the same wavelength and phase (all the waves are in step with one another) is called “coherent”; one of the most important modern applications of light has been the development of a source of coherent light—the laser.
The scientific study of the behavior of light is called optics and covers reflection of light by a mirror or other object, refraction by a lens or prism, diffraction of light as it passes by the edge of an opaque object, and interference patterns resulting from diffraction.
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Day32Kelley
4th July 2010
I took my first loans when I was not very old and this supported my family a lot. However, I need the car loan once more time.

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