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Encyclopedia > Light rail
A Citadis tram of the Luas system in Dublin, Ireland
A Citadis tram of the Luas system in Dublin, Ireland
Changchun LRT, China
Changchun LRT, China
Shanghai Metro transit station, China
Shanghai Metro transit station, China
A METRORail train approaching Preston Station in downtown Houston, Texas, USA.
A METRORail train approaching Preston Station in downtown Houston, Texas, USA.
A LYNX light rail train from Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.
The Guadalajara urban L-train system (SITEUR), at first a trolleybus system, opened in 1980; the second line was opened in 1994, and a third line is in project.
The Guadalajara urban L-train system (SITEUR), at first a trolleybus system, opened in 1980; the second line was opened in 1994, and a third line is in project.
A Flexity Swift light rail train between Cologne and Bonn.
A Flexity Swift light rail train between Cologne and Bonn.
A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre.
A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre.
A NET tram in Nottingham city centre.
A NET tram in Nottingham city centre.
A DART Light Rail train operating in downtown Dallas, Texas, USA.
A DART Light Rail train operating in downtown Dallas, Texas, USA.
A Tyne and Wear Metro train heading for South Shields calls at Kingston Park station. Although nominally "light rail" the high platforms and full segregation from roads and pedestrians places this system at the upper end of the transport genre which includes street trams.
A Tyne and Wear Metro train heading for South Shields calls at Kingston Park station. Although nominally "light rail" the high platforms and full segregation from roads and pedestrians places this system at the upper end of the transport genre which includes street trams.
New Flexity Classic tram in service on Glenelg line in Adelaide, South Australia.
New Flexity Classic tram in service on Glenelg line in Adelaide, South Australia.
Xochimilco Light Rail train approaching to Estadio Azteca station in Mexico City
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail trains at the Exchange Place stop in Jersey City
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail trains at the Exchange Place stop in Jersey City
TRAX Sandy train at the Gallivan Plaza stop in Downtown Salt Lake City
TRAX Sandy train at the Gallivan Plaza stop in Downtown Salt Lake City

