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Encyclopedia > Lighthouse
Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses
Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses

An aid for navigation and pilotage at sea, a lighthouse is a tower building or framework sending out light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire. Lighthouses are used to mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, safe entries to harbors and can also assist in aerial navigation. Because of modern electronic navigational aids, the number of operational lighthouses has declined to less than 1,500 worldwide. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Eddystone Lighthouse is situated some 9 miles (15km) South West of Rame Head Cornwall, England on the treacherous Eddystone Rocks 50°10. ... Lighthouse may mean: Lighthouse, a tower aiding marine navigation. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Pilotage is the use of fixed visual references on the ground or sea to guide oneself to a destination. ... This article is about the body of water. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the optical device. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ...

Drawing of ancient Egyptian lighthouse on the island of Pharos at Alexandria
Drawing of ancient Egyptian lighthouse on the island of Pharos at Alexandria

Perhaps the most famous lighthouse in history is the Lighthouse of Alexandria, built on the island of Pharos in Hellenistic Egypt. The name of the island of Pharos is still used as the noun for "lighthouse" in some languages, for example: Albanian (far), French (phare), Italian and Spanish (faro), Portuguese (farol), Romanian (far), Swedish (fyr), Bulgarian and Russian (фар), and Greek (φάρος). The word "pharology" (study of the lighthouses) is also derived from the island's name. [1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... Pharology (named after Pharos, the famed lighthouse of Alexandria) is the study of lighthouses and signal lights Categories: Stub ...

Contents

History

The Roman lighthouse at Dover Castle.
The Roman lighthouse at Dover Castle.

Download high resolution version (768x1024, 631 KB)Lightened and set levels. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 631 KB)Lightened and set levels. ... Dover Castle is situated at Dover, Kent and has been described as the Key to England due to its defensive significance throughout history. ...

Ancient

The Lighthouse of Alexandria was a tower built in 280 BC on the island of Pharos in Alexandria, Egypt originally to serve as that port's landmark. With a height variously estimated at between 115 and 135 metres (383 - 440 ft) it was among the tallest man-made structures on Earth for many centuries, and was identified as one of the Seven Wonders of the World by classical writers. Two lighthouses, each called the Pharos, were built at Dover soon after the Norman conquest of England. They were sited on the two heights (Eastern Heights and Western Heights) and modelled on the one built for Caligula's aborted invasion at Boulogne. [2] Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278 BC 277... PHAROS IPA: [feÉ™.rÊŒs] (Platform for Search of Audiovisual Resources Across Online Spaces) is the name given to a planned (and currently being developed) European Internet multimedia search engine led by the Italian system integrator Engineering Ingegneria Informatica SpA. // The PHAROS platform, co-financed by the European Commission and... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... PHAROS IPA: [feÉ™.rÊŒs] (Platform for Search of Audiovisual Resources Across Online Spaces) is the name given to a planned (and currently being developed) European Internet multimedia search engine led by the Italian system integrator Engineering Ingegneria Informatica SpA. // The PHAROS platform, co-financed by the European Commission and... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... First given earthworks during the American Civil War, the high ground west of Dover, now called Dover Western Heights, was properly fortified in 1804 when Lieutenant-Colonel William Twiss built the Citadel at the western end, North Centre Bastion to the north, and Drop Redoubt overlooking the town, with the... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


In the Islamic world, lighthouses were also known. The Tang Dynasty Chinese writer Jia Dan once wrote in his book (written between 785 - 805) that in the sea route forming the opening mouth of the Persian Gulf, the medieval Iranians had erected large minaret towers that served as lighthouses. Confirming the Chinese reports, a century later, the Arab writers al-Mas'udi and al-Muqaddasi wrote of the same lighthouses.[3] Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Al-Masudi or Abu-Alhasan Ali bin al-Husain. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ...


In China, the medieval mosque at Canton had a minaret that served as a lighthouse. The later Song Dynasty Chinese pagoda tower built in medieval Hangzhou, known as the Liuhe Pagoda (erected in 1165), also served as a lighthouse for sailors along the Qiantang River. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... The Chinese Pagoda is a landmark in Birmingham. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Liuhe Pagoda (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Liùhé TÇŽ), literally Six Harmonies Pagoda or Six Harmonies Tower, is multi-storied pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. ... Qiantang River Bridge The Qiantang River (钱塘江, pinyin qián táng jiāng ) is a river that passes through Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang, a province in China. ...


During the Dark Ages, Roman lighthouses fell in disuse but some still remained in use, such as the Tower of Hercules in A Coruña, Spain, and others mainly in the Mediterranean Sea. As navigation improved, lighthouses gradually expanded to Western and Northern Europe. [4] Tower of Hercules View of the Spanish city of A Coruña from the top of the tower The Tower of Hercules (Torre de Hércules), is an ancient Roman lighthouse located on a peninsula about 1. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name A Coruña (Galician) Spanish name La Coruña Postal code 15xxx Area code 34 (Spain) + 981 (A Coruña) Website http://www. ...


