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Encyclopedia > Life and work of Ludwig van Beethoven

Contents

Role of Musical Biography

It is common for listeners to perceive an echo of Beethoven's life in his music, which often depicts struggle followed by triumph; this description is often applied to Beethoven's creation of masterpieces in the face of his severe personal adversities. For this reason, more than almost any other composer, musicological descriptions of Beethoven's music are linked to details of his personal life.


Youth

Beethoven in 1784
Beethoven in 1784

Beethoven was born in Bonn on December 16, 1770. He was baptized on December 17th. The composer's birthday is often celebrated, based on the usual custom of rapidly baptizing infants at that time, as December 17th. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (912 × 1132 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The painting is described thus: Ludwig van Beethoven was recognised as a child prodigy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (912 × 1132 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The painting is described thus: Ludwig van Beethoven was recognised as a child prodigy. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Beethoven was the eldest surviving child of Johann van Beethoven (17401792), and Magdalena Keverich (17441787). Johann worked as a tenor singer in the Electoral court, that is, in the musical establishment presided over by the grandfather. Beethoven's parents had a total of seven children, of whom only three survived infancy. These were Beethoven and his two younger brothers, Caspar Anton Carl, born 1774, and Nikolaus Johann, born 1776. Johann van Beethoven (1740-1792) was Ludwig van Beethovens father. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ...


Beethoven began his musical education under the tutorship of his alcoholic father, who is believed to have beaten him in the course of his lessons. The child's musical talent manifested itself early — apparently he was advanced enough to perform at the age of nine, not seven as popularly believed. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted unsuccessfully to exploit his son as a child prodigy. It was Johann who falsified Beethoven's actual age (which was nine) for seven on the posters for Beethoven's first public performance. Leopold Mozart Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a composer, music teacher and violinist. ... Wunderkind redirects here. ...


In 1779 Beethoven became the protegé of Christian Gottlob Neefe, who taught him composition. Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, first on an unpaid basis (1781), and then as paid employee (1784) of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi. His first three piano sonatas, the so-called "Kurfürst Sonaten" ("Elector sonatas"), were published in 1783. During this time, Beethoven's talent was noticed and appreciated by the Elector, Maximilian Franz (1756-1801), who subsidized his musical studies. 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Christian Gottlob Neefe (Chemnitz, 5 February 1748 – 28 January 1798 in Dessau) was a German opera composer and conductor. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Andrea Luca Luchesi (May 23, 1741, Motta di Livenza - March 21, 1801, Bonn), was an Italian composer. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (  listen? - singular), Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Maximilian Franz (1756-1801) was the 16th child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


In 1787, Beethoven traveled to Vienna hoping to study with Mozart. Scholars disagree on the authenticity of a story whereby Beethoven is said to have played for Mozart and impressed him. After just two weeks in Vienna, Beethoven learned that his mother was severely ill, and he was forced to return home. His mother died shortly thereafter, and the father lapsed deeper into alcoholism. As a result, Beethoven became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, and he spent the next five years in Bonn. Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


In 1789, he succeeded in obtaining a legal order by which half of his father's salary was paid directly to him for support of the family. Another source of income was payment for Beethoven's service as a violist in the court orchestra. This familiarized Beethoven with three of Mozart's operas performed at court in this period. Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Violist is a term sometimes used for a musician who plays the viola. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Establishing his career in Vienna

Beethoven as portrayed in 1801 by Carl Traugott Riedel
Beethoven as portrayed in 1801 by Carl Traugott Riedel

With the Elector's help, Beethoven moved again to Vienna in 1792. Beethoven did not immediately set out to establish himself as a composer, but rather devoted himself to study and to piano performance. Working under the direction of Joseph Haydn, he sought to master counterpoint, and he also took violin lessons. At the same time, he established a reputation as a piano virtuoso and improviser in the salons of the nobility, often playing the preludes and fugues of J. S. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. Image File history File links Beethoven_Riedel_1801. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_Riedel_1801. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Haydn redirects here. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


With Haydn's departure for Wales in 1795, Beethoven was expected by the Elector to return home. He chose instead to remain in Vienna, continuing the instruction in counterpoint with Johann Georg Albrechtsberger and other teachers. Although his stipend from the Elector expired, a number of Viennese noblemen had already recognized his ability and offered him financial support, among them Prince Joseph Franz Lobkowicz, Prince Karl Lichnowsky, and Baron Gottfried van Swieten. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (February 3, 1736 - March 7, 1809) was an Austrian musician who was born at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna. ... Karl Alois, Fürst von Lichnowsky-Woschütz, (also written Carl Alois Johann-Nepomuk Vinzenz, second Prince Lichnowsky) (1761-1814) was a chamberlain at the Imperial Austrian court. ... Baron Gottfried van Swieten (1733-1803) was a minor aristocrat of the Austrian Empire during the eighteenth century. ...


