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Encyclopedia > Licentiate

Licentiate (from Latin licentia doctorandi = permission/right to teach) is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. This degree exists in various African, European and Latin American countries but can represent different educational levels. It usually signifies someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Image File history File links Acap. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Contents

Regional variations

Argentina

In Argentina, the licenciatura is a 4-5 year degree, generally equivalent to an M.Sc. in North American universities. In some cases it does not require the formal writing of a thesis, although almost invariably a quota of research is required. A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ...


Australia

Currently the only institution in Australia to grant licentiates - apart from theological colleges (see below) - is the Australian Music Examinations Board, which confers licentiate diplomas including the Licentiate in Music, Australia (LMusA). Licentiate (from Latin licentia doctorandi = permission/right to teach) is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. ... The Australian Music Examinations Board (AMEB) is a privately funded corporation which assesses music, speech and drama in Australia. ...


Belgium

In Belgian universities, a person titled Licentiate (or Licentiaat in Dutch or Licencié in French) holds the equivalent education of a master's degree. Students used to receive a license after 4 or 5 years of successful study. The first two years were known as kandidatuur (candidacy), meaning students were qualifying themselves for study at the licential level. This candidate-licentiate system is now being replaced by an American-style bachelor-master system. The Belgian licentiate was also equivalent to the doctorandus in the Netherlands. Study is very rigorous. Students in Belgian universities usually take more than 30 hours a week (as opposed to an average of 15 at American universities.) Thus, students are able to complete their (licentiate or master's) degrees in four or five years, as opposed to the usual six at American institutions. For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Brazil

In Brazil, the licenciate is a 3-4 year degree that qualifies to teach in primary and secondary education.


Canada

While the term licentiate is not generally used by Canadian academic institutions, a Licentiate in Laws (LL.L.) is offered by some Canadian universities for the completion of studies equivalent to a Bachelor of Civil Law. Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ...


Costa Rica

This title is awarded to students after 5 years of study, they are required to write a thesis, attend a graduation seminar or develop a project in order to graduate.


Dominican Republic

In Dominican Republic, a Licenciatura is awarded to students after 4 years of study, they are required to write a thesis or a monographic in order to graduate. Is one of the major University degree previous to doctoral studies.


France

In French universities, a licenciate (licencié(e)) is the holder of a licence, which is a three-year degree, roughly equivalent to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's degree. There are two kinds of licence: general and professional. Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...


Germany

In Germany, a person titled Lizentiat holds the equivalent education of a master's degree or Diplom. Until the 1990s the degree was offered as a law degree at the University of the Saar as a single university degree (Lic.iur.) with a duration varying between 5 to 8-years. For political reasons this degree was discontinued, mainly because the Staatsexamen (Law degree) was predominantly representing the mainstream education of a lawyer. The Lizentiat is largely equivalent to the 1. Staatsexamen but unlike the latter is assessed by university, not the state administration. It also allowed specialisation in areas of the law which were either not covered by other legal qualifications, e.g. ecclesiastical law etc, or not covered to the same extent. Other disciplines such as theology or journalism (FU Berlin) used to offer a Lizentiat qualification instead of a PhD. A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in some European countries including Germany, Austria, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Estonia, Croatia, Serbia and Greece. ... A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law. ...


Mexico

Mexico's Licenciados, not unlike Argentina's system, are the de-facto professional qualification at the national level. Holding a Licenciado degree does not, however, ensure the right to practice. Disciplines such a Medicine and Law require passage of a national exam. Most universities do not require a thesis to graduate at the Licentiate level, but for a number of years, it was the only method by which a graduate could qualify for his or her title from the National University (UNAM); some colleges, such as ITESO, forgo the thesis for one year of professional practice. UNAM or UNaM may refers: The National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City The Universidad Nacional de Misiones in Posadas, Argentina Category: ... The Iteso or Teso are the second largest ethnic group in Uganda. ...


Conversions of the title range from B.A. to something as advanced as an M.S., though most recipients would qualify for a Master's degree in their respective field (as is the case for science, engineering, and medicine). As in Argentina, courses of study are from 4 to 5 years and usually continue on to a Master's Degree in a more generalized field. Master's work ads 2 years or less, as does a doctorate. Doctorates can be entered straight out of Licentiate but this entails doctoral study of 4 to 5 years. A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ...


Peru

A Licenciatura is awarded to students after 5 years of study, they are required to write a thesis or develop a research project in order to graduate.


Poland

A "Licencjat" is a degree introduced in Poland after tertiary education reforms following the fall of Communism to bring the Polish university system roughly into line with European norms. It is typically a 3- or 4-year degree, equivalent to the Bachelor's degree in Anglophone countries. Students completing a Licencjat often go on to complete a Master's degree, previously the first undergraduate degree granted by Polish Universities. A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ...


Portugal

In the Portuguese higher education system, the licentiate's degree (Licenciatura) is the first degree awarded by institutions of higher education. It is the 1st cycle degree used in the European Higher Education Area, and is equivalent to the bachelor's degree which is widely used in other regions of the world, like in the United States. Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education logo Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic education, and it is provided in autonomous public universities, private universities, public or private polytechnic institutions and higher education institutions of other types. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is the objective of the Bologna process - to create more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...


Due to the new developments introduced by the Bologna Process in the mid-2000s, the term may still refer to both the old Licenciaturas which were awarded in Portugal before the "Bologna's reforms" (ranging from 4 to 6-year degrees), or the new Licenciaturas which have been awarded since then in Portugal and almost all Europe with varying local designations (3 or 4-year degrees) - the 1st study cycle degree. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ...


History

Before the Bologna Process, the Licenciatura was a single university degree with a duration varying between 4 to 6 years (with or without a final written dissertation, depending on the type of course or department), higher than the polytechnic 3-year Bacharelato degree (now discontinued), but lower than the Portuguese full scientific master's degree (Mestrado Científico). It conferred an automatic licensure for working in a particular profession and a full accreditation by the respective professional orders - ordens profissionais. The Portuguese polytechnic institutions used to award a single 3-year short cycle Bacharelato (lower than a bachelor's degree) degree, an undergraduate degree without neither the Licenciatura's licensure for working in a particular profession nor an accreditation by the respective professional orders. After 1998, the polytechnic institutions were legally upgraded to award new Licenciaturas Bietápicas (2-step licenciate's degree) which were a 3-years Bacharelato plus an additional optative 1 to 2-years cycle conferring a polytechnic Licenciatura. The Licenciatura diploma was also required for those applicants who wished to undertake master's and/or doctorate programs but admission were only allowed for Licenciatura degree owners with final grades over 13.5 (out of 20) - notice that a Portuguese full scientific master's degree (Mestrado) was not required for applicants to a doctorate program if their Licenciatura's final grade was over 15.5. The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... Licensure refers to the granting of a license (in the US, whilst, elsewhere the term registration is used), usually to work in a particular profession. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... Licensure refers to the granting of a license (in the US, whilst, elsewhere the term registration is used), usually to work in a particular profession. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Due to Europe's Bologna Process, since 2006 the new Licenciatura degrees were organized at both universities and polytechnics - they are now a 1st study cycle (3 to 4 years) offered by any institution of higher education, and are the only required condition for any applicant who wish to undertake the second study cycle which awards a master's degree (now mandatory for doctorate programs). The process was not a mere formal administrative change because the curricula and the teaching methods of the new Bologna Licenciatura and Mestrado degrees are totally new. Like in the past, not all new "Bologna" licentiate's degrees are accredited by the ordens in the concerned field (for example, an accredited full chartered engineer must have a recognized diploma from the Ordem dos Engenheiros in a country where accredited courses in engineering are only about one-third of the total number of engineering courses offered by a large number of institutions). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ... The Ordem dos Engenheiros (OE - Order of Engineers) is the regulatory and licensing body for the engineer profession in Portugal. ...


After the Bologna Process, the Licenciatura became an undergraduate academic degree awarded to students by higher education institutions after a 3 or 4 year 1st cycle of study at a university, polytechnical institute or other higher education institution. Some courses (like engineering) are accredited only after the student finishes his second study cycle or a joint degree which confers the masters' degree (Mestrado). The first study cycle which confers the Licenciatura is not sufficient to be an accredited professional in some fields (for example a professional full chartered engineer, lawyer or architect) in Portugal or in Europe. On the other side, there are not Licenciatura degrees in fields like medicine because the shortest first study cycle in those fields after "Bologna", is a mandatory 6-year joint degree (Mestrado Integrado), so these students are awarded not less than a master's degree. In addition, some pharmacy, architecture or even certain engineering degrees offered by a number of universities are also joint degrees. In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Main Building, Photo of 1902 Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian: ; abbreviated SPbSPU) is a major Russian technical university situated in Saint Petersburg. ...


Spain

In Spain the Licenciatura degree is one of the major higher-education degrees previous to doctoral studies. A Licenciatura typically requires from 4 to 6 years of University courses, and has a typical credit workload of 300 to 400 credits. The Licenciatura academic degree is academically equivalent to the Ingeniero or Arquitecto degrees. A Licenciatura or Licenciate degree also provides direct access to the professional practice or membership in professional associations such as Bar Associations for Lawyers (Colegio de Abogados), medicine, economics, and other regulated professions.


This system will also be progressively changed for the 'Grado' (Bachelor) and 'Master' system due to the Bologna Declaration on the European higher education area. Nowadays Licenciatura consists in 4 or 5 years (or 6 years in Medicine) and allows transition into Doctoral studies. Currently, Licenciatura degrees, Diplomatura degrees (3 years), Ingeniería Técnica (technical engineering) degrees (3 years) and Ingeniería degrees (4 to 6 years) are the undergraduate diplomas in Spain. Note, however, that the label "undergraduate" here may be misleading to an anglophone audience, since while a Spanish Diplomatura may be likened to an American undergraduate bachelor's degree, a Spanish Licenciatura is comparable in scope to an American postgraduate master's degree, as the anglophone distinction between "undergraduate" and "postgraduate" degrees (and between "colleges" and "universities") does not properly apply to the traditional higher-education system of several European countries such as Spain (modelled after the German system). A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ...


After the Bologna process, apparently (because the final decission has not yet been taken) Licenciatura and Ingeniería degrees will be divided into Grados (4 years or 240 ECTS credits), followed by Masters (requiring an additional 1 or 2 years and geared towards preparing candidates for professional life and specialitation, between 60 to 100 ECTS credits) while Diplomaturas and Ingenierías Técnicas will be upgraded to Grado (increasing the academic workload to 1 more year or 240 ECTS credits). Most of Ingeniería técnica and Ingeniería degrees will be unified because of their similarity, a move that created significant tensions.[citation needed] There will be exceptions for Pharmacy, Odontology, Veterinary, Medicine, Architecture degrees. These ones will keep the 5 years (6 years in case of Medicine) in their curricula. Doctoral candidates will have to obtain a Grado and a Master´s degree before accessing their Doctoral studies. The Doctoral studies have also been modified, and candidates will only be asked to prepare and defend a Doctoral Thesis, as opposed to the pre-Bologna system, where both doctoral studies and the doctoral thesis where required. For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Odontology is the scientific study of the teeth. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about building architecture. ...


It should be noted that, prior to the Bologna process, the Master´s degree was not considered an official academic degree in Spain.


Finland and Sweden

In Swedish and Finnish universities, Licentiate's degree equals completion of the coursework required for a doctorate and a dissertation formally equivalent to half of a doctoral dissertation, likened to a MPhil degree in the British system. Its prerequisite is a completed academic Master's degree. The licentiate is particularly popular with students already involved in the working life, such that completing a full doctor's dissertation while working would be too difficult. The Licentiate's degree is called a filosofie licentiat in Swedish and filosofian lisensiaatti in Finnish (Licentiate of Philosophy), teologie licentiat and teologian lisensiaatti (Licentiate of Theology) etc, depending on the faculty. Furthermore, the requisite degree for a physician's license is lisensiaatti; there is no Master's degree. (The degree lääketieteen tohtori "Doctor of Medicine" is a traditional "professors degree", or a research doctorate, with Licentiate as a prerequisite.) Educational oversight Minister of Education Minister of Culture Ministry of Education Antti Kalliomäki Tanja Karpela National education budget € 5. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... ...


The Licentiate of Engineering (LicEng) is an intermediate postgraduate degree used only in a few countries, among them Sweden and Finland, and can be seen as an academic step halfway between a Master's and a PhD. In Swedish, it is called Teknologie Licentiat, usually abbreviated as Tekn. Lic., and in Finnish, tekniikan lisensiaatti.


The Licentiate of Engineering corresponds to 120 ECTS credits (80 old credits), or nominally two years of full – time work, whereas a PhD amounts to 240 ECTS credits (160 old credits), or a nominal period of four years of full – time work (one old credit equals one week of full – time studies). However, as a result of the differences in requirements and individual performance, the time to complete a Licentiate of Engineering degree varies.


The programme for a Licentiate degree is equivalent to a total of two years of full-time study for those who are awarded a doctoral position. A person who has a doctoral position normally teaches on the undergraduate programmes, equivalent to a maximum of 20% of the working time. It then ought to be possible for a Licentiate degree to be taken within 2.5 years. (see http://www.chalmers.se/en/sections/education/current_students/joint_rules_and_dire/degree_system/licentiate_degree)


Switzerland

In Switzerland most of the first University degrees are called licentiate or licence, but mostly used in its abbreviation lic. (coming from Latin licentiatus (m) or licentiata (f)). It usually requires 4-7 years of study depending on the field of study. The second University degrees are called DEA or DESS degrees and are equivalent to a Master's degree and they qualify the holder for admission to doctoral studies. The licentiate will be progressively changed for the 'Bachelor' grade 3-years of study and the 'DEA & DESS' for the 'Master' grade 2-years of study, due to the Bologna Convention. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... In France, a DEA (diplôme détudes approfondies, or diploma of advanced studies) is a former postgraduate degree. ...


Venezuela

A Licenciatura is awarded to students after 5 years of study, they are required to write a thesis or develop a research project in order to graduate.


India

In India, the Licentiate is a vocational qualification offered by the special vocational boards or professional bodies. These are offered after completion of school education and are somewhat less extensive than a full-fledged university degree. Issuers of the Licentiate degree include Insurance Institute of India,[1] Association of Mutual Funds of India, the Diploma Examination Board of the government of Andhra Pradesh, etc.


Domain variations

Heraldry

In Canada, anyone who complete the Level III Heraldic Proficiency Courses will be granted the right to use the post-nominal of LRHSC (Licentiate of the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada). This is awarded by the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. The Royal Heraldry Society of Canada is a Canadian organization that promotes the art and science of Canadian Heraldry. ...


Medicine, Surgery and Obstetrics

In Great Britain and Ireland, several initial medical qualifications are called licentiates. These include:

These Conjoint diplomas were latterly awarded by the United Examining Board. The first two, and latterly the first three, were granted together in England, and the last three in Scotland, until 1999, after which approval to hold the examinations was withdrawn. The qualifications are still registrable with the General Medical Council, and allow the bearer to practice medicine in the UK, and they used to be recognised by some state medical boards in the USA. College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London was the first medical institution in England to receive a Royal Charter. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (RCPE) was established in the 17th century. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, a centre of excellence for surgical education and research traces its origins to 1505 when the Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh was formally incorporated as a Craft Guild of Edinburgh, and granted a royal charter in 1506 by King James IV of Scotland. ... A college of physicians and surgeons in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. ... M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. The conjoint was a basic medical qualification in the United Kingdom administered by the United Examining Board. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The General Medical Council (the GMC) is the regulator of the medical profession in the United Kingdom. ...


The Licentiate of Apothecaries' Hall was a similar qualifying medical diploma awarded externally in Dublin until recognition was lost in 1968.


In Dublin, students at the School of Medicine of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland still qualify with licentiate diplomas from the two Irish Royal Colleges, coupled with a Licence in Midwifery from each, although in the past few years they have also been awarded the three medical bachelor's degrees of the National University of Ireland: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), (Irish: ) is a Dublin-based private medical institution, situated on St. ...

  • Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (LRCPI) or (L & LM, RCPI) and
  • Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (LRCSI) or (L & LM, RCSI).

Certain maternity hospitals in Dublin used to award a Licentiate in Midwifery or LM diploma, not to midwives but to qualified medical practitioners who had been examined there after a three month residential appointment. The Rotunda Hospital was the most recent to do so. The Rotunda Hospital is one of the three main maternity hospitals in Dublin City, the others being The Coombe and Holles Street. ...


Theology

The Licentiate of Theology is a sub-degree or diploma- or master's-level qualification offered by a number of educational institutions. LTh is the usual abbreviation for the Licence in Theology or Licentiate in Theology, a theological qualification commonly awarded for ordinands and laymen studying theology in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. ... Diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ...


Bologna Convention

In 2003, the European Union organized the Bologna convention on higher education - 'The Bologna process' - in order to create uniform standards across the EU in that field. The resulting conclusions called for all European universities to change their degree programs to an undergraduate degree and a master's degree. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...


References

  1. ^ Welcome to Insurance Institute of India

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
University of Helsinki - Faculty of Pharmacy (493 words)
The supervisor of the Licentiate thesis or a co-author of a publication to which the Licentiate candidate has also contributed cannot be appointed as an examiner.
The examiners of a Licentiate thesis are given a time limit of two months (counting from the date of receiving the assignment) to submit, either jointly or separately, a written reasoned statement on the thesis.
A student may submit as a Licentiate thesis several scientific publications and manuscripts on a single theme which have been published or accepted for publication and are accompanied by a summarising report.
Licentiate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (745 words)
Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license.
The Licentiate's degree is called a filosofie licentiat in Swedish and filosofian lisensiaatti in Finnish (Licentiate of Philosophy), teologie licentiat and teologian lisensiaatti (Licentiate of Theology) etc, depending on the faculty.
Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (LRCPSG), awarded by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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