Classic period

Barnegat Lighthouse, a classic coastal lighthouse built by George Meade on Long Beach Island New Jersey
Barnegat Lighthouse, a classic coastal lighthouse built by George Meade on Long Beach Island New Jersey

Lighthouse development accelerated in the seventeenth century with national lighthouse services established in Denmark (1650), Finland (1696) and Britain's Trinity House constructing its first in 1619. Eddystone Lighthouse was first lit in 1698. As Britain became the dominant seapower, lighthouses constructed by the Stephenson family for the Northern Lighthouse Board began to appear in Scotland. [5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Barnegat Lighthouse is located on the northern tip of Long Beach Island, in the town of Barnegat, New Jersey. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. ... Barnegat Lighthouse on the north tip of Long Beach Island Position of Long Beach Island (pink) relative to Ocean County Long Beach Island is a barrier island and summer colony along the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... Trinity House, London (January 2007) A meeting at Trinity House circa 1808 // The Corporation of Trinity House is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England, Wales and other British Territtorial Waters (with the exception of Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland). ... The Eddystone Lighthouse is situated some 9 miles (15km) South West of Rame Head Cornwall, England on the treacherous Eddystone Rocks 50°10. ... Bust of Robert Stevenson by Samuel Joseph, commissioned 19th July 1824 by the Northern Lighthouse Board to be placed in the library of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in testimony of his distinguished talent and indefatigable zeal in the erection of that lighthouse. ... Cape Wrath lighthouse The Northern Lighthouse Board (NLB), previously known as the Commissioners of Northern Light Houses, is the organisation responsible for marine navigation aids around the coastal areas of Scotland and the Isle of Man. ... This article is about the country. ...


The first lighthouse in America was Boston Light on Little Brewster Island (1716). The first keeper was George Worthylake who was drowned, along with his wife and daughter, when returning to the island in 1718. The original tower was destroyed by the British during the evacuation of Boston and eventually reconstructed in 1784. The oldest existing lighthouse in America is Sandy Hook Lighthouse, NJ (1764), which is still in operation. By the end of the 19th century, the United States with its long coastlines had the most lighthouses of any nation. [6] Boston Light on Little Brewster Island Boston Light also called Boston Harbor Light is a lighthouse located on Little Brewster Island in outer Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. ... Little Brewster Island with Boston Light Little Brewster Island is a rocky outer island in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. ... The Sandy Hook Lighthouse after renovations in 2000. ...

A modern automated lighthouse on St. Paul Island

The US Bureau of Lighthouses was created in 1789 by the 9th Act of the first Congress which placed lighthouses under federal control. Over the years, lighthouses were placed under the direction of Department of Revenue (this department was disbanded in 1820), Department of Treasury (until 1903), then the Department of Commerce. The Lighthouse Board (of the U. S. Lighthouse Establishment) held sway from 1852 to July 1, 1910 when Commerce created the Lighthouse Service. The United States Coast Guard took over on July 7, 1939. [7] A modern unmanned lighthouse on Saint Paul Island. ... A modern unmanned lighthouse on Saint Paul Island. ... St. ... The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department and the treasury of the United States government. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ... The United States Lighthouse Board was the agency of the US Federal Government that was responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of all lighthouses in the United States. ... The United States Lighthouse Service, also known as the Bureau of Lighthouses, was the agency of the US Federal Government that was responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of all lighthouses in the United States. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


After 1852 the country was divided into Lighthouse Districts; originally eight, they eventually numbered 19. Each District was run by a Naval Officer appointed by the Lighthouse Board as the District Inspector. He ran the district in tandem with an Army Corps of Engineer officer who was in charge of engineering projects. In 1910, civilians started replacing the military officers. [8]


Lighthouse keepers were needed to trim the wicks, replenish fuel, wind clockworks and perform maintenance tasks such as cleaning lenses and windows. In 1907 Nils Gustaf Dalén produced the sun valve which turned the beacon on and off using daylight. The first one was erected on Furuholmen’s lighthouse between Stockholm and Vaxholm[9]. In 1912 Dalén was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of 'automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses'[10] A lighthouse keeper is the person responsible for tending and caring for a lighthouse. ... Nils Gustaf Dalén (November 30, 1869 - December 9, 1937) was a Swedish inventor and founder of AGA. Laureate for the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1912 for his work on automatic gas regulator controlled buoys. ... A Sun valve, (aka Solventil, solar valve) is a form of flow control valve, notable because it earned its inventor, Gustaf Dalén the Nobel prize in physics. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Vaxholm is a town in the Stockholm archipelago in central Sweden. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


Dalén's inventions, electrification and automatic lamp changers began to make lighthouse keepers obsolete. However, for many years, lighthouses still had keepers, partly because lighthouse keepers could serve as a rescue service if necessary. Improvements in maritime navigation and safety such as GPS have led to the phasing out of non-automated lighthouses, with the last keepers removed in the 1990s.[11] GPS redirects here. ...