Beethoven's first public performance in Vienna was in 1795, with his Second (or perhaps First) Piano Concerto, and in the same year were published the first of his compositions to which he assigned an opus number, the piano trios of Opus 1. By 1800, with the premiere of his First Symphony, Beethoven was considered one of the most important of a generation of young composers who followed after Haydn and Mozart. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. In this sense the plural of opus, opera, is used to refer to the genre of music drama. ... A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, almost always a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


During his early career as a composer, Beethoven concentrated first on works for piano solo, then string quartets, symphonies, and other genres. This was a pattern he was to repeat in the "late" period of his career (see below). Thus, 12 of Beethoven's famous series of 32 piano sonatas date from before 1802, and could be considered early-period works; of these, the most celebrated today is probably the "Pathétique", Op. 13. The first six quartets were published as a set (Op. 18) in 1800, and the First and Second Symphonies premiered in 1800 and 1802. The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ...


All musical authorities agree that Beethoven's early work was closely modeled on that of Haydn and Mozart. However, Beethoven's own musical personality is still very much evident even at this stage. This is seen, for instance, in his frequent use of the musical dynamic sforzando, found even in the "Elector" sonatas for piano that Beethoven wrote as a child. Some of the longer piano sonatas of the 1790's are written in a rather discursive style quite unlike their models, making use of the so-called "three-key exposition". In music, dynamics refers to the volume or loudness of the sound or note, in particular to the range from soft (quiet) to loud. ... The three-key exposition is a particular kind of exposition used in sonata form. ...


Teaching and financial support

Ludwig van Beethoven: detail of an 1804 portrait by W.J. Mähler
Ludwig van Beethoven: detail of an 1804 portrait by W.J. Mähler

Beethoven had few students. From 1801 to 1805, he tutored Ferdinand Ries, who would go on to become a composer and later published a book about their encounters, Beethoven remembered. Image File history File links Beethoven_3. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_3. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Ferdinand Ries (1784–1838) was a Bonn-born pupil of Beethoven who published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher. ...


Carl Czerny was taught by Beethoven from 1801 to 1803. He went on to become a renowned music teacher himself, taking on Franz Liszt as one of his students. He also gave the Vienna premiere of Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 "Emperor" in 1812. Carl Czerny, lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber, 1833 Carl Czerny (sometimes Karl; February 21, 1791 – July 15, 1857) was an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Liszt redirects here. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


In 1803 or 1804, Archduke Rudolph, youngest son of Emperor Leopold II, began to study piano and composition with Beethoven. The two became friends, and their meetings continued until 1824. Beethoven dedicated 14 compositions to Rudolph, including the Archduke Trio (1811) and his great Missa Solemnis (1823). Rudolph, in turn, dedicated one of his own compositions to Beethoven. The letters Beethoven wrote to Rudolph are today kept at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Erzherzog Rudolph of Austria, Fürsterzbischof von Olmütz. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Archduke Trio is a piece of music by Ludwig van Beethoven, his Opus 97. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (in English: Society for the Friends of Music) was founded in 1812 by Joseph von Sonnleithner, the Secretary for Court Theatre in Vienna. ...


In 1808, after having been rejected for a position at the royal theatre, Beethoven received an offer from Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte, then king of Westphalia, for a well-paid position as musical director at the court in Cassel. He was about to accept, but then three Viennese aristocrat patrons, Archduke Rudolph being one of them, joined to top the offer with an annual "working scholarship", and so he stayed in Vienna. Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Westphalia (1807-1813). ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Cassel is a town in the Nord France. ...


Loss of hearing

Around 1801, Beethoven began to lose his hearing. He suffered a severe form of tinnitus, a "roar" in his ears that made it hard for him to appreciate music; he would avoid conversation. The cause of Beethoven's deafness is unknown, but it has variously been attributed to syphilis, lead poisoning, typhus, and even his habit of immersing his head in cold water to stay awake. The oldest explanation, from the autopsy of the time, is that he had a "distended inner ear" which developed lesions over time. The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Tinnitus (pronounced or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painters colic caused by increased blood lead levels. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


Russell Martin has shown from analysis done on a sample of Beethoven's hair that there were alarmingly high levels of lead in Beethoven's system. High concentrations of lead can lead to bizarre and erratic behaviour, including rages. Another symptom of lead poisoning is deafness. In Beethoven's time, lead was used widely without an understanding of the damage it could lead to: for sweetening wine, in finishes on porcelain, and even in medicines. The investigation of this link was detailed in the book, Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. However, while the likelihood of lead poisoning is very high, the deafness associated with it seldom takes the form that Beethoven exhibited.


Over time, his hearing loss became acute: there is a well-attested story that, at the premiere of his Ninth Symphony, he had to be turned round to see the tumultuous applause of the audience, hearing nothing. In 1802, he became depressed, and considered committing suicide. He left Vienna for a time for the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadt (see the 1802 Heiligenstadt Testament), where he resolved to continue living through his art. Beethoven's hearing loss did not affect his ability to compose music, but it made concerts — lucrative sources of income — increasingly difficult. After a failed attempt in 1811 to perform his own Piano Concerto No. 5 "Emperor", he never performed in public again. This article is about the composition. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A facsimile of the Heiligenstadt Testament The Heiligenstadt Testament is a will written by Ludwig van Beethoven to his brothers Carl and Johann at Heiligenstadt (today part of Vienna) on 6 October 1802. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... The Piano Concerto No. ...


As a result of Beethoven's hearing loss, a unique historical record has been preserved: he kept conversation books discussing music and other issues, and giving an insight into his thought. Even today, the conversation books form the basis for investigation into how he felt his music should be performed and his relationship to art, which he took very seriously.


The Middle period

Beethoven in 1814. Portrait by Louis-René Létronne
Beethoven in 1814. Portrait by Louis-René Létronne

Around 1802 Beethoven declared "I am but lately little satisfied with my works, I shall take a new way." The first major work of this new way was the "Eroica" Symphony in E flat. While other composers had written symphonies with implied programs, or stories, this symphony was longer and larger in scope than any other written. It made huge demands on the players, because at that time there were few orchestras devoted to concert music that were independent of royal or aristocratic patrons, and hence performance standards at concerts were often haphazard. Nevertheless, it was a success. Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ...


The Eroica was one of the first works of Beethoven's so-called "Middle period", or "Heroic Period", a time when Beethoven composed highly ambitious works, often heroic in tone, that extended the scope of the classical musical language Beethoven had inherited from Haydn and Mozart. The Middle period work includes the Third through Eighth Symphonies, the string quartets 7-11, the Waldstein and Appassionata piano sonatas, the opera Fidelio, the Violin Concerto and many other compositions. During this time Beethoven earned his living partly from the sale and performance of his work, and partly from subsidies granted by various wealthy nobles who recognized his ability. Haydn redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Beethovens Symphony no. ... The Piano Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... Fidelio (Op. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major was written in 1806. ...


The work of the Middle period established Beethoven's reputation as a great composer. In a review from 1810, he was enshrined by E. T. A. Hoffman as one of the three great "Romantic" composers; Hoffman called Beethoven's Fifth Symphony "one of the most important works of the age". ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ...


A particular trauma for Beethoven occurred during this period in 1809, when the attacking forces of Napoleon bombarded Vienna. Beethoven, very worried that the noise would destroy what remained of his hearing, hid in the basement of his brother's house, covering his ears with pillows. He was composing the "Emperor" Concerto at the time. Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Piano Concerto No. ...


The Middle period ended with a flourish around 1812, with the Seventh and Eighth Symphonies and the third — and at last, successful — version of Fidelio. It was around this time that Beethoven's popularity with the contemporary public reached its apogee, and he was almost universally regarded as the greatest of living composers. Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ... Beethovens Symphony no. ...