Light rail or light rail transit[1] (LRT) is a form of rail transport system that generally uses electric rail cars[2] on private rights-of-way or sometimes in streets. Light rail is a step below rapid transit, which is fully grade-separated.[3][4][5] Download high resolution version (1635x1200, 750 KB)Photograph by Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005. ... Download high resolution version (1635x1200, 750 KB)Photograph by Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ... Luas [l̪ˠuː(É™)s̪ˠ] (Irish for speed), also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, currently encompasses two unconnected on-street light rail lines in Dublin, Ireland. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Changchun Light Rail Transit Author: User:Lisongmagic, I took this in Changchun I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Changchun Light Rail Transit Author: User:Lisongmagic, I took this in Changchun I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy... Changchun Light Rail Transit (Changchun LRT, 长春轻轨) is the metro transportation system of Changchun, China. ... Image File history File links Shanghai_Light_Rail_Transit. ... Image File history File links Shanghai_Light_Rail_Transit. ... The Shanghai Metro (上海轨道交通) is an urban rapid transit system that serves the city of Shanghai by transporting around 1. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... METRORail is the light rail service in Houston, Texas, United States that started on January 1, 2004. ... “Houston” redirects here. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... LYNX is the light rail service in Charlotte, North Carolina, United States that is set to begin service by December 2007. ... “Charlotte” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 298 KB) This picture shows a station of the electrical train in Guadalajara, Mexico. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 298 KB) This picture shows a station of the electrical train in Guadalajara, Mexico. ... Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ... Periférico Norte (North Outer Ring) station in the morning. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x944, 1212 KB) Bombardier Flexity Swift K5000 light rail vehicle, operated by SWB Bus und Bahn (Stadtwerke Bonn), near Hersel photographed 17-Aug-2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Light rail Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x944, 1212 KB) Bombardier Flexity Swift K5000 light rail vehicle, operated by SWB Bus und Bahn (Stadtwerke Bonn), near Hersel photographed 17-Aug-2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Light rail Metadata This file contains additional information... A low-floor Flexity Swift tram in Cologne. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... A Manchester Metrolink tram, seen here in central Manchester. ... A Manchester Metrolink tram, seen here in central Manchester. ... A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Nottingham Express Transit tram, taken by me 20/04/2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nottingham Express Transit tram, taken by me 20/04/2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A tram in central Nottingham. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... A DART Light Rail train in downtown Dallas, My own picture - I hereby release it into the public domain This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, RadicalBender. ... A DART Light Rail train in downtown Dallas, My own picture - I hereby release it into the public domain This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, RadicalBender. ... A DART Bus operating in downtown Dallas The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority (or DART) is the transit agency in Dallas, Texas that operates buses, light rail (including an underground station), commuter rail, and HOV lanes in Dallas and 12 of its suburbs. ... “Dallas” redirects here. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1208x558, 132 KB) Personal photograph taken by Mick Knapton on June 8th 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1208x558, 132 KB) Personal photograph taken by Mick Knapton on June 8th 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... The Sheffield Supertram is a tram network in Sheffield, England, operated by Stagecoach Group under contract to the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Tyne&Wear_Metrotrain_at_Kingston_Park_station. ... Image File history File links Tyne&Wear_Metrotrain_at_Kingston_Park_station. ... The Tyne and Wear Metro is a light rail metro system based around Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... , South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the south bank of the mouth of the River Tyne, with a population of about 90,000. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 467 KB) Summary Adelaide Flexity tram 101 in service on Glenelg Tram line. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 467 KB) Summary Adelaide Flexity tram 101 in service on Glenelg Tram line. ... A Flexity Classic tram in Frankfurt. ... A depiction of one of the H-class Glenelg trams by Simon Lieschke. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Image File history File links Light_rail_estadio_azteca. ... Image File history File links Light_rail_estadio_azteca. ... The Xochimilco Light Rail (locally known as el tren ligero) is a light rail line that services the south of Mexico City, Mexico. ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1368 KB) Summary Exchange Place stop on the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail line, in Jersey City, New Jerey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1368 KB) Summary Exchange Place stop on the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail line, in Jersey City, New Jerey. ... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A view of the Wasatch Mountains from a Sandy neighborhood. ... Downtown Salt Lake City is the oldest district in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 449 KB) A LRV (Hong Kong), Route 751. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 449 KB) A LRV (Hong Kong), Route 751. ... Opening Date 25 September 1988 Routes 9 Number of trains 1191 Service Area Tuen Mun, Yuen Long The KCR Light Rail is one of the four systems of the KCR network in Hong Kong. ... Image File history File links TriMet MAX train on the MAX Yellow Line to downtown Portland. ... Image File history File links TriMet MAX train on the MAX Yellow Line to downtown Portland. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Metropolitan Area Express (MAX) is a light rail system in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. ... French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways Railway tracks running through Stanhope railway station in North East England, UK A railway yard in Portland, Oregon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Traction power network. ... Not to be confused with railroad car. ... A right-of-way (plural: rights-of-way) is an easement or strip of land granted to a railroad company upon which to build a railroad. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ...


Light rail traces its pedigree to horse-drawn street railways, whereas rapid transit technology evolved from steam-powered commuter operations, such as were seen in London, New York City, and Chicago. A horsecar was an animal-powered streetcar (or tram). ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...

Contents

Definition of light rail

The term light rail was devised in 1972 by the U.S. Urban Mass Transit Association (UMTA) to describe new streetcar transformations which were taking place in Europe and the United States. In Germany the term stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, and many in the UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, which is city rail. However, the UMTA finally adopted the term light rail instead. [6] Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight, since the vehicles often weigh more than those on so-called heavy rail systems. The investment in infrastructure is also usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. Stadtbahn signet as used in North Rhine-Westphalia Stadtbahn (literally in German: city railway) is a term for light rail systems in operation in Germany. ... The term heavy rail is often used for regular railways, to distinguish from systems such as trams/light rail and metro. ...


The American Public Transportation Authority (APTA) in its Glossary of Transit Terminology defines light rail as: "An electric railway with a 'light volume' traffic capacity compared to heavy rail. Light rail may use shared or exclusive rights-of-way, high or low platform loading and multi-car trains or single cars." However, not all light rail lines are electrically-powered; the O-Train in Ottawa, Canada and River Line in New Jersey, United States use diesel multiple unit cars. The O-Train at Carleton University. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The River Line (styled River LINE by NJ Transit) is a light rail system in New Jersey, United States that connects the cities of Camden and Trenton, New Jerseys capital. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... DMU, type SA108 of Great Poland Voivodship in Poznań, Poland The Transwa Prospector DEMU capable of up to 200km/h provides a passenger service between Perth, Western Australia and the mining town of Kalgoorlie A Diesel Multiple Unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered...


Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems which means more or less the same thing throughout the Anglosphere. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... A Light rail system Historically, a railway built in Britain under the 1896 Light Railways Act This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities in British and American English. The common British word for streetcar, tram, is commonly used in the United States to mean an aerial tramway,[7] while the usual British term for an aerial tramway, cable car, usually means a ground-level cable car in the U.S. The word trolley which is often used as a synonym for streetcar in the United States, is usually taken to mean a cart, particularly a shopping cart, in Britain.[8] Most former British colonies use the British term tram, but in Canada the American term streetcar is preferred. Many North American transportation planners reserve streetcar for traditional vehicles that operate exclusively in mixed traffic on city streets, while they use light rail to refer to more modern vehicles operating mostly in exclusive rights of way, since they may operate both side-by-side targeted at different passenger groups.[9] This is a list of words and phrases having differing meanings in British and American English. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... Aerial tramway suspended on two track cables with an additional haulage rope Cable car at Zell am See in the Austrian Alps. ... A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate, or a vehicle on these systems. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... Trolley is: the term used in non-American English to refer to what Americans know as a cart, especially a shopping cart the term used in American English to refer to an electric streetcar that is elsewhere known as a tram (also known as light rail) the term also refers... A Professional Transportation Planner (PTP) is a pending certification program being sponsored by the Transportation Professional Certification Board, Inc. ...


The difference between British English and American English terminology arose in the late nineteenth century when Americans adopted German American rather than British terminology for their electric street railways. German immigrants (who were more numerous than British immigrants in the industrialized Northeast) translated the German term straßenbahn (literally "street railway") into streetcar rather than tram.[10] A further difference arose because, while Britain abandoned all of its trams except Blackpool after WWII, seven major North American cities (Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Newark, and New Orleans) continued to operate large streetcar systems.[11]. When these cities upgraded to new technology, they called it light rail to differentiate it from their existing streetcars since some continued to operate both the old and new systems. Portland, Oregon built all three types of light rail/streetcar/tram system: a high capacity light rail system , a low capacity streetcar system, and an aerial tram system. German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Brush Railcoach No 623 in Mystique livery Illuminated tram No 633, rebuilt in the shape of a Trawler The Blackpool tramway serves Blackpool and Fleetwood and is the only surviving first-generation tramway in the UK, dating back to 1885. ... A CLRV streetcar, used on most of the TTCs streetcar routes, is seen here in downtown Toronto, shown here on the 506 route. ... Lines remaining in 1940 As in many large cities, a large number of streetcar lines once existed in Boston, Massachusetts, USA and its inner suburbs. ... The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) operates five subway-surface trolley lines in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. ... The San Francisco Municipal Railway, or Muni as it is commonly known, is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California. ... The Pittsburgh Light Rail, commonly known as The T, is a 25-mile light rail system in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Newark Light Rail logo Newark Light Rail system map The Newark Light Rail is a light rail system operated by New Jersey Transit serving Newark, New Jersey. ... Streetcars in New Orleans have been an integral part of the citys public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Metropolitan Area Express (MAX) is a light rail system in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. ... A streetcar at the PSU stop. ... The Portland Aerial Tram is an aerial tramway under construction in Portland, Oregon. ...


The opposite phrase heavy rail, used for higher capacity, higher speed systems also avoids some incompatibilities in terminology between British and American English, as for instance in comparing the London Underground to the New York Subway. Conventional rail technologies including high-speed, freight, commuter/regional, and metro/subway are considered to be "heavy rail". People movers and personal rapid transit are even "lighter," at least in terms of capacity. Monorail is a separate technology which has been more successful in specialized services than in a commuter transit role. The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... South Ferry station 125th Street station The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system in New York City, New York, United States. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... The term heavy rail is often used for regular railways, to distinguish from systems such as trams/light rail and metro. ... A people mover is a fully-automated light rail or tram system. ... Artists rendering of SkyTran, a proposed PRT design. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Categories of light rail

The most difficult distinction to draw is that between light rail and streetcar or tram systems. There is a significant amount of overlap between the technologies, many of the same vehicles can be used for either, and it is common to classify streetcars/trams as a subtype of light rail rather than as a distinct type of transportation. The two general versions are:

  1. The traditional type, where the tracks and trains run along the streets and share space with road traffic. Stops tend to be very frequent, but little effort is made to set up special stations. Because space is shared, the tracks are usually visually unobtrusive.
  2. A more modern variation, where the trains tend to run along their own right-of-way and are often separated from road traffic. Stops are generally less frequent, and the vehicles are often boarded from a platform. Tracks are highly visible, and in some cases significant effort is expended to keep traffic away through the use of special signaling, level crossings with gate arms or even a complete separation with non-level crossings. At the highest degree of separation, it can be difficult to draw the line between light rail and metros, as in the case of Wuppertal's Schwebebahn hanging rail system or London's Docklands Light Railway, which would likely not be considered "light" were it not for the contrast between it and the London Underground. Increasingly, light rail is being used to describe any rapid transit system with a fairly lower frequency compared to heavier mass rapid systems such as the London Underground or the Mass Rapid Transit in Singapore.

Many light rail systems — even fairly old ones — have a combination of the two, with both on road and off-road sections. In some countries (esp. in Europe), only the latter is described as light rail. In those places, trams running on mixed right of way are not regarded as light rail, but considered distinctly as streetcars or trams. However, the requirement for saying that a rail line is "separated" can be quite minimal — sometimes just with concrete "buttons" to discourage automobile drivers from getting onto the tracks. A right-of-way (plural: rights-of-way) is an easement or strip of land granted to a railroad company upon which to build a railroad. ... The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing) is a crossing on one level (at-grade intersection) — without recourse to a bridge or tunnel — of a railway line by a road, path, or another railroad. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Schwebebahn over the river Wupper The Schwebebahn Wuppertal is a suspension railway in Wuppertal, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... A C751B train at Eunos MRT Station. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ...


There is a significant difference in cost between these different classes of light rail transit. The traditional style is often less expensive by a factor of two or more. Despite the increased cost, the more modern variation (which can be considered as "heavier" than old streetcar systems, even though it is called "light rail") is the dominant form of urban rail development in the United States.


Some systems, such as the AirTrain JFK in New York City and DLR in London and Kelana Jaya Line in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia have dispensed with the need for an operator. The Vancouver SkyTrain was an early adopter of driverless vehicles, while the Toronto Scarborough rapid transit operates the same trains as Vancouver, but uses drivers. AirTrain JFK is a 13 km (8. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... The Kelana Jaya Line (KLJ) is one of the two lines in Kuala Lumpur Rail Transit System network operated by RapidKL RAIL network. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... The SkyTrain is a two-line urban mass transit system operating in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... The Scarborough RT (sometimes shortened to SRT or RT) is a public transport metro line in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Ultra light rail schemes are designed to offer high cost effectiveness and also easy deployment by using modern techniques and materials to dramatically reduce the weight of the vehicles. Ultra light vehicles cannot as a result co-exist with heavy rail or even most light rail systems as the light construction, comparable to that of a car or bus, is insufficiently strong to take an impact with a conventional train. It is however perfectly adequate in the event of collisions with road vehicles or other ultra light rail vehicles. Keeping the weight down allows for energy efficiency comparable with or better than a bus and regular stopping points using nothing more than a cheap petrol engine and flywheel. In addition the low weight reduces the cost of track and civil engineering and thus the otherwise high initial construction costs. [citation needed] The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ...


History

Main article: History of Trams
See also: Light rail in North America#History of Streetcar and Light rail

Many original Tram and Streetcar systems were decommissioned in the 1950s and onward as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last Tram system except Blackpool by 1962.[12] Although some traditional trolley or tram systems still exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has primarily German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems (stadtbahnen). Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks. [13] Tram systems were common throughout the industrialized world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but they disappeared from many cities in the mid-20th century. ... A METRORail train approaching Preston Station in downtown Houston, Texas, USA. The distinct circumstances under which light rail systems have been introduced to North America (particularly the United States) have caused differences in the development and implementation of those systems as well as spur political controversy over the effectiveness of... This does not cite any references or sources. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... It has been suggested that South Shore, Blackpool be merged into this article or section. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. aircraft manufacturers ...


The renaissance of light rail in North America began in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, Alberta adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years later by Calgary, Alberta and San Diego, California. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with Tyneside and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was firmly established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992. Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... Calgary Transit U2 car 2043 U-Bahn Frankfurt U2 car 361 The Siemens-Duewag U2 is a light-rail vehicle. ... This article is about the Canadian city. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... “San Diego” redirects here. ... Tyneside is a conurbation in northern England, covering part of the area of Tyne and Wear. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre. ...


Historically, the rail gauge has had considerable variations, with narrow gauge common in many early systems. However, most light rail systems are now standard gauge.[13] An important advantage of standard gauge is that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail vehicles to be delivered and relocated conveniently using freight railways and locomotives. Another factor favoring standard gauge is that low-floor vehicles are becoming popular, and there is generally insufficient space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow gauge layout. The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... Narrow-gauge railways are railroads (railways) with track spaced at less than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ...


Comparison to other rail transit modes

With its mix of right-of-way types and train control technologies, LRT offers the widest range of latitude of any rail system in the design, engineering, and operating practices. The challenge in designing light rail systems is to realize the potential of LRT to provide fast, comfortable service while avoiding the tendency to over-design that results in excessive capital costs beyond what is necessary to meet the public's needs.[14]


Rapid rail transit

For more details on this topic, see Rapid transit.

LRVs are distinguished from rapid rail transit (RRT) vehicles by their capability for operation in mixed traffic, generally resulting in a narrower car body and articulation in order to operate in a traffic street environment. Due to their large size, large turning radius, and often an electrified third rail, RRT vehicles cannot operate in the street. Since LRT systems can operate using existing streets, they often can avoid the cost of expensive subway and elevated segments that would be required with RRT. “Mass Transit” redirects here. ...


Streetcars or trams

For more details on this topic, see Tram.

Conversely, LRVs generally outperform streetcars in terms of capacity and top end speed, and almost all modern LRVs are capable of multiple-unit operation. Particularly on exclusive rights-of-way, LRVs can provide much higher speeds and passenger volumes than a streetcar. Thus a streetcar capable of only 70 km/h (45 mph) operating on an exclusive right of way cannot be considered as “light rail”. The latest generation of LRVs is significantly larger and faster, typically of length of 25 m (80 ft with maximum speeds of 100 to 110 km/h (60 to 70 mph). This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


Typical rolling stock

Type Rapid Transit Light Rail Streetcar
Manufacturer Rohr Siemens St. Louis Car
Model BART A-Car S70 PCC
Width 3.2 m (10.5 ft) 2.7 m (8.7 ft) 2.5 m (8.3 ft)
Length 22.9 m (75 ft) 27.7 m (91 ft) 14.2 m (47 ft)
Capacity 150 max 220 max 65 max
Top Speed 125 km/h (80 mph) 106 km/h (66 mph) 70 km/h (45 mph)

Light metro

For more details on this topic, see Medium capacity system.

A derivative of LRT is light rail rapid transit (LRRT), also referred to as Light Metro. Such railways are characterized by exclusive rights of way, advanced train control systems, short headway capability, and floor level boarding. These systems approach the passenger capacity of full metro systems, but can be cheaper to construct by using the ability of LRVs to turn tighter curves and climb steeper grades than standard RRT vehicles. Judging by the capacity, Ma On Shan Rail, KCR can also be considered as a medium capacity system. ...


Train operation

For more details on this topic, see Automatic train operation.

An important factor crucial to LRT is the train operator. Unlike rail rapid transit, traveling unattended with automatic train operation (ATO), the operator is a key element in a safe, high-quality LRT operation[citation needed]. Thus, a train with ATO is not “light rail”. The philosophy of light rail is that a qualified person should be on each train to deal with emergencies[citation needed], and while that person is there, he or she might as well operate the train. Automatic train operation (ATO) insure partial or complete automatic train piloting and driverless functionalities. ...


Floor height

For more details on this topic, see Low floor.

The latest generation of LRVs has the advantage of partial or fully low-floor design, with the floor of the vehicles only 300 to 360 mm (12-14 inches) above top of rail, a capability not found in either rapid rail transit vehicles or streetcars. This allows them to load passengers, including ones in wheelchairs, directly from low-rise platforms that are not much more than raised sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access to disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts, while at the same time making boarding faster and easier for other passengers as well. Passenger door of a low-floor tram Passenger door of a non-low-floor tram In public transportation, low floor is a term describing vehicles such as busses, trolleybusses and trams whose passenger compartment has a floor which is considerably lower than that of traditional cars. ...


Power sources

Overhead lines supply electricity to the vast majority of light rail systems. This avoids the danger of passengers stepping on an electrified third rail. The Docklands Light Railway uses a standard third rail for its electrical power. Trams in Bordeaux, France use a special third-rail configuration where the power is only switched on beneath the trams, making it safe on city streets. Several systems in Europe, as well as a few recently-opened systems in North America use diesel-powered trains. The overhead lines of a Swiss Federal Railways track. ... For other uses, see Electricity (disambiguation). ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bordeaux trams run without overhead wires. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fuel. ...


Pros and cons of Light Rail

All transit service involves a tradeoff between speed and frequency of stops. Services that stop frequently have lower overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips. Metros, light rail, monorail, and Bus Rapid Transit are all forms of rapid transit — which generally signifies high speed and widely-spaced stops. Trams are a form of local transit, making more frequent stops. A tram system, tramway, or street railway is a railway on which trams (streetcars, trolleys) run. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Busways redirects here. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ...


Light rail around the world

Most of light rail services are currently committed to articulated vehicles like modern LRVs, i.e. trams, but exceptionally for large underground metrosystems. A tram system, tramway, or street railway is a railway on which trams (streetcars, trolleys) run. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


Ref.e.g.: D.A.Borgdorff, HTM LRV GTL8, The Hague, 2000, ISBN 9090139354 HTM Personenvervoer NV (HTM, from the former name Haagsche Tramweg Maatschappij) is a public transport company in the Netherlands operating trams and buses in The Hague, Rijswijk, Leidschendam-Voorburg, Delft, and Nootdorp. ... GTL may refer to: Gas to liquid, a refinery process Georgia Tech Lorraine, a campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Metz, France Group Term Life insurance, a type of life insurance that holds no cash value nl:GTL8, a Hague articulated HTM LRV-tram GT Legends, a PC...


Capacity of light rail versus roads

Roads have capacity limits which can be determined by traffic engineers. Due to traffic congestion they experience a chaotic breakdown in flow and a dramatic drop in speed if they exceed about 2,000 vehicles per hour per lane (each car roughly 2 seconds behind another). [15] Since automobiles in many places average only 1.2 passengers during rush hour, this limits roads to about 2,400 passengers per hour per lane. This can be mitigated somewhat by using high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For other uses, see Rush hour (disambiguation). ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is any vehicle with a driver and one or more (or sometimes two or more, or three or more) passengers. ...


Light rail vehicles can travel in trains carrying much higher passenger volumes.[16] If run in streets, light rail systems are limited by city block lengths to about four 180-passenger vehicles (720 passengers). Operating on 2 minute headways using traffic signal progression, a well-designed system can handle more than 30 trains per hour, achieving peak rates of over 20,000 passengers per hour per track. More advanced systems with separate rights-of-way using moving block signalling can exceed 25,000 passengers per hour per track. [17] It has been suggested that safeworking be merged into this article or section. ...


Most North American systems are limited by demand rather than capacity and seldom reach 10,000 passengers per hour per track, but European light rail systems often approach their limits. When they do, they can carry as many passengers as a 16-lane freeway in the space of a two lane roadway. If passenger volumes exceed light rail limits, heavy rail systems can be built to carry many more people.


Costs of light rail construction and operation

The cost of light rail construction varies widely, largely depending on the amount of tunneling and elevated structures required. A survey of North American light rail projects[18] shows that costs of most LRT systems range from $15 million per mile to over $100 million per mile. Seattle's new light rail system is by far the most expensive in the U.S. at $179 million per mile, since it includes extensive tunneling in poor soil conditions, elevated sections, and stations as deep as 180 feet below ground level.[19] These result in costs more typical of subways or rapid transit systems than light rail. At the other end of the scale, four systems (Baltimore MD, Camden NJ, Sacramento CA, and Salt Lake City UT) incurred costs of less than $20 million per mile. Over the U.S. as a whole, excluding Seattle, new light rail construction costs average about $35 million per mile.[18]


Combining highway expansion with LRT construction can save costs by doing both highway improvements and rail construction at the same time. As an example, Denver's T-REX (Transportation Expansion) project rebuilt interstate highways 25 and 225 and added a light-rail expansion for a total cost of $1.67 billion over five years.[20] The cost of 17 miles of highway improvements and 19 miles of double-track light rail worked out to $19.3 million per highway lane-mile and $27.6 million per LRT track-mile. The project came in under budget and 22 months ahead of schedule. [21] The Transportation Expansion Project or T-REX was a $1. ...


LRT cost efficiency improves dramatically as ridership increases. the Calgary, Alberta C-Train used many common light rail techniques to keep costs low, including minimizing underground and elevated trackage, sharing transit malls with buses, leasing rights-of-way from freight railroads, and combining LRT construction with freeway expansion. As a result, Calgary ranks toward the less expensive end of the scale with capital costs of around $24 million per mile [22] This article is about the Canadian city. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Calgary Transit recently introduced new SD-160 vehicles to complement the aging original trains. ...


However, Calgary's LRT ridership is much higher than any comparable U.S. city at over 250,000 rides per weekday and as a result its efficiency of capital is also much higher. Its capital costs were ⅓ that of the San Diego system, a comparably sized one in the U.S., while its ridership is well over twice as high. Thus, Calgary's capital cost per weekday rider is less than 1/6 that of San Diego. Its operating costs are also lower. A typical C-Train vehicle costs only $163 per hour to operate, and since it averages 600 passengers per operating hour, [23] Calgary Transit estimates that its LRT operating costs are only 27 cents per ride, versus $1.50 per ride on its buses.[22]


Variations

Trams operating on mainline railways

Around Karlsruhe, Kassel and Saarbrücken in Germany, dual-voltage light rail trains partly use mainline railroad tracks, sharing these tracks with heavy-rail trains. In the Netherlands, this concept was first applied on the RijnGouweLijn. This allows commuters to ride directly into the city centre, rather than taking a mainline train only as far as a central station and then having change to a tram. In France similar tram-trains are planned for Paris, Mulhouse and Strasbourg; further projects exist. Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... Light rail train The RijnGouweLijn or RGL is a light rail project in South Holland, Netherlands. ... This article is about trams sharing tracks with main-line railways. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Mulhouse (French: Mulhouse, pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa; German: Mülhausen) is a town and commune in eastern France close to Swiss and German border. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


Some of the issues involved in such schemes are:

  • compatibility of the safety systems
  • power supply of the track in relation to the power used by the vehicles (frequently different voltages, rarely third rail vs overhead wires)
  • width of the vehicles in relation to the position of the platforms
  • height of the platforms

There is history of what would now be considered light-rail vehicles operating on heavy-rail rapid transit tracks in the U.S., especially in the case of interurban streetcars. Notable examples are Lehigh Valley Transit trains running on the Philadelphia and Western Railroad high-speed third rail line (now the Norristown High Speed Line). Such arrangements are almost impossible now, due to the Federal Railroad Administration refusing to allow non-FRA compliant railcars (i.e. subway and light rail vehicles) to run on the same tracks at the same times as compliant railcars, which includes locomotives and standard railroad passenger and freight equipment. A notable exception is the New Jersey Transit River Line from Camden to Trenton, which has received an exemption on the provision that light rail operations occur only during daytime hours and Conrail freight service only at night, with several hours separating one operation from the other. A railway platform is a section of pathway, alongside rail tracks at a train station, metro station or tram stop, at which passengers may board or alight from trains or trams. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... An interurban streetcar line or interurban, also called a radial railway in Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas. ... The Philadelphia and Western Railroad was an interurban railroad company operating in the western suburbs of the U.S. city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Norristown High Speed Line (NHSL), operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority as Route 100 of the Suburban Transit Division, is a hybrid between light rail and rapid transit operating between Norristown Transportation Center and 69th Street Terminal, running entirely on its own right of way, inherited from the... The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) was created in 1966 as a division of the U.S. Department of Transportation to promote rail transportation and safety. ... The New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ Transit) is a statewide public transportation system serving the state of New Jersey, and Orange and Rockland counties in New York. ... River Line system map The River Line (styled River LINE by NJ Transit) is a light rail system in New Jersey, United States that connects the cities of Camden and Trenton, New Jerseys capital. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: Country United States State New Jersey County Mercer County Founded circa 1719 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... Conrail 6114, a GE Dash 8-40CW, leads a train westbound out of Altoona, Pennsylvania. ...

See also: Karlsruhe model

Stadtbahn on the mainline Street running of Stadtbahn in Heilbronn The Karlsruhe model is used when it is necessary to run urban and heavy rail trains on one set of track. ...

Third-rail power for trams

In the French city of Bordeaux, Citadis trams are powered by a third rail in the city center, where the tracks are not always segregated from pedestrians and cars. The third rail (actually two closely spaced rails) is placed in the middle of the track, and divided into eight-metre sections, each of which is only powered while it is completely covered by a tram. This minimises the risk of a person or animal coming into contact with a live rail. In outer areas, the trams switch to conventional overhead wires. Bordeaux trams run without overhead wires. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


In practice the Bordeaux power system cost about three times as much as a conventional overhead wire system and took 24 months to achieve acceptable levels of reliability, requiring replacement of all the main cables and power supplies. Operating and maintenance costs of the innovative power system still remain high. However, despite numerous service outages, the system was a success with the public, gaining up to 190,000 passengers per day.


This third rail technology is being investigated for use on the Gold Coast of Australia for the Gold Coast Light Rail. See the present draft report here. “Gold Coast” redirects here. ... The Gold Coast Light Rail is a proposed rapid transport system for the Gold Coast, Australia. ...


See also

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Busways redirects here. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. ... The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An interurban streetcar line or interurban, also called a radial railway in Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Guided bus. ... A METRORail train approaching Preston Station in downtown Houston, Texas, USA. The distinct circumstances under which light rail systems have been introduced to North America (particularly the United States) have caused differences in the development and implementation of those systems as well as spur political controversy over the effectiveness of... The Light Rail Transit Association (LRTA) was formed in 1937. ... The following is a list of cities that have tram / light-rail systems as part of their public transport system. ... The following is a list of all light rail systems in the United States, ranked by ridership. ... This page provides links to list of cities that have, or once had, town tramway (urban tramway, or streetcar) systems as part of their public transport system. ... Luas [l̪ˠuː(É™)s̪ˠ] (Irish for speed), also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, currently encompasses two unconnected on-street light rail lines in Dublin, Ireland. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Metro Light Rail, owned by Connex, operates one light rail line in inner Sydney, Australia. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A people mover is a fully-automated light rail or tram system. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ... Adelaide O-Bahn The guide wheel of a guided bus in Mannheim, Germany A Fastway bus in the guided bus lane on Southgate Avenue, Crawley Guided buses are buses steered for part or all of their route by external means, usually on a dedicated track. ... S-Bahn refers to suburban metro railways in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This article is about trams sharing tracks with main-line railways. ... A Polish Solaris trolleybus in Landskrona, Sweden. ... The Presidents Conference Car was a model used by the Toronto Transit Commission. ... U-Bahn is the German abbreviation for Untergrund-Bahn (literally, underground railway), referring to a means of urban rapid transit, internationally known as subway, underground or metro. ... Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems serving urban or older suburban areas. ...

External links

Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...

References

  1. ^ University of Washington, Office of External Affairs, Glossary
  2. ^ While the definitions state that electric cars are used, several systems, including the O-Train and River Line, use diesel multiple units.
  3. ^ Planning Portal Glossary
  4. ^ Iowa Department of Transportation, Rail System Plan Glossary
  5. ^ American Public Transportation Association, Glossary of Transit Terminology
  6. ^ Gregory L. Thompson (2003), Defining an Alternative Future: Birth of the Light Rail Movement in North America, Transportation Research Board, http://trb.org/publications/circulars/ec058/03_01_Thompson.pdf
  7. ^ definition of tram - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  8. ^ definition of trolley - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  9. ^ Light Rail Transit - Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  10. ^ Simon P Smiler. Trams, Streetcars and Light Rail Vehicles. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  11. ^ Plous, Jr, F.K. (June 1984). A Desire Named Streetcar. Planning magazine. American Planning Association. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  12. ^ Peter Courtenay (2006). Trams in the UK. Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  13. ^ a b Bottoms, Glen (2000). "Continuing Developments in Light Rail Transit in Western Europe". ', 9th Annual Light Rail Transit Conference, Portland, Oregon: Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  14. ^ Fazio, A. E. and Hickey, T. R. (2003). "Designing New Light Rail - Taking Engineering Beyond Vanilla". Circular E-C058: 9th National Light Rail Transit Conference. Transportation Research Board. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  15. ^ Matt Lorenz and Lily Elefteriadou (2000) A Probabilistic Approach to Defining Freeway Capacity and Breakdown, Transportation Research Board, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/EC018/08_52.pdf
  16. ^ Tom Parkinson and Ian Fisher (1996) Rail Transit Capacity, Transportation Research Board, http://nrc40.nas.edu/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2603
  17. ^ Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Transportation Research Board, http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2326
  18. ^ a b Light Rail Now (2002). Status of North American Light Rail Projects. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  19. ^ Sound Transit (2006). Link Light Rail Projects. Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  20. ^ Shaw, Mark. "Reinventing a Corridor: Denver's T-REX project nears completion after five years", Constructor, McGraw-Hill Construction, May/June 2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-20. 
  21. ^ Flynn, Kevin. "T-REX trains ready to roll", Rocky Mountain News (Denver, CO), 2006-11-17. Retrieved on 2006-11-20. 
  22. ^ a b McKendrick et al. (2006). "Calgary's C-Train - Effective Capital Utilization" (PDF). Joint International Light Rail Conference, St. Louis, Missouri. Calgary Transit. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  23. ^ CTS (2006). LRT technical data. Calgary Transit. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Light rail - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4076 words)
Light rail traces its pedigree to street railways, whereas rapid transit (metro) technology evolved from steam commuter operations, such as were seen in London, New York City, and Chicago.
Light rail is generally powered by electricity, usually by means of overhead wires, but sometimes by a live rail, also called third rail (a high voltage bar alongside the track), requiring safety measures and warnings to the public not to touch it.
Light rail systems are generally cheaper to build than heavy rail, since the infrastructure does not need to be as substantial, and tunnels are generally not required as is the case with most metro systems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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