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Encyclopedia > Libya
الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية العظمى
al-jamāhīriyyatu l-`arabiyyatu l-lībiyyatu š-ša`biyyatu l-ištirākiyyatu l-`uZmà
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Flag of Libya Coat of arms of Libya
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAllahu Akbar
God is the Greatest
Capital
(and largest city)
Tripoli
32°54′N, 13°11′E
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Libyan
Government Military dictatorship Khakistocracy Jamahiriya
 -  Leader and Guide of the Revolution Muammar al-Gaddafi
 -  Secretary General of the General People's Congress Miftah Muhammed K'eba
 -  Prime Minister Baghdadi Mahmudi
Independence
 -  Relinquished by Italy 10 February 1947 
 -  From France/United Kingdom under United Nations Trusteeship
24 December 1951 
Area
 -  Total 1,759,540 km² (17th)
679,359 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) Negligible
Population
 -   estimate 6,173,579 (July 2008)[1] (105th)
 -  2006 census 5,670,6881 
 -  Density 3.2/km² (218th)
8.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $78.79 billion (67th)
 -  Per capita $13,100 (58th)
HDI (2005) 0.818 (High) (56th)
Currency Dinar (LYD)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .ly
Calling code +218
1 Includes 350,000 foreigners; Libyan 2006 census, accessed September 15, 2006; [2]

Libya (Arabic: ليبياLībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh: ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ), officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyaالجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمىAl-Jamāhīriyyah al-`Arabiyyah al-Lībiyyah aš-Ša`biyyah al-Ištirākiyyah al-`Udhmā), is a country in North Africa. Bordering the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Libya lies between Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), 90% of which is desert, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa by area, and the 17th largest in the world.[2] The capital, Tripoli, is home to 1.7 million of Libya's 5.7 million people. The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, the Fezzan and Cyrenaica. Libya may refer to: Libya, the country Ancient Libya Libya (mythology) Category: ... . ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Libya (adopted on November 11, 1977) consists of a simple green field with no other characteristics. ... The Libyan Coat Of Arms, although not exactly the same, remains similar to the one used whilst the country was part of the Federation of Arab Republics. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... See also Takbir for more information on the phrase Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar (God is Great) (Arabic: ), is the title of the national anthem of Libya. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Libya has a small population in a large land area. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Jamahiriya (Arabic جماهيرية) is an Arabic term generally translated as state of the masses. ... This page lists Heads of State of Libya since 1951. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... This page lists Heads of State of Libya since 1951. ... List of Heads of Government of Libya Categories: | | ... Libyan prime minister, Baghdadi Mahmudi Dr Baghdadi Ali Mahmudi (born 1945?) was appointed prime minister of Libya in March 2006, in succession to Shukri Ghanem. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Trusteeship Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered in the best interests of the inhabitants and of international peace and security. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code LYD User(s) Libya Inflation rate -1% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ly is also the file name extension of the lilypond format. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Libyan Arabic is a collective term for the closely related spoken varieties of Arabic as spoken in Libya. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Image File history File links Libya_amazigh. ... Jamahiriya (Arabic جماهيرية) is an Arabic term generally translated as state of the masses. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Countries by area. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


The name "Libya" is an indigenous (i.e. Berber) one, which is attested in ancient Egyptian texts as , R'bw (= Libu), which refers to one of the tribes of Berber peoples living west of the Nile. In Greek the tribesmen were called Libyes and their country became "Libya", although in ancient Greece the term had a broader meaning, encompassing all of North Africa west of Egypt. Later on, at the time of Ibn Khaldun, the same big tribe was known as Lawata.[3] The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Ebers Papyrus detailing treatment of asthma Records of the Ancient Egyptian language have been dated about 3000 BC. It is part of the Afro-Asiatic group of languages and is related to Berber and Semitic (languages such as Arabic and Hebrew). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Libu were a tribe of ancient Libyans first attested in ancient Egyptian texts from the New Kingdom, especially from the Ramesside Period. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Libya has the ninth highest GDP (PPP) per capita of Africa, behind Seychelles and South Africa. This is largely due to its large petroleum reserves and low population.[4][5] PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Petro redirects here. ...


The Flag of Libya is the only national flag in the world with just one color and with no design, insignia, or other details. Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Libya (adopted on November 11, 1977) consists of a simple green field with no other characteristics. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Libya

Archaeological evidence indicates that from as early as the 8th millennium BC, Libya's coastal plain was inhabited by a Neolithic people who were skilled in the domestication of cattle and the cultivation of crops.[6] The area known in modern times as Libya was later occupied by a series of peoples, with the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals and Byzantines ruling all or part of the area. Although the Greeks and Romans left ruins at Cyrene, Leptis Magna and Sabratha, little other evidence remains of these ancient cultures. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : PhoiníkÄ“, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ...  Kingdom of Ptolemy Other diadochi  Kingdom of Cassander  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Seleucus  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Cyrene (Greek Κυρήνη, Kurene) was an ancient Greek colony in present-day Libya, the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ... Sabratha, in the Zawia district in the northwestern corner of modern Libya, was the westernmost of the three cities of Tripoli. ...

Ruins of the theatre in the Roman city of Sabratha, west of Tripoli
Ruins of the theatre in the Roman city of Sabratha, west of Tripoli

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x879, 642 KB) Summary Photo made by the author(duimdog) of the theatre of the Roman city of Sabratha in Libya. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x879, 642 KB) Summary Photo made by the author(duimdog) of the theatre of the Roman city of Sabratha in Libya. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Sabratha, in the Zawia district in the northwestern corner of modern Libya, was the westernmost of the three cities of Tripoli. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 2. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ...

Phoenicians

The Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya, when the merchants of Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) developed commercial relations with the Berber tribes and made treaties with them to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials.[7][8] By the 5th century BC, Carthage, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of N.Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea (Tripoli), Libdah (Leptis Magna) and Sabratha. All these were in an area that was later called Tripolis, or "Three Cities". Libya's current-day capital Tripoli takes its name from this. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Punics, (from Latin pÅ«nicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... Tripoli (population 1 million, Arabic: Ţarabulus) is the capital of Libya. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ... Sabratha, in the Zawia district in the northwestern corner of modern Libya, was the westernmost of the three cities of Tripoli. ... Tripolis (Greek: Τρίπολις; meaning three cities) was a district in ancient Tripolitania (an expanded area based on the Tripolis), now in Libya, along the Mediterranean between the Sabrata and Cynyps rivers, and comprising the three cities of Oea, Sabrata, and Leptis Magna. ...


Greeks

The Greeks conquered Eastern Libya when, according to tradition, emigrants from the crowded island of Thera were commanded by the oracle at Delphi to seek a new home in North Africa. In 630 BC, they founded the city of Cyrene.[9] Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area: Barce (Al Marj); Euhesperides (later Berenice, present-day Benghazi); Teuchira (later Arsinoe, present-day Tukrah); and Apollonia (Susah), the port of Cyrene. Together with Cyrene, they were known as the Pentapolis (Five Cities). View from the top of Thira Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, 75 km south-east of the Greek mainland, (latitude: 35. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Cyrene (Greek Κυρήνη, Kurene) was an ancient Greek colony in present-day Libya, the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Al-Marj (Arabic: the meadows) Administrative Division of al-Fâtîh (Arabic: الفاتح ), Latitude 32. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... Taucheira or Teucheira or Tauchira or Teuchira (Greek: , Herod. ... Apollonia in Cyrenaica (modern Libya) was founded by Greek colonists and became a significant commercial centre in the southern Mediterranean. ...


Romans

The Romans unified all three regions of Libya, and for more than 600 years Tripolitania and Cyrenaica became prosperous Roman provinces.[10] Roman ruins, such as those of Leptis Magna, attest to the vitality of the region, where populous cities and even small towns enjoyed the amenities of urban life. Merchants and artisans from many parts of the Roman world established themselves in North Africa, but the character of the cities of Tripolitania remained decidedly Punic and, in Cyrenaica, Greek. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


Arabs

Arabs under General Abdullah ibn Saad conquered Libya in the 7th century AD during the reign of Caliph Usman. In the following centuries, many of the indigenous peoples adopted Islam, and also the Arabic language and culture. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to certain of the Caliphs. ... ‘Abdullāh ibn Sa‘ad ibn Abī as-Sarḥ (Arabic: ) was the foster brother of Uthman. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks conquered the country in the mid-16th century, and the three States or "Wilayat" of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan (which make up Libya) remained part of their empire with the exception of the virtual autonomy of the Karamanlis. The Karamanlis ruled from 1711 until 1835 mainly in Tripolitania, but had influence in Cyrenaica and Fezzan as well by the mid 18th century. This constituted a first glimpse in recent history of the united and independent Libya that was to re-emerge two centuries later. Ironically, reunification came about through the unlikely route of an invasion (Italo-Turkish War, 1911-1912) and occupation starting from 1911 when Italy simultaneously turned the three regions into colonies.[11] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... A wilāyah (Arabic: ولاية) or vilayet (Turkish: vilâyet) or (ولایت in Persian) is an administrative division, usually translated as province. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... The Karamanli dynasty was a series of pashas who ruled Tripoli from 1711 to 1835. ... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in...


Italian Colony

From 1912 to 1927, the territory of Libya was known as Italian North Africa. From 1927 to 1934, the territory was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania run by Italian governors.


In 1934, Italy adopted the name "Libya" (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the official name of the colony (made up of the three Provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan). King Idris I, Emir of Cyrenaica, led Libyan resistance to Italian occupation between the two World Wars. Between 1928 and 1932 the Italian military "killed half the Bedouin population (directly or through starvation in camps)."[12] From 1943 to 1951, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were under British administration, while the French controlled Fezzan. In 1944, Idris returned from exile in Cairo but declined to resume permanent residence in Cyrenaica until the removal of some aspects of foreign control in 1947. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.[13]  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... Idris I (Arabic: إدريس الأول) (March 12, 1890 - May 25, 1983) was the first King of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of peace with Italy is a treaty signed in Paris on February 10, 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of the World War II, formally ending the hostilities. ...

Omar Mukhtar (1858–1931) was the leader of the Libyan uprising against Italian occupation.
Omar Mukhtar (1858–1931) was the leader of the Libyan uprising against Italian occupation.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (510x777, 79 KB) Licensing http://en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (510x777, 79 KB) Licensing http://en. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

United Kingdom of Libya

On November 21, 1949, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952. Idris represented Libya in the subsequent UN negotiations. On December 24, 1951, Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, a constitutional and hereditary monarchy under King Idris. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem Libya, Libya, Libya Capital Tripoli and Benghazi¹ Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1951-1969 Idris I Prime Minister  - 1951-1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir  - 1968-1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi History  - Independence 24 December, 1951  - Disestablished 1 September, 1969 Area  - 1954 1,759,530 km2 679... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...

Coat of arms of Libya  History of Libya  
Periods

Ancient Libya This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Since Neolithic times the climate of North Africa has been drying. ...


Islamic Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica
The Age of the Caliphs With tenuous Byzantine control over Libya restricted to a few poorly defended coastal strongholds, the Arab horsemen who first crossed into Pentapolis, Cyrenaica in September 642 encountered little resistance. ...


Ottoman Libya By the beginning of the 15th century the Libyan coast had minimal central authority and its harbours were havens for unchecked bands of pirates. ...


Italian Colony For a full treatment of the Italian invasion of 1911, see Italian invasion of Libya. ...


Kingdom of Libya Flag Anthem Libya, Libya, Libya Capital Tripoli and Benghazi¹ Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1951-1969 Idris I Prime Minister  - 1951-1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir  - 1968-1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi History  - Independence 24 December, 1951  - Disestablished 1 September, 1969 Area  - 1954 1,759,530 km2 679...


Modern Libya On November 21, 1949, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952. ...

The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled one of the world's poorest nations to establish an extremely wealthy state. Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, popular resentment began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of King Idris and the national elite. This discontent continued to mount with the rise of Nasserism and Arab nationalism throughout North Africa and the Middle East. Petro redirects here. ... President Gamal Abdel Nasser Nasserism is an Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Coup of Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi

On September 1, 1969, a small group of military officers led by then 27-year-old army officer Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi staged a coup d’état against King Idris. At the time, Idris was in Turkey for medical treatment. His nephew, Crown Prince Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi, became King. It was clear that the revolutionary officers who had announced the deposition of King Idris did not want to appoint him over the instruments of state as King. Sayyid quickly found that he had substantially less power as the new King than he had earlier had as a mere Prince. Before the end of September 1, Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida had been formally deposed by the revolutionary army officers and put under house arrest. Meanwhile, revolutionary officers abolished the monarchy, and proclaimed the new Libyan Arab Republic. Gaddafi was, and is to this day, referred to as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official press.[14] is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi (1928-1992), was Crown Prince (1956-1969) and (very briefly) King of Libya (1969). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Libya
A wall carpet depicting Col. Gaddafi, in a hotel in Misratah

There are two branches of government in Libya. The "revolutionary sector" comprises Revolutionary Leader Gaddafi, the Revolutionary Committees and the remaining members of the 12-person Revolutionary Command Council, which was established in 1969.[15] The historical revolutionary leadership is not elected and cannot be voted out of office; they are in power by virtue of their involvement in the revolution. Libyas political system is theoretically based on the political philosophy in Moammar Al Qadhafis Green Book, which combines socialist and Islamic theories and rejects parliamentary democracy and political parties. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gadhafi_Carpet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gadhafi_Carpