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Encyclopedia > Ligament

In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

  1. Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. They are sometimes called "articular ligaments"[2], "fibrous ligaments", or "true ligaments".
  2. A fold of peritoneum or other membrane
  3. The remnants of a tubular structure from the fetal period of life

The first meaning is most commonly what is meant by the term "ligament". After briefly discussing the other two types of ligaments, the remainder of this article will focus upon the first type. Look up Tissue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Peritoneal ligaments

Certain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments. In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...


Examples include:

The portion of the lesser omentum extending between the liver and duodenum is the hepatoduodenal ligament. ... The portal vein is a major vein in the human body draining blood from the digestive system and its associated glands. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The broad ligament of the uterus refers to the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis. ... The suspensory ligament of the ovary (also infundibulopelvic ligament) is a fold of peritoneum that surrounds the ovarian artery and vein as they extend out from the ovary. ...

Fetal remnant ligaments

Certain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures:

Fetal Adult
ductus arteriosus ligamentum arteriosum
extra-hepatic portion of the fetal left umbilical vein ligamentum teres hepatis (the "round ligament of the liver").
intra-hepatic portion of the fetal left umbilical vein (the ductus venosus) ligamentum venosum
distal portions of the fetal left and right umbilical arteries medial umbilical ligaments

In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch that allows much of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus fluid-filled lungs. ... The ligamentum arteriosum is a small ligament between the pulmonary artery and aortic trunk. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... For other structures with similar name, see round ligament. ... In the fetus, the ductus venosus connects the left umbilical vein with the upper inferior vena cava. ... The ligamentum venosum is the fibrous remnant of the ductus venosus of the fetal circulation. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions. ... The medial umbilical ligament is a paired structure found in human anatomy. ...

Articular ligaments

Diagrammatic section of a symphysis.
Diagrammatic section of a symphysis.

In its most common use, a ligament is a short band of tough fibrous dense regular connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form a joint. (They do not connect muscles to bones; that is the function of tendons.) Some ligaments limit the mobility of articulations, or prevent certain movements altogether. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ...


Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. They act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join bones together and provide joint stability. This article is about a joint in zootomical anatomy. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ...


Ligaments are only elastic; when under tension, they gradually lengthen. (Unlike tendons which are inelastic). This is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as quickly as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much, then the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts, dancers, and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple. The term double-jointed refers to people who have more elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further. The medical term for describing such double-jointed persons is hyperlaxity and double-jointed is a synonym of hyperlax. Dislocation (joint dislocation) occurs when bones at a joint move from their normal position. ... Hypermobility (also called double-jointedness, hypermobility syndrome or hyperlaxity) describes joints that stretch farther than is normal. ...


The study of ligaments is known as desmology.


The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be joined. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli Procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and eventually to osteoarthritis. The Brunelli Procedure is a surgical procedure that can be used to correct instability in the wrist. ... Osteoarthritis / Osteoarthrosis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, arthrosis or in more colloquial terms wear and tear), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints. ...


Examples

Knee

The anterior cruciate ligament (or ACL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... Diagram of the knee The lateral collateral ligament (or LCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... Diagram of the knee The posterior cruciate ligament (or PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... Diagram of the knee The medial collateral ligament (or MCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ...

Head and neck

The cricothyroid ligament is the larger part of the laryngeal membrane, continuing inferiorly as a median or anterior part and twin lateral ligaments. ... // Headline text The periodontal ligaments are considered part of the periodontium, as they are supporting tissue of a tooth. ... The zonula ciliaris splits into two layers, one of which is thin and lines the hyaloid fossa; the other is named the suspensory ligament of the lens: it is thicker, and passes over the ciliary body to be attached to the capsule of the lens a short distance in front...

Pelvis

The anterior sacroiliac ligament consists of numerous thin bands, which connect the anterior surface of the lateral part of the sacrum to the margin of the auricular surface of the ilium and to the preauricular sulcus. ... The posterior sacroiliac ligament is situated in a deep depression between the sacrum and ilium behind; it is strong and forms the chief bond of union between the bones. ... The Sacrotuberous Ligament (great or posterior sacrosciatic ligament) is situated at the lower and back part of the pelvis. ... The sacrospinous ligament (small or anterior sacrosciatic ligament) is thin, and triangular in form; it is attached by its apex to the spine of the ischium, and medially, by its broad base, to the lateral margins of the sacrum and coccyx, in front of the sacrotuberous ligament with which its... The inferior pubic ligament (arcuate pubic ligament or subpubic ligament) is a thick, triangular arch of ligamentous fibers, connecting together the two pubic bones below, and forming the upper boundary of the pubic arch. ... The superior pubic ligament connects together the two pubic bones superiorly, extending laterally as far as the pubic tubercles. ... In males, the suspensory ligament of the penis is attached to the pubic symphysis, which holds the penis close to the pubic bone and supports it when erect. ...

Thorax

  • Suspensory ligament of the breast

Coopers ligaments (also known as Coopers suspensory ligaments and the fibrocollegenous septa) are connective tissue in the breast that helps maintain structural integrity. ...

Wrist

In human anatomy, the wrist is the flexible and narrower connection between the forearm and the palm. ...

References

  1. ^ ligament at eMedicine Dictionary
  2. ^ l_09/12488504 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary

eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Dorlands Medical Dictionary was first published in 1890 as the American Illustrated Medical Dictionary including 770 pages. ...

External links

Look up ligament in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Exhaustive list of ligaments

  Results from FactBites:
 
Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain -- Part I (735 words)
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee.
Structurally, the MCL is more firmly attached to the knee than the lateral collateral ligament and most injuries usually occur on the more exposed lateral side, which exerts most of the stress onto the medial side.
The MCL is made up of a superficial ligament which is now called by itself the tibial collateral ligament which originates from the medial epicondyle of the femur, just below the adductor tubercle, and inserts on the medial tibia three to four inches below the joint line, posterior and deep to the pes anserinus.
Ligament and Tendon Laxities (959 words)
A ligament connects two bones and is involved in the stability of the joint.
Since tendons move the joints and ligaments stabilize the joints, it is primarily these soft tissue structures that are involved.
The ligaments and tendons produced after Prolotherapy, appear much the same as normal tissues, except that they are thicker, stronger, and contain fibers of varying thickness, testifying to the new and ongoing creation of collagen tissue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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