Late Beethoven

However, there soon followed a deep crisis in Beethoven's personal life, and possibly in his artistic life as well. His output dropped, and one critic even wrote that "the composing of great works seems behind him". The few works that date from this period are often of an experimental character. They include the song cycle "An die ferne Geliebte" and the piano sonata Opus 90, works which inspired later generations of Romantic composers. This period also produced the extraordinarily expressive, but almost incoherent, song "An die Hoffnung" (Opus 94). Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler. ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... Beethovens only song cycle. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Beethoven began a renewed study of older music, including works by J. S. Bach and Handel, then being published in the first attempts at complete editions. He composed "The Consecration of the House" overture, which was the first work to attempt to incorporate his new influences. But it is when he returned to the keyboard to compose his first new piano sonatas in almost a decade, that a new style, now called his "late period", emerged. “Bach” redirects here. ... “Handel” redirects here. ...


The works of the late period are commonly held to include the last five piano sonatas and the Diabelli Variations, the last two sonatas for cello and piano, the late quartets (see below), and two works for very large forces: the Missa Solemnis and the Ninth Symphony, perhaps Beethoven's best known work. The 33 Variations on a waltz by Anton Diabelli Op. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... This article is about the composition. ...


Beethoven then turned to writing string quartets — the war between Austria and France had devastated his finances — on a commission from Prince Nikolay Golitsin of St. Petersburg (the Prince was to pay an honorarium of 50 gold ducats per quartet). This series of quartets — the "late quartets" — would go far beyond what either musicians or audiences were ready for at that time. One musician commented that "we know there is something there, but we do not know what it is." Composer Louis Spohr called them "indecipherable, uncorrected horrors," though that opinion has changed considerably from the time of their first bewildered reception. They would continue to inspire musicians — from Richard Wagner to Béla Bartók — for their unique forms and ideas. Of the late quartets, Beethoven's favourite was the Fourteenth Quartet, op. 131 in C# minor, upon hearing which Schubert is said to have remarked, "After this, what is left for us to write?" The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Self-portrait of Spohr as a young man. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Bartok redirects here. ... The String Quartet No. ... Schubert redirects here. ...


Beethoven wrote the last quartets amidst failing health. In 1821, a bad case of jaundice afflicted him, a sign of his impending liver failure. In April 1825 he was bedridden, and remained ill for about a month. The illness—or more precisely, Beethoven's recovery from it—is remembered for having given rise to the deeply felt slow movement of the Fifteenth Quartet, which Beethoven called "Holy song of thanks ('Heiliger dankgesang') to the divinity, from one made well". Beethoven went on to complete the (misnumbered) Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Sixteenth Quartets. Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Liver failure is the final stage of liver disease. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Quartet in A minor, by Ludwig Van Beethoven, opus 132 was written in 1825, given its public premiere on November 6 of that year by the Schuppanzigh Quartet and was dedicated to Count Nicolai Galitzin, as were op. ... The String Quartet No. ... The String Quartet No. ... Beethovens String Quartet No. ...


Final illness and death (The Late Beethoven)

Beethoven in 1823; copy of a destroyed portrait by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller
Beethoven in 1823; copy of a destroyed portrait by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller

The last work completed by Beethoven was the substitute final movement of the Thirteenth Quartet, deemed necessary to replace the difficult Grosse Fuge. Shortly thereafter (December 1826), illness struck again, with episodes of vomiting and diarrhea that nearly ended his life. Image File history File links Beethoven_Waldmuller_1823. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_Waldmuller_1823. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller: The expected, 1860 Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (January 15th 1793 in Vienna, † August 23rd 1865 in Hinterbrühl, Austria) was an Austrian painter and writer. ... Lost Beethoven manuscript discovered after 115 years http://news. ...


As it became apparent that Beethoven would not recover, his friends gathered to help and to pay their final respects. Beethoven's doctors conducted four minor operations to relieve ascites (abdominal swelling), of which the first resulted in infection, the others not. On March 24, he was given his last rites, and two days later slipped into an unconscious state and then died the same day, March 26, 1827. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Beethoven's last recorded words were "Pity, pity — too late!", as the dying composer was told of a gift of twelve bottles of wine. Some sources have listed his last words as, "I shall hear in heaven", but this is almost certainly apocryphal. Likewise, the popular belief that his last words were: "Plaudite, amici, comedia finita est" ("Applaud, my friends, the comedy is over"), the typical conclusion to performances of Italian Commedia dell'Arte. In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... Commedia redirects here. ...