Modern

Often in inaccessible locations, modern lighthouses are much more functional and less picturesque; usually they use solar-charged batteries and have a single stationary flashing light sitting on a steel skeleton tower. The last manned lighthouse built in the US was the Charleston Light constructed in 1962. Resembling an air traffic control tower, it has such modern features as a triangular shape, aluminum alloy skin, air conditioning, an elevator and the most powerful lamp in the Western Hemisphere. It too is now automated. [12] Flashing Light is a rhythmic light in which the total duration of the light in each period is clearly shorter than the total duration of the darkness and in which the flashes of light are all of equal duration. ... Charleston Light on Sullivans Island, South Carolina, which is the northern entrance to Charleston harbor, was built to replace the old Charleston light on Morris Island. ... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ...


Light technology

In a lighthouse, the source of light is called the "lamp" (whether electric or fueled by oil) and the magnification of the light is caused by the "lens" or "optic".


Lamp technology

Cutaway fixed Fresnel Lens of Loschen-lighthouse, Bremerhaven
Cutaway fixed Fresnel Lens of Loschen-lighthouse, Bremerhaven

Originally lit by open fires and later candles, the Argand hollow wick lamp and parabolic reflector was developed around 1781 in Europe. In the US, whale oil was used with solid wicks as the source of light until the Argand parabolic reflector system was introduced around 1810 by Winslow Lewis. [13] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1659x2535, 423 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresnel lens Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1659x2535, 423 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresnel lens Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Bremerhaven is a city in the federal state of Bremen, Germany. ... The Argand lamp was invented and patented in 1780 by Aimé Argand . ... Winslow Lewis (1770-1850) was a sea captain, engineer, inventor and contractor active in the construction of many American lighthouses during the first half of the nineteenth century. ...


Colza oil replaced whale oil in the early 1850s, but US farmers' lack of interest in growing this caused the service to switch to lard oil in the mid 1850s. Kerosene started replacing lard oil in the 1870s and the service was finally totally converted by the late 1880s. Electricity and carbide (acetylene gas) started to replace kerosene around the turn of the century. [14] Colza oil is a non-drying oil obtained from the seeds of Brassica campestris, var. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ...


Lens technology

Prior to modern strobe lights, lenses were used to concentrate the light from a continuous source. Two tasks were involved:

  • vertical light rays of the lamp are redirected into a horizontal plane
  • horizontally the light is focused into one or a few directions at a time, with the light beam sweeping around; as a result, in addition to seeing the side of light beam, there are instants that one can see the light directly from a further distance away.

This concentration of light is accomplished with a rotating lens assembly. In classical period lighthouses, the light source was a kerosene lamp, and the lenses were rotated by a weight driven clockwork assembly wound by lighthouse keepers, sometimes as often as every two hours. The lens assembly usually floated in mercury to reduce friction. In more modern lighthouses, electric lights and motor drives were used, generally powered by diesel electric generators. These also supplied electricity for the lighthouse keepers.[15] The items in the Metroid series are the driving force behind its gameplay. ... Swiss kerosene lamp. ... Gear with escapment mechanism For other uses, see Clockwork (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fuel. ... Generator redirects here. ...


Efficiently concentrating the light from an omnidirectional light source requires a lens of very large diameter. This would require a very thick and heavy lens if naively implemented. The development of the Fresnel lens (pronounced FREH nel) revolutionized lighthouses in the 1800s, focusing 85% of a lamps light versus the 20% focused with the parabolic reflectors of the time. Its design enabled the construction of lenses of large size and short focal length without the weight and volume of material in a lens of conventional design. Although the Fresnel lens was invented in 1822, it wasn’t used in the US until the 1850s due to the parsimonious administrator of the United States Lighthouse Establishment, Stephen Pleasonton. With the creation of the United States Lighthouse Board in 1852, all U. S. lighthouses received Fresnel lenses by 1860. [16] Fresnel Lens displayed in the Musée national de la marine in Paris, France A Fresnel lens (pronounced [freɪnel]) is a type of lens invented by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel. ... Fresnel Lens displayed in the Musée national de la marine in Paris, France A Fresnel lens (pronounced [freɪnel]) is a type of lens invented by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel. ... Stephen Pleasonton was the Fifth Auditor of the Treasury of the United States; he is chiefly remembered today for his work in overseeing the United States Light House Establishment during its infancy. ... The United States Lighthouse Board was the agency of the US Federal Government that was responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of all lighthouses in the United States. ...

Rotating optic from the Clare Island lighthouse now displayed at The World of Glass, St. Helens, UK.

