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Encyclopedia > Life peer
This article is part of the series
Peerage
Hereditary Peer
Life Peer
Representative Peer
Privilege of Peerage
History of the Peerage

In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). Nowadays, life peerages, always of baronial rank, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and carry with them, presuming the recipient meets qualifications such as age and citizenship, seats in the House of Lords. The Peerage is a system of titles of nobility which exists in the United Kingdom and is one part of the British honours system. ... Listen to this article (help) Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ... The Privilege of Peerage is the body of special privileges belonging to members of the British Peerage. ... The Peerage is a system of nobility unique to the United Kingdom. ... The Peerage is a system of titles of nobility which exists in the United Kingdom and is one part of the British honours system. ... Listen to this article (help) Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of Life Peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom, and granted them non-hereditary voting status in the House of Lords. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to exercise the House of Lords' judicial functions; they, too, sit in the House of Lords. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary retire, potentially at the age of seventy and necessarily by the age of seventy-five, but continue to sit in the House for life. By convention, the Lords do not participate in the political business of the House, instead confining themselves to hearing cases. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... The Judicial Pensions and Retirement Act 1993 is a piece of British legislation that strengthened the mandatory retirement provisions previously instituted by the Judicial Pensions Act 1959 for members of the British judiciary. ...

Contents


Before 1876

The Crown, as fount of honour, has the undoubted right to create peerages, whether hereditary or for life. In the early days of the Peerage, the Sovereign had the right to summon individuals to one Parliament without being bound to summon them again. Over time, it was established that once summoned, a peer would have to be summoned for the remainder of his life, and later, that the peer's heirs and successors would also be summoned, thereby firmly entrenching the hereditary principle. The fount of honour (Latin: fons honorum) refers to a nations head of state, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry to other persons. ...


Nevertheless, life peerages lingered. From the reign of James I to that of George II (16031760), eighteen life peerages were created for women. Women, however, were incapable of sitting in the House of Lords, so it was unclear whether or not a life peerage would entitle a man to do the same. For over four centuries, no man had claimed a seat in the Lords by virtue of a life peerage. In 1856, it was determined necessary to add a peer learned in law to the House of Lords (which exercised and continues to exercise certain judicial functions), without allowing the peer's heirs to sit in the House and swell its numbers. Sir James Parke, a baron (judge) of the Exchequer, was created Baron Wensleydale for life, but the House of Lords concluded that the peerage did not entitle him to sit in the House of Lords. Lord Wensleydale was then compelled to take his seat as an hereditary peer. (Ironically, Parke had no sons, so his barony did not pass to an heir despite the ruling of the Lords.) James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... James Parke is the name of: James Parke (tennis player) — Australian Open winner, 1912 James Parke, Baron Wensleydale (1782-1868) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This may refer to: A hereditary title created for James Parke (1782-1868), an English judge, in 1856. ...


The Government then introduced a bill to authorise the creation of two life peerages carrying seats in the House of Lords for judges who held office for at least five years. The House of Lords passed it, but the bill was lost in the House of Commons. In 1869, a more comprehensive life peerages bill was brought by John Russell, 1st Earl Russell. At any one time, twenty-eight life peerages could be in existence; no more than four were to be created in any one year. Life peers were to be chosen from senior judges, civil servants, senior officers of the British Army or Royal Navy, members of the House of Commons who had served for at least ten years, scientists, writers, artists, peers of Scotland and peers of Ireland. (Peers of Scotland and Ireland did not all have seats in the House of Lords, instead electing a number of representative peers.) The bill was rejected by the House of Lords at its third reading. In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell (August 18, 1792 – May 28, 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a British Whig and Liberal statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... A third reading is the stage of a legislative process in which a bill is read with all amendments and given final approval by a legislative body. ...


Appellate Jurisdiction Act

In 1873, William Gladstone's government passed the Judicature Act, which reorganised the court system and abolished the appellate jurisdiction of the House of Lords in respect of English appeals. In February of the next year, before the Act came into force, Gladstone's Liberal Government fell; the Conservative Benjamin Disraeli became Prime Minister. In 1874 and 1875, acts were passed delaying the coming-into-force of the Judicature Act. In 1876, the Appellate Jurisdiction Act repealed the provisions rescinding the jurisdiction of the House of Lords. Additionally, the Act provided for the appointment of two persons to be Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, who were to sit in the House of Lords under the dignity of baron. Originally, though they held the rank of baron for life, they served in Parliament only while holding judicial office; eleven years later, however, an act was passed allowing Lords of Appeal to continue to sit and vote in Parliament even after retirement from office. 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... William Ewart Gladstone (December 29, 1809 - May 19, 1898) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886 and 1892-1894). ... The Judicature Act 1873 was a law passed by the British Parliament in 1873. ... The Right Honourable Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman and literary figure. ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Life Peerages created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act, as aforementioned, are always of the rank of baron, and may be created for both men and women. To be appointed a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act, an individual must have been a practising barrister for a period of fifteen years or must have held a high judicial office—Lord Chancellor, or judge of the Court of Appeal, High Court or Court of Session—for a period of two years. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary serve for life under the style of baron, and may vote in non-judicial matters, though they normally do not elect to exercise this right. The two most senior Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are designated the Senior and Second Senior Lords of Appeal in Ordinary respectively. Barristers: traditional dress. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ... A judge or justice is an appointed or elected official who presides over a court. ... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system (with only the judges of the House of Lords above it). ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of England and Wales in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ...


The Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are joined by the Lords of Appeal, who include members of the House of Lords, not necessarily created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act, who hold or have held high judicial office. Additionally, every Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, upon reaching the age of seventy, becomes a Lord of Appeal. Lords of Appeal retain their titles for life, but, except for the serving Lord Chancellor, are incapable of hearing cases after the age of seventy-five. Only Lords of Appeal in Ordinary receive salaries: for 2004, the salary for the Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary is £185,705, and for other Lords of Appeal in Ordinary £179,431. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Life Peerages Act

The Life Peerages Act sanctions the regular granting of life peerages, but the power to appoint Lords of Appeal in Ordinary under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act was not derogated. No limits were placed on the number of peerages that the Sovereign may award, as was done by the Appellate Jurisdiction Act. A peer created under the Life Peerages Act has the right to sit in the House of Lords, provided he is twenty-one years of age, is not suffering punishment upon conviction for treason and is a citizen of the United Kingdom, of the Republic of Ireland or of a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth of Nations is an association of independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former colonies once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire. ...


Life baronies under the Life Peerages Act are theoretically created by the Sovereign, but in practice, none is granted except upon the proposition of the Prime Minister. Individuals may be created after retiring from important public offices, such as Speaker of the House of Commons or Prime Minister. From time to time, Working Peers' Lists are published. "Working peers" do not form a formal class, but represent the various political parties and are expected to regularly attend the House of Lords. Additionally, individuals may be created peers in various honours lists as rewards for merit; these peers are not expected to be regular attendees of the House of Lords, but are at liberty to do so if they please. The New Year Honours List, the Birthday Honours List (to mark the Sovereign's official birthday, the second Saturday in June), the Dissolution Honours List (to mark the dissolution of Parliament) and the Resignation Honours List (to mark the end of a Prime Minister's tenure) have all been used to announce life peerage creations. Now, however, non-partisan peers are not announced in the various honours lists, but are rather created upon the recommendations of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. This is a list of the Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom since 1721. ... The Dissolution Honours List, names those individuals receiving Honours from the Monarch at a time following the Dissolution of the United Kingdom Parliament. ... In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ...

Harold Wilson was the first Prime Minister to receive a life barony.
Harold Wilson was the first Prime Minister to receive a life barony.

Life peerages may be awarded to certain important public functionaries upon retirement. Every Archbishop of Canterbury who has retired since 1958 has also been created a life peer. Life Peerages have been granted to Speakers of the House of Commons upon retirement (as well as, occasionally, hereditary peerages in the form of viscountcies). Government portrait of Harold Wilson This work is copyrighted. ... Government portrait of Harold Wilson This work is copyrighted. ... Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the Lower House of Parliament, the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ...


Important cabinet officials have generally been created life peers upon retirement from the House of Commons. Many Prime Ministers, including Sir Alec Douglas-Home, Sir Harold Wilson, Sir James Callaghan and Margaret Thatcher, have been created life peers following their retirement from the House of Commons. Neither Sir Edward Heath nor Sir John Major has been made a peer, while two Prime Ministers —Sir Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan— were given hereditary titles as Lord Avon and Lord Stockton. Other important cabinet officials, including Chancellors of the Exchequer, Home Secretaries, Foreign Secretaries and Defence Secretaries, retiring since 1958 have generally been created life peers. Some, such as William Whitelaw, were created hereditary viscounts. Others, like Kenneth Clarke and Sir John Major, were not granted any peerages. The Right Honourable Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT,1 PC (2 July 1903–9 October 1995), 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... This article is about the British politician. ... The Right Honourable Sir Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born October 13, 1925), is a British stateswoman and was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990, also Leader of the Opposition from 1975, and the only woman to date to hold the former... The Right Honourable Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (born July 9, 1916) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a senior British politician who served in the cabinets of Margaret Thatcher as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer before succeeding Thatcher as Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG (June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... The Right Honourable Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894–29 December 1986), nicknamed Supermac and Mac the Knife, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... The title Earl of Avon was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1961 for the former Prime Minister Anthony Eden, together with the subsidiary title Viscount Eden. ... Earl of Stockton is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom created in 1984, along with the subsidiary title of Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, of Chelwood Gate in the County of East Sussex and of Stockton-on-Tees in the County of Cleveland, which is the courtesy title... The Rt. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (colloquially called the Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ... William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, KT, CH, MC, PC, DL (28 June 1918 - 1 July 1999), commonly known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative politician. ... Kenneth Clarke The Right Honourable Kenneth Harry Clarke, QC, MP, (born 2 July 1940) is a leading Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a senior British politician who served in the cabinets of Margaret Thatcher as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer before succeeding Thatcher as Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to...


