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Encyclopedia > Light bulb

The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. Creating the technology to build and mass produce light bulbs also kindled the development of science during the industrial revolution. A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ...


Originally, artificial light was generated by an open flame – in a rustic torch burning in a wall bracket, a hand-held candle or lantern, and later with natural gas lighting. Electricity was first used to produce light with the arc lamp, demonstrated in the early 19th Century. Competition from skilled businessman and inventor Thomas Edison brought his improved incandescent light bulb to prominence in the marketplace during the middle of the century, dominating over other lighting technologies. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fire. ... A burning torch, discarded on the road in the wake of the Lewes Bonfire Night celebrations. ... A lit candle. ... Stone lantern A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc or electric arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847–October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life in the 20th century. ... An incandescent light bulb and its glowing filament. ...

"Lamp" is the technical word for a light bulb, which features an airtight glass enclosure in a "bulb" shape (or a fluorescent "tube") surrounding a thin metal filament. These components are mounted in a ceramic or metal base, which makes an electrical connection in the socket of a light fixture with a threaded base, with two metal pins or a "bayonet mount" (candelabra base). "Re-lamping" refers to the replacement of only the removable lamp in a light fixture. Image File history File links Clear_light_bulb. ... A light fixture or lighting fixture is a electric light that is attached to the wall or ceiling of certain rooms in a house. ...

  • Lamp is also a general word for any device that produces artificial light, such as a desk lamp or reading lamp. For other meanings, see Lamp.

Contents

Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. ... A lamp in general is any device that produces light. ...


Incandescent lamp

Main article: Incandescent lamp

The incandescent light bulb was the first type of modern electric light, introduced in the early 19th Century and still basically inefficient at converting electricity to light. About 90% of the electricity input is wasted as heat. This excess heat is then dumped into the air which, in warm climates, must then be cooled by ventilation or air conditioning, resulting in more energy wastage. The light bulb was invented by the homosexual inventor David Hollands The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... An incandescent light bulb and its glowing filament. ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ... The term inefficiency has several meanings depending on the context in which its used: Economic inefficiency refers to a situation where we could be doing a better job, i. ... Ventilation good and very bad Ventilation is air circulation of air, typically between a room, a tunnel, etc. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ...


Halogen lamps were introduced as an improvement to incandescents. Visible light output of these lamps is about 15% of the energy input, instead of 10%, allowing them to produce a total of about 50% more light using the same amount of electrical power. The bulb capsule is under high pressure instead of a vacuum or low-pressure noble gas. Good halogen bulbs produce a "cool white" color temperature approaching the appearance of sunlight at noon, while regular incandescents produce warm light with a warm yellow tint. The halogens are a chemical series. ... The word capsule (from the Latin capsula, a small box), has many similar meanings in English: In botany, a capsule is a type of dry fruit as in the poppy, iris, foxglove, etc. ... Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For other uses, see vacuum (disambiguation) A vacuum is a volume of space that is empty of matter, including air, so that gaseous pressure is much less than standard atmospheric pressure. ... The noble gases are the chemical elements in group 18 (old-style Group 0) of the periodic table. ... White light is commonly described by its color temperature. ... Prism splitting light Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ...


These lamps are much smaller that incandescent and burn with a hotter filament temperature, which results in a very hot surface. For this reason, a fused-quartz "capsule" is used to enclose the filament, which is sealed behind an additional layer of glass. This is a safety precaution, because halogen "bulbs" can explode if broken while operating or by coming into contact with water or oily residue from fingerprints. The risk of burns or fire is also greater than other bulbs, leading to their prohibition in some places. Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmopshere with its magnetic field. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... A fingerprint is an imprint made by the pattern of ridges on the pad of a human finger. ...


Fluorescent lamp

Main article: Fluorescent lamp

Fluorescent lamps have an efficiency of about 40%, meaning that for the same amount of light generated, they use 1/4 the power and produce 1/6 the heat of a regular incandescent. Fluorescents were limited to linear and a round "circleline" lamp until the 1980s, when the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) was invented. CFLs can have a built-in electrical ballast which fit into a standard screw base, or make use of a remote ballast. Compact and linear fluorescent lamps last far longer than incandescents, but do have some starting trouble in very cold weather when installed outside. A compact fluorescent lamp with an integrated electronic ballast A fluorescent lamp is a type of lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light. ... A compact fluorescent lamp with an integrated electronic ballast A fluorescent lamp is a type of lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, producing short-wave ultraviolet light. ... The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. ... Compact fluorescent light bulb A compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL bulb) is a type of fluorescent lamp which screws into a regular light bulb socket, or plugs into a small lighting fixture. ... A ballast is a device used to start a gas discharge lamp, and, once the lamp is started, to limit the flow of electric current. ... Find more information on Weather by searching Wikipedias sister projects: Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Weather is an all-encompassing term used to describe all of the many and varied phenomena...


Fluorescents most often come in cool white (CW), with some home bulbs being a warm white (WW), which has a pinkish tint. In between there is an "enhanced white" (EW), which is more neutral. There is also a very cold daylight white (DW). Compact fluorescent lamps are usually considered warm white, though many have a yellowish cast like an incandescent. "Warm" and "cool" are entirely relative terms and almost arbitrary so color temperature and the color rendering index (CRI) are used as absolute scales of color for fluorescents, and sometimes for other types of lighting. Pink is a color made by mixing red and white and sometimes described as being a light red, but it is more accurately a bright undersaturated red. ... Since the NTSC color television standard is susceptible to color errors, there is a tint control on NTSC television sets, which allows the image hue to be corrected. ... Some things which can be neutral are: Neutral country, in politics, a country takes no side in a conflict. ... Look up arbitrary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... White light is commonly described by its color temperature. ... Colour rendering index, or CRI, is a measure of the quality of colour light, devised by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). ...


HID lamp

Main article: gas discharge lamp

High-intensity discharge lighting first came about with the mercury-vapor streetlights, and later the high-pressure sodium ones with their characteristic orange color. Modern ones are metal halide, used in everything from headlights to floodlights, and with a more pleasant color balance. Like fluorescents, all HID bulbs require a ballast, but they also require a few minutes (or seconds for headlights) to warm up after "igniting". HID bulbs are over 60% and up to 80% efficient. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fluorescent lamp. ... High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include the groups of lamps commonly known as mercury vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ... Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... See also Orange (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Metal halide lamps are similar to mercury vapor lamps, but instead of just mercury, they also contain all metals in the halide group of the periodic table (Hence the name). ... A SAAB headlight with combination projector/reflector optics A headlight or headlamp is a lamp, usually attached to the front of a vehicle such as a car, with the purpose of illuminating the road ahead during periods of low visibility, such as night or precipitation. ... In graphics, color balance is the term for the dynamic range of the colors in an image. ...


LED lamp

Main article: Solid State Lighting

University researchers have made recent advances in the production of white Light Emitting Diodes LEDs which lead to the introduction of Solid State Lighting (SSL) fixtures made for general illumination. Before this time, colored LEDs were used as indicator lights for electronic devices. These lamps are still more expensive than other lamps, but they last an extremely long time, up to 100,000 hours (compared to around 10,000 for fluorescent and 1,000 for incandescent). It appears that for now these will be most useful and cost-effective in smaller applications, starting with nightlights and flashlights. Colored LEDs can also be used for accent lighting, and even in fake ice cubes for drinks at parties. They are also being increasingly used as Christmas lights. White LEDs are about the same efficiency as other fluorescents, while red ones can be up to 90% efficient. Solid State Lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LED), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or light-emitting polymers as sources of illumination rather than filaments or gasses. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... In economics, cost-effectiveness refers to the comparison of the relative expenditure (costs) and outcomes (effects) associated with two or more courses of action. ... A nightlight is a small, usually electrical, light source placed for comfort or convenience in indoor dark areas or areas that become dark at certain times. ... Green flashlight Flashlight is the NATO designation for the Yakovlev Yak-25 Soviet military jet. ... Rapper, Ice Cube. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids. ... A party is a social gathering intended primarily for celebration and recreation. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


LED technology is useful for lighting designers because of its low power consumption, low heat generation, instantaneous on/off control, continuity of color throughout the life of the diode and relatively low cost of manufacture. In the last few years, software has been developed to merge lighting and video by enabling lighting designers to stream video content to their LED fixtures, creating low resolution video walls.


See also

L i g h t i n g   and   L a m p s
Fluorescent Compact Fluorescent: (CFL) - Linear fluorescent Compact fluorescent lightbulb
Incandescent: Halogen - Light bulb - Parabolic Aluminized Reflector (PAR) - Reflector lamp (R)
Gas discharge:  High-Intensity Discharge (HID) - Mercury-vapor - Metal-halide - Sodium vapor
Electric arc HMI - Safety lamps - Xenon arc - Yablochkov candle
Fuel lamp: Acetylene/Carbide - Candle - Gas lighting - Kerosene lamp - Limelight - Oil lamp
Other types: Induction lamp - Light-Emitting Diode (LED) - Fiber optics - Neon - Plasma

  Results from FactBites:
 
Light bulb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1028 words)
The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand.
Originally, artificial light was generated by an open flame – in a rustic torch burning in a wall bracket, a hand-held candle or lantern, and later with natural gas lighting.
The incandescent light bulb was the first type of modern electric light, introduced in the early 19th Century and still basically inefficient at converting electricity to light.
Incandescent light bulb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3856 words)
The incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence, in which an electric current passes through a thin filament, heating it and causing it to emit light.
The "bulb" is the glass enclosure around the filament that often contains a vacuum or is filled with a low-pressure noble gas to prevent the filament from burning out due to evaporation at the high temperature.
An incandescent light bulb (about 2.1% efficiency) is about one quarter as efficient as a fluorescent lamp (about 8.2% efficiency), and produces about six times as much heat with the same amounts of light from both sources.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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