Fresnel lenses were ranked by Order, with a first order lens being the largest, most powerful and expensive; and a sixth order lens being the smallest. Coastal lighthouses generally had first, second or third order lenses, while harbor lights and beacons had fourth, fifth or sixth order. lenses.[17] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 291 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The optic from the inside of the Clare Island lighthouse now on permanent display at the gift shop of The World of Glass, St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 291 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The optic from the inside of the Clare Island lighthouse now on permanent display at the gift shop of The World of Glass, St. ... See also list of optical topics. ... Clare Island is magnificent mountainous island guarding the entrance to Clew Bay in County Mayo, Ireland. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of St Helens. ...


Some lighthouses, such as those at Cape Race, Newfoundland, and Makapu'u Point, Hawaii, used an even more powerful hyperradiant Fresnel lens manufactured by the firm of Chance Brothers. Cape Race, Newfoundland Cape Race (46° 39′ 35″ N, 53° 04′ 20″ W NST) is a point of land located at the southeastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Makapu‘u Beach and Waimanalo Bay beyond seen from the highway overlook at Makapu‘u Makapuu is the extreme eastern end of the Island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands, comprising the remnant of a ridge that rises 647 feet (197 meters) above the sea. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Hyperradiant fresnel lenses were the largest ever built and were installed in fewer than a dozen major landfall beacons around the world. ... Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks in Smethwick, Staffordshire, England. ...


In recent decades, many Fresnel lenses have been replaced by rotating aerodrome beacons which require less maintenance. In modern automated lighthouses this system of rotating lenses is often replaced by a high intensity light that emits brief omnidirectional flashes (concentrating the light in time rather than direction). These lights are similar to the obstruction lights used to warn aircraft away from tall structures. More recent innovations are "Vega Lights" and initial experiments with LED panels [18] An aerodrome beacon is a beacon installed at an airport or aerodrome to indicate its location to aircraft pilots at night. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ...


Light characteristics

In any of these designs an observer, rather than seeing a continuous weak light, sees a brighter light during short time intervals. These instants of bright light are arranged to create a characteristic light pattern specific to the particular lighthouse. [19] For example, for the lighthouse of Scheveningen the time intervals between these instants are alternately 2.5 and 7.5 seconds. A light characteristic is a coded description displayed on a nautical chart under the chart symbol for a lighthouse, lightvessel or sea mark with a light on it, to indicate how that light is recognised visually and audibally. ... Scheveningen pier Scheveningen is part of Den Haag, the Netherlands. ...


To assist in distinguishing between lighthouses, the time interval of the light or the color pattern of the lens is varied. Sector lights may additionally have a red or green filter on parts of the lantern house to indicate distinguish safe water areas from dangerous shoals. Sector lights are a man-made pilotage and position fixing aid that indicates a safe channel through shallow or dangerous waters. ...


Modern lighthouses often have unique reflectors or Racon transponders so the radar signature of the light is also unique. [20] Racon signal as seen on a radar screen. ... In telecommunication, the term transponder (sometimes abbreviated to XPDR or TPDR) has the following meanings: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency. ...


Building

Building design

The lighthouses in Finland as of the year 1909, showing differing architecture.
The lighthouses in Finland as of the year 1909, showing differing architecture.

In order to be effective, the lamp needs to be placed at an appropriate height so as to be seen over the horizon before the danger is reached by a mariner. The necessary height can be determined by taking the square root of the height of a light in feet and multiplying it by 1.17 to get the distance to the horizon in nautical miles. [21] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 693 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photographed from old sea chart, 1909, thus This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 693 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photographed from old sea chart, 1909, thus This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States...


Where dangerous shoals are located far off a flat sandy beach, the prototypical tall masonry coastal lighthouse is constructed to assist the navigator making a landfall after an ocean crossing. Often these are cylindrical to reduce the effect of wind on a tall structure on less stable soil. An example of this style is Cape May Lighthouse. Smaller versions of this design are often used as harbor lights to mark the entrance into a harbor, such as New London Harbor Light. The Cape May Lighthouse is a lighthouse located in Cape May Point, New Jersey. ... New London Harbor Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Connecticut, United States, on the west side of the New London harbor entrance, Connecticut. ...


Where a tall cliff exists, a smaller structure may be placed atop it as the location is already high above the water, such as at Horton Point Light. Sometimes, such a location can actually be too high as along the west coast of the United States. In these cases, the lights are often placed below the top of the cliff to ensure that they can still be seen at the surface during periods of fog. An example of this is Point Reyes Lighthouse. Another victim of fog was Point Loma Light (old) which had to be replaced with a lower light, Point Loma Light (new). Horton Point Light is a lighthouse on the north side of Eastern Long Island, New York near Southold. ... Point Reyes Light is a lighthouse on Point Reyes, California A lighthouse was assigned to Point Reyes in 1855, but construction was delayed for fifteen years because of a dispute between the United States Lighthouse Board and the landowners over a fair price for the land. ... The original Point Loma Lighthouse was built on top of Point Loma at the mouth of San Diego Bay in San Diego, California. ... New Point Loma Lighthouse is a lighthouse on Point Loma in California, United States, near San Diego , California Point Loma Lighthouse (old) Categories: | | ...


As technology advanced, prefabricated skeletal iron or steel light houses tended to be used for lighthouses constructed in the twentieth century. These often have a narrow cylindrical core surrounded by an open lattice work bracing, such as Finns Point Range Light. Finns Point Rear Range Lighthouse The Finns Point Range Rear Light, located just east of the Delaware River was part of Range light pair that guided ships into the Delaware River. ...


Some times a lighthouse needs to be constructed in the water itself. Wavewashed lights are masonry structures constructed to withstand water impact, such as Eddystone Lighthouse. In shallower bays, screwpile ironwork structures are screwed into the seabed and a low wooden structure is placed above the open framework, such as Thomas Point Shoal Light. As screwpiles can be disrupted by ice, in northern climates steel caisson lighthouses such as Orient Point Light are used instead. Orient Long Beach Bar Light (Bug Light) is an interesting blend of a screwpile light that was later converted to a caisson light because of the threat of ice damage. [22] The Eddystone Lighthouse is situated some 9 miles (15km) South West of Rame Head Cornwall, England on the treacherous Eddystone Rocks 50°10. ... Screw-pile lighthouses stand on piles which are screwed into sandy or muddy sea or river bottoms. ... The Thomas Point Shoal Light is a historic lighthouse in Chesapeake Bay. ... In engineering, a caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. ... Orient Point Light is a lighthouse off Orient Point, New York http://www. ... Orient Long Beach Bar Light is a lighthouse off Orient, New York. ...


Finally, in waters too deep for a conventional structure, a lightship might be used instead of a lighthouse. Most of these have now been replaced by fixed light platforms (such as Ambrose Light) similar to those used for offshore oil exploration. [23] LV-11 (origonaly British lightship Trinity House) is docked in Rotterdam, Netherlands, as Breeveertien serving as a restaurant. ... Ambrose Light, often called Ambrose Tower, marks the convergence of several main shipping lanes in Lower New York Bay; Ambrose Channel, the main deep water shipping channel into New York Harbor, to its North; Nantucket-Ambrose Shipping Lane, the main shipping lane between Boston and New York, to its East...


Building components

Point Reyes Light, showing the lighthouse and buildings comprising the light station
Point Reyes Light, showing the lighthouse and buildings comprising the light station

While the buildings differ depending on the lights location and purpose, they tend to share the following components. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixelsFull resolution (1618 × 1184 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixelsFull resolution (1618 × 1184 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Point Reyes Light is a weekly newspaper published since 1948 in western Marin County, California. ...


A Light Station consists of the Lighthouse tower and all of the outbuildings, i.e. the keeper¹s living quarters, fuelhouse, boathouse, fog-signaling building, etc. The Lighthouse itself consists of a tower structure supporting the lantern room were the light operates. This page is about the navigational aid called foghorn, for the Ray Bradbury scence fiction novel, see The fog horn A navigation aid for mariners. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stone lantern in a Chinese Garden A chōchin invites customers into an okonomiyaki restaurant in Japan A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ...


The Lantern Room is the glassed-in housing at the top of a lighthouse tower containing the lamp and lens. Its glass storm panes are supported by metal Astragal bars running vertically or diagonally. At the top of the lantern room is a stormproof Ventilator designed to remove the smoke of the lamps and the daytime heat that builds up in such a glass enclosure. A Lightning rod and grounding system is usually connected to the metal Cupola roof to provide a safe conduit for any lightning strikes. An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ...


Immediately beneath the lantern room is usually a Watch Room or Service Room where fuel and other supplies were kept and where the keeper prepared the lanterns for the night and often stood watch. The clockworks (for rotating the lenses) were also located there. On a lighthouse tower, an open platform called the Gallery is often located outside the Watchroom (called the Main Gallery) and/or Lantern Room (Lantern Gallery.) This was mainly used for cleaning the outside of the windows of the Lantern Room.[24]


Lights near to each other that are similar in shape are often painted in a unique pattern so they can easily be recognized during the daylight. This marking is called a daymark. The black and white spiral pattern of Cape Hatteras Lighthouse is an example of this. The Naze Tower Daymark Daymark on St Martins A daymark is a structure such as a tower constructed on land as an aid to navigation by sailors. ... Cape Hatteras Lighthouse (467x700) At 193 feet, 2 inches in height, the Cape Hatteras lighthouse is recognized by the National Park Service as the tallest lighthouse in America. ...


Famous lighthouse builders

Some builders are well known for their work in building multiple lighthouses. The Stevenson family (Robert, Alan, David, Thomas, David Alan and Charles) made lighthouse building a three generation profession in Scotland. Irishman Alexander Mitchell invented and built a number of screwpile lighthouses despite being blind. Corps of Engineers Lieutenant George Meade built numerous lighthouses along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts before gaining wider fame as the winning general at the Battle of Gettysburg. Alexander Ballantyne built two of the most challenging wavewashed lighthouses on barren rock in the Pacific, Tillamook Rock Light and St. George Reef Light. [25] Englishman James Douglass was knighted for his work on lighthouses. Bust of Robert Stevenson by Samuel Joseph, commissioned 19th July 1824 by the Northern Lighthouse Board to be placed in the library of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in testimony of his distinguished talent and indefatigable zeal in the erection of that lighthouse. ... Alan Stevenson (born 1807, Edinburgh; died 1865) was a lighthouse engineer who was Engineer to the Board of Northern Lighthouses. ... David Stevenson (1815–1886) was a lighthouse designer, who designed over thirty lighthouses in and around Scotland, and helped found a great dynasty of lighthouse engineering. ... Thomas Stevenson, 1880 Thomas Stevenson (1818-1887) was a pioneering lighthouse designer, who designed over thirty lighthouses in and around Scotland, as well as the Stevenson screen used in meteorology. ... David Alan Stevenson (born 1854, Edinburgh; died 1938) was a lighthouse engineer who built twenty six lighthouses in and around Scotland. ... Charles Alexander Stevenson (born 1855, Edinburgh; died 1950) was a lighthouse engineer who built twenty three lighthouses in and around Scotland. ... Alexander Mitchell, (April 13, 1780 Dublin - June 25, 1868) was a blind Irish engineer. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Tillamook Rock Light is a lighthouse on the Oregon Coast of the United States, located one mile offshore from Tillamook Head. ... St. ... Sir James Nicholas Douglass, FRS, (October 16, 1826 – June 19, 1898), was an English civil engineer famous for the design and construction of the fourth Eddystone Lighthouse. ...


Range lights

Range Lights in Nantucket, MA. This view indicates that the observer is to the left of the desired channel.

Aligning two fixed points on land provides a navigator with a line of position called Range. Ranges can be used to precisely align a vessel within a narrow channel such as in a river. If the landmarks of a range are illuminated with a set of fixed lighthouses, navigation can also be done at night. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A position line is a line that can be identified both on a nautical chart or aeronautical chart and by observation out on the surface of the earth. ...


Such paired lighthouses are called Range lights. Two lights are used in this scheme. The one closer to the vessel is named the beacon or front range; the furthest away is called the rear range. The rear range light is always taller than the front range light.


When the vessel is on the correct course, the two lights line up above one another. But when the observer is on the wrong course, the difference in alignment makes it very obvious whether to travel left or right to correct the problem.[26]


The first set of range lights in the US were privately established by subscription at Newburyport Harbor in Massachusetts in 1788. [27] This technology was first used in Europe in 1837 where they are referred to as Leading Lights. Newburyport is a small coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, 38 miles (61 km) northeast of Boston. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Some rivers such as the Elbe River in Germany have a series of ranges, and each time it is necessary to make a turn, the navigator lines up the next pair of range lights. This takes you all the way from Hamburg out to the sea, using one pair of range lights after another. This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Maintenance

In the United States, lighthouses are maintained by the United States Coast Guard. [28] Those in England and Wales are looked after by Trinity House, those in Scotland by the Northern Lighthouse Board, and those in Ireland by the Commissioners of Irish Lights. In Canada, they are managed by the Canadian Coast Guard. In Australia, lighthouses are looked after by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Trinity House, London (January 2007) A meeting at Trinity House circa 1808 // The Corporation of Trinity House is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England, Wales and other British Territtorial Waters (with the exception of Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland). ... This article is about the country. ... Cape Wrath lighthouse The Northern Lighthouse Board (NLB), previously known as the Commissioners of Northern Light Houses, is the organisation responsible for marine navigation aids around the coastal areas of Scotland and the Isle of Man. ... The Commissioners of Irish Lights (CIL) is the body that serves as the lighthouse authority for all of the island of Ireland plus its adjacent seas and islands. ... Flag of the Canadian Coast Guard. ... Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is responsible, on behalf of the Commonwealth Government of Australia, for the regulation and safety oversight of Australias shipping fleet and management of Australias international maritime obligations. ...


The Soviet Union built a number of automated lighthouses powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators in remote locations. They operated for very long periods of time without external support with great reliability [29]. However numerous installations have been found deteriorated, stolen and/or vandalized. Some of these lighthouses cannot be found due to poor record keeping. [30] // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ...


Preservation

As lighthouses have become less essential to navigation, many of their historic structures have faced demolition or neglect. In the United States, the Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act of 2000 [31] provides for the transfer of lighthouse structures to local governments and private non-profit groups, while the USCG continues to maintain the actual lamps and lenses. In Canada, the Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Society won heritage status for Sambro Island Lighthouse and has sponsored a bill to change to Canadian federal laws to protect lighthouses.[32] The Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Society (NSLPS) is a non profit charitable organization that works to save lighthouses in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Sambro Island Lighthouse is landfall lighthouse located at the entrance to Halifax, Nova Scotia, near the community of Sambro. ... An Act To Protect Heritage Lighthouses, officially known as Bill S-220, is a proposed federal law to designate and preserve historically significant Canadian lighthouses. ...


Many groups have been formed to restore and save lighthouses around the world. They include the World Lighthouse Society and the United States Lighthouse Society. Another international group is theAmateur Radio Lighthouse Society, which sends ham radio operators to publicize the preservation of remote lighthouses throughout the world.[33] Amateur radio, commonly called ham radio, is a hobby enjoyed by many people throughout the world (as of 2004 about 3 million worldwide, 70,000 in Germany, 5,000 in Norway, 57,000 in Canada, and 700,000 in the USA). ...


Popular culture and symbolism

Split Point Lighthouse, used in a popular Australian TV series
Split Point Lighthouse, used in a popular Australian TV series

Visiting and photographing lighthouses are popular hobbies as is collecting ceramic replicas of them. In some locations, lighthouses have become popular travel destinations in themselves and the buildings are maintained as tourist attractions. In the US, National Lighthouse and Lightship Weekend is celebrated on the first weekend of August and International Lighthouse and Lightship Weekend is celebrated on the third weekend. Many lighthouses are open to the public and Amateur Radio Operators often communicate between them on these days. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1365 × 2048 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1365 × 2048 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A lighthouse located in Aireys Inlet- a small town on the Great Ocean Road, Victoria, Australia. ... An amateur radio operator is an individual who, typically, uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other similar individuals on radio frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service. ...


Lighthouses are popular icons on vehicle license plates. Barnegat Lighthouse, Tuckerton Island Lighthouse, Thomas Point Shoal Lighthouse, New London Harbor Light and Biloxi Light are so depicted.[34] // Introduction A license plate, number plate or registration plate (often referred to simply as a plate, or colloquially tag) is a small metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for official identification purposes. ... Barnegat Lighthouse is located on the northern tip of Long Beach Island, in the town of Barnegat, New Jersey. ... The Thomas Point Shoal Light is a historic lighthouse in Chesapeake Bay on the east coast of the United States. ... New London Harbor Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Connecticut, United States, on the west side of the New London harbor entrance, Connecticut. ... Biloxi Light is a lighthouse near Biloxi, Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico. ...


The Disney film Pete's Dragon featured a lighthouse and the resulting Helen Reddy song "Candle on the Water" alludes to it. An Australian television series Round the Twist also involved a family living at Split Point Lighthouse. Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Petes Dragon (first released on November 3, 1977) is a live-action/animated musical feature film from Walt Disney Productions. ... 2003 Greatest Hits compilation Helen Reddy (born October 25, 1941 in Melbourne, Australia) is an Australian pop singer and actor. ... Candle on the Water is a song from Walt Disney Pictures live action/animation film Petes Dragon. ... Round the Bend is an unrelated British television series. ... A lighthouse located in Aireys Inlet- a small town on the Great Ocean Road, Victoria, Australia. ...


To recognize the role of Lighthouse keepers in the nations maritime safety, the US Coast Guard named a class of 175 foot (53 m) coastal buoy tenders after famous US Lighthouse Keepers. 14 ships in the class were built between 1996 and 2000.[35] USCG Coastal Buoy Tender Joshua Appleby WLM-556 USCG Coastal Buoy Tender Katherine Walker WLM-552 The United States Coast Guard is commissioning a new Keeper-class of coastal buoy tenders that are 175 feet (53 m) in length and named after Lighthouse keepers. ...


Due to their function as beacons of safety, lighthouses are used as symbols by certain organizations. Marriage Encounter uses the lighthouse as their symbol. The lighthouse is also the symbol of US organization for the blind. [36] Lighthouses are often interpreted in dreams as beacons of truth or as male fertility and influence. Marriage Encounter (M.E.) is a weekend program designed to help married couples improve their marriage, grow closer to each other, and improve a couples commitment to and relationship with each other. ... Dreaming is the subjective experience of imaginary images, sounds/voices, thoughts or sensations during sleep, usually involuntarily. ... This page discusses Beacons, fires designed to attract attention. ...


See also

Fresnel Lens displayed in the Musée national de la marine in Paris, France A Fresnel lens (pronounced [freɪnel]) is a type of lens invented by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel. ... Jean Guichard is a French photographer known for his images of lighthouses. ... This article concerns the Irish-based inventor and lighthouse engineer, not his cousin the shipbuilder John Wigham Richardson John Richardson Wigham (1829 - 1906) was one of the greatest figures in lighthouse engineering. ... The Knott family of lighthouse keepers are accredited with the longest period of continuous service in the history of manned lighthouses, commencing in 1730 at South Foreland with William Knott and ending in 1910 at Skerries (Anglesey, Wales) with Henry Thomas Knott (son of George Knott - see below) who died... A lens lantern is a small, self-contained lamp structure which may sometimes be used to serve as a lighthouse. ... A gallery of Lighthouse photos Category: ... A lighthouse keeper is the person responsible for tending and caring for a lighthouse. ... The Flannan Isles (Scottish Gaelic: na h-Eileanan Flannach) are an island group in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, lying several miles west of Lewis. ... . ...

References & Sources

References

http://www.caposoft.se

  1. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  2. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  3. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  4. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  5. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  6. ^ Jones & Robert (1998)
  7. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/light/admin.htm
  8. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/light/admin.htm
  9. ^ http://www.aga.com/web/web2000/com/WPPcom.nsf/pages/History_SunValve
  10. ^ http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1912/dalen-bio.html
  11. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/keep/keep19th.htm
  12. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  13. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/light/admin.htm
  14. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  15. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  16. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/light/admin.htm
  17. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/lens/lens.htm
  18. ^ Crompton & Rhein (2002)
  19. ^ http://www.uscgboating.org/safety/aton/abbreviations.htm
  20. ^ http://www.geocities.com/dllmumbai/racon1.htm
  21. ^ http://www.boatsafe.com/kids/distance.htm
  22. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/constype/constype.htm
  23. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/ltshipmain.htm
  24. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/ltcomp.htm
  25. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/keep/architect.htm
  26. ^ http://www.marinecitymich.org/Rear%20Light.htm
  27. ^ Jones & Robert (1998)
  28. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/light/admin.htm
  29. ^ http://www.atomicinsights.com/sep96/materials.html
  30. ^ http://www.bellona.no/en/international/russia/navy/northern_fleet/incidents/37598.html
  31. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/nhlpa/nhlpa.htm
  32. ^ 'Lighthouse Bill Protecting Our Lighthouses - The Icons of Canada's Maritime Heritage' Canadian Heritage Foundation Featured Heritage Buildings by Douglas Franklin http://www.heritagecanada.org/eng/featured/current.html
  33. ^ http://arlhs.com/
  34. ^ http://www.sunherald.com/306/story/114405.html
  35. ^ http://www.uscg.mil/datasheet/175wlm.asp
  36. ^ http://lighthouse.org

Sources

  • The Lighthouse Encyclopedia, The Definitive Reference, Ray Jones, 2003
  • The Ultimate Book of Lighthouses, Samuel Willard Crompton & Michael J. Rhein, 2002
  • American Lighthouses, Ray Jones & Bruce Roberts, 1998
  • Against Darkness and Storm: Lighthouses of the Northeast Harry Thurston, Halifax: Nimbus, 1993.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lighthouses
  • United States Lighthouse Society The United States Lighthouse Society is a non-profit historical and educational organization incorporated to educate, inform, and entertain those who are interested in lighthouses, past and present.
  • ARLHS Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society Sends ham radio operators to remote lighthouses, sets up radio stations, and communicates via ham radio. Also maintains an extensive online World List of Lights.
  • Lighthouse Friends Detailed information on US lighthouses containing current news, detailed histories and interactive maps.
  • Lighthouse Explorer Website The Lighthouse Explorer Database, with over 7500 lighthouses listed in searchable format, with information, photos, maps and other information
  • Lighthouse Digest Magazine The online version of Lighthouse Digest, the largest magazine about lighthouses in the world. Over ten years of stories searchable online.
  • The WWW Virtual Library: The World's Lighthouses, Lightships & Lifesaving Stations Links to a variety of lighthouse related resources on the web
  • Lighthouses in the Netherlands Written in Dutch and partly in English, with recent pictures.
  • Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Society Canada's oldest and largest lighthouse society with a database of 200 lighthouses.
  • South African Lighthouses English website with photos and detailed info about all the lighthouses in South Africa.
  • Top 25 Lighthouse Web Sites List International list of top web sites about lighthouses displaying latest rank, monthly vote count, ratings and more.
  • Travel-Island.com - Gallery of Lighthouses
  • High resolution low altitude aerial photography of lighthouses across North America, Western Europe, and the Caribbean
  • www.us-lighthouses.com - History, photos, driving directions, and GPS coordinates of lighthouses in the U.S., Canada, Australia, Germany
  • Lighthouses and Buoys Explanation and Characteristic
  • Finnish Maritime Administration Short articles of Finland's coastal lighthouses (In Finnish)
  • New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide Photos, history, cruise and tour information and more for nearly 200 New England lighthouses.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


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