Autopsy revealed a severely damaged and shrunken liver, of which ascites is a common consequence. Scholars disagree over whether Beethoven's liver damage was the result of heavy alcohol consumption. This article is about the medical procedure. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


Austrian pathologist Christian Reiter asserts that Beethoven's doctor, Andreas Wawruch, accidentally killed the composer by giving him an overdose of a lead-based cure. According to Reiter, Wawruch used the cure to alleviate fluid in the abdomen; the lead penetrated Beethoven's liver and killed him.[1]. Reiter's hypothesis however is at odds with Dr. Wawruch's written instruction "that the wound was kept dry all the time". Furthermore human hair is a a very bad biomarker for lead contamination and Reiter's hypothesis must be considered dubious as long as proper scholarly documentation remains unpublished.[1] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


In 1863 Beethoven's body was exhumed, studied and reburied. Fragments from the back of his skull were acquired by the Austrian doctor Romeo Seligmann. The fragments are now in the Center for Beethoven Studies at San Jose State University, CA. San Jose State University San José State University, commonly shortened to San Jose State and SJSU, is the oldest university in what became the California State University system. ...


Huttenbrenner's "fist"

Beethoven biographer A. W. Thayer, in his Life of Beethoven (1866), wrote the following concerning the moment of Beethoven's death: Alexander Wheelock Thayer (b. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

According to Huttenbrenner, who claimed to have been present at Beethoven's death, there was a sudden flash of lightning which garishly illuminated the death-chamber—snow lay outside—and a violent thunderclap. At this startling, awful peal of thunder, the dying man suddenly raised his head and stretched out his right arm majestically, 'like a general giving orders to an army.' This was but for an instant; the arm sank down; he fell back. Beethoven was dead.

Huttenbrenner's eye-witness report is sometimes recast to imply that Beethoven "shook his fist at the heavens" in the moment before death. Since any imputations as to the dying man's emotional state are impossible to verify, they tend to be glossed over or ignored as irrelevant by modern-day Beethoven scholars. Anselm Hüttenbrenner (13 October 1794 - 5 June 1868) was an Austrian composer. ...


Funeral and burial

Beethoven's funeral as depicted by Franz Stober (1795 – 1858)
Beethoven's funeral as depicted by Franz Stober (17951858)

Unlike Mozart, who was buried in a common grave (as was the custom at the time), 20,000 Viennese citizens lined the streets at Beethoven's funeral on March 29, 1827. Schubert was a torch bearer. Beethoven was buried in the Währinger cemetery, west of Vienna. His remains were moved in 1888 to the Zentralfriedhof. Image File history File links Beethoven_Funerals. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_Funerals. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Schubert redirects here. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Exterior of the Dr. Karl Lueger-Gedächtniskirche, Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ...


References

  1. ^ Josef Eisinger: "The lead in Beethoven's hair", Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, Volume 90, Issue 1 January 2008, pp. 1-5
  • van Beethoven L. Beethoven's Letters. Dover Publications; 1972. ISBN 0-486-22769-3
  • Forbes E (ed). Thayer's Life of Beethoven. (in 2 volumes). Princeton University Press; 1991. ISBN 0-691-02717-X and ISBN 0-691-02718-8.
  • Hui ACF, Wong SM. Deafness and liver disease in a 57-year-old man: a medical history of Beethoven. Hong Kong Med J. 2000;6(4):433-8 PMID 11177170
  • Martin R. Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. Broadway; 2001. ISBN 0-7679-0351-X
“Beethoven” redirects here. ... Ludwig van Beethoven is viewed as a pivotal figure in the history of European classical music, and important both as an important figure in the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history. ... During the course of his lifetime (1770-1827), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven enjoyed relationships with many of his musical contemporaries. ... Beethoven, caricatured by J. P. Lyser The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) are known by various designations, including: by the opus numbers assigned by Beethovens publishers during his lifetime, e. ... The following list contains historical sites associated with composer Ludwig van Beethoven. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
In a Major and Minor Mood The Life Of Ludwig Van Beethoven (1331 words)
Ludwig van Beethoven was baptised on December 17th 1770 at Bonn.
Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, on the banks of Germany..
Ludwig van Beethoven is often described by musicians as a "giant straddling.
Ludwig van Beethoven - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3027 words)
Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced [ˈbeː.to.vən]) (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Beethoven was born at 515 Bongasse in Bonn to Johann van Beethoven (1740–1792) and Magdalena Keverich van Beethoven (1744–1787).
Beethoven died on 26 March 1827, after a long illness, in the midst of a fierce thunderstorm, and legend has it that the dying man shook his fists in defiance of the heavens.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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