High judicial officers have sometimes been created life peers upon taking office. All Lord Chief Justices of England and Wales have, since 1958, been created life peers under the Life Peerages Act, with the exception of the present Lord Chief Justice, Lord Woolf, who was already a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary before becoming Lord Chief Justice. Henry Kenneth Woolf, Baron Woolf, PC (born May 2, 1933), is the current Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, making him the second most senior judge in England and Wales after the Lord Chancellor. ...


Life peerages may in certain cases be awarded to hereditary peers. After the House of Lords Act 1999 passed, many hereditary peers of the first creation, including Sir Toby Low, 1st Baron Aldington; Frederick Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale; Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford, and 1st Baron Pakenham and Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, were all created life peers, as they did not inherit their titles but would still be excluded by the House of Lords Act 1999. None of the peers of the first creation who were members of the Royal Family were granted life peerages. Life peerages were also granted to former Leaders of the House of Lords, including John Julian Ganzoni, 2nd Baron Belstead, Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, also (Viscount Cranborne and Lord Cecil of Essendon by virtue of a writ of acceleration), George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, Malcolm Shepherd, 2nd Baron Shepherd and David Hennessy, 3rd Baron Windlesham. The House of Lords Act 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament, was a major constitutional enactment as it completely reformed one of the chambers of Parliament, the House of Lords. ... Toby Low later known as the 1st Baron Aldington and later Baron Low (May 25, 1914 – December 7, 2000) was a British Conservative Party politician and businessman. ... Toby Low later known as the 1st Baron Aldington and later Baron Low (May 25, 1914 – December 7, 2000) was a British Conservative Party politician and businessman. ... The title Earl of Longford was first bestowed upon Francis Aungier in 1677. ... Antony Armstrong-Jones, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1958 Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon (born March 7, 1930) is a well-known photographer, Emmy award-winning documentary filmmaker, and the former husband of the late Princess Margaret. ... The Right Honourable Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, KG , GCMG , CH , MC , PC , JP , DL (born June 6, 1919), was British Foreign Secretary (1979–1982) and Secretary-General of NATO (1984–1988). ... Robert Michael James Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, PC (born September 30, 1946), was a Conservative politician and Leader of the House of Lords, under his courtesy title of Viscount Cranborne. ... The title Marquess of Salisbury is a British title of Peerage, created in 1789 for James Cecil, 7th Earl of Salisbury. ... George Patrick John Rushworth Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, KBE, DSO, MC, PC (born April 4, 1918), is the longest serving member of the House of Lords, having succeeded his father as Earl Jellicoe in 1935 and come of age and taken his seat in 1939. ... Malcolm Newton Shepherd, 2nd Baron Shepherd (1918-2001) was a British Labour politician and peer who served as Leader of the House of Lords under Harold Wilson from 1974 to 1976. ... The Right Honourable Sir David James George Hennessy, 3rd Baron Windlesham, Bt, CVO, PC (born 28 January 1932) is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom, and currently holds visiting professorships at various universities. ...


In most cases, peers are created on a partisan basis. Normally, the Prime Minister chooses only peers for his own party, but permits the leaders of opposition parties to recommend peers from those parties. The Prime Minister may determine the number of peers each party may propose; he may also choose to amend these recommendations, but by convention does not do so. A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives...


Individuals who have not served in public office may also be created peers on a non-partisan basis. Formerly, the Prime Minister determined which peers could be created on the basis of merit, but that task has now passed to the House of Lords Appointments Commission, established in 2000. The Commission both scrutinises these recommendations and nominates non-partisan candidates on the basis of merit. The Commission includes a Chairman, three non-partisan peers, one Conservative peer, one Labour peer and one Liberal Democrat peer. The Prime Minister may determine the number of peers the Commission may propose, and also may amend the recommendations. Again, by convention, no amendment is made to the recommendations of the Commission. This article is about the year 2000. ...


Unlike Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, life peers created under the Life Peerages Act do not, unless they also hold ministerial positions, receive salaries. They are, however, entitled to allowances for travel and accommodation. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ...


The number of Life Peers

Peerage Dignities Created Under
the Life Peerages Act 1958
Prime Minister Party Tenure Peers
Harold Macmillan Conservative 1957–1963 48
Alec Douglas-Home Conservative 1963–1964 14
Harold Wilson Labour 1964–1970 123
Edward Heath Conservative 1970–1974 56
Harold Wilson Labour 1974–1976 80
James Callaghan Labour 1976–1979 57
Margaret Thatcher Conservative 1979–1990 200
John Major Conservative 1990–1997 141
Tony Blair Labour 1997— 306
Total 1025

The Appellate Jurisdiction Act originally provided for the appointment of two Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, who would continue to serve while holding judicial office, though in 1887, they were permitted to continue to sit in the House of Lords for life, under the style and dignity of baron. The number of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary was increased from time to time—to three in 1882, to four in 1891, to six in 1913, to seven in 1919, to nine in 1947, to eleven in 1968 and to twelve in 1994. The Administration of Justice Act 1968 allows the Sovereign to make a Statutory Instrument, if each House of Parliament passes a resolution approving a draft of the same, increasing the maximum number of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. The Right Honourable Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894–29 December 1986), nicknamed Supermac and Mac the Knife, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... The Right Honourable Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT,1 PC (2 July 1903–9 October 1995), 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... This article is about the British politician. ... The Right Honourable Sir Edward (Ted) Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... This article is about the British politician. ... The Right Honourable Sir Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born October 13, 1925), is a British stateswoman and was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990, also Leader of the Opposition from 1975, and the only woman to date to hold the former... The Right Honourable Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served in the Cabinets of Margaret Thatcher as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer before succeeding Thatcher as Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister of the United... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Link title1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Statutory Instruments (SIs), also referred to as delegated or secondary legislation, are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ...


There is no limit on the number of Lords of Appeal (peers who hold or held high judicial office, and retired Lords of Appeal in Ordinary) who sit in the House of Lords. There are, as at the beginning of 2004, thirty-one Lords of Appeal. Twenty-three of those Lords of Appeal were formerly Lords of Appeal in Ordinary.


The rate of creation of life peerages under the Life Peerages Act has not shown a consistent pattern of increase, but the present Prime Minister, Tony Blair, has caused the creation of life peerages at an unprecedented rate. The number of Conservative and Labour life peers has in recent years been approximately the same; in 1999, there were 172 Conservative and 160 Labour life peers in the House of Lords, and at the beginning of May, 2004, there were 158 Conservative and 178 Labour life peers in the House of Lords. The hereditary element of the House of Lords, however, does not reflect such an equality. In 1999, for example, immediately before most hereditary peers were removed by the House of Lords Act, there were 299 Conservative hereditary peers, compared to nineteen Labour peers and twenty-three Liberal Democrat peers. The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is the principal centrist/centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


See also: List of Life Peerages, List of Law Life Peerages This is a list of Life Peerages in the Peerage of the United Kingdom created under the Life Peerages Act 1958, grouped by the sitting Prime Minister. ... This is a list of Life Peerages in the Peerage of the United Kingdom created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. ...


References

Table of the British honours system
Current Orders of Chivalry

The Most Noble Order of the Garter - The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle -
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath - The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George -
The Distinguished Service Order - The Royal Victorian Order - The Order of Merit - The Imperial Service Order - The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire - The Order of the Companions of Honour The honours system of the United Kingdom is a means of rewarding personal bravery, achievement or service to the country. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-04-11, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and other formerly Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... The Order of Merit is a British Order. ... The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in decreasing order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ...

Old Orders of Chivalry

The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick - Royal Guelphic Order - The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India -
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire - The Imperial Order of the Crown of India The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... The Royal Guelphic Order was a British order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later George IV). ... The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1861. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... The Imperial Order of the Crown of India is an order in the British honours system. ...

Other Honours and Appointments

Hereditary peerage - Life peerage - Baronetcy - Knighthood - Other orders, decorations and medals
The Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem - Listen to this article (help) Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) is the holder of a title, similar to a knighthood except that it is hereditary, known as a baronetcy. ... A silver statue of an armoured knight, created as a trophy in 1850 For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... This article concerns British and Commonwealth orders and decorations awarded by the British Sovereign. ... This page deals with the order after its revival in the 19th century. ...

List of people who have declined a British honour

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peerage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2387 words)
Life peers created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act are known as "lords of Appeal in Ordinary." They perform the judicial functions of the House of Lords and serve on the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
Peers had the right to be tried by fellow peers in the Lord High Steward's Court and in the House of Lords; this privilege was abolished in 1948.
While life peerages were often created in the early days of the Peerage, their regular creation was not provided for under an Act of Parliament until 1876, with the passage of the Appellate Jurisdiction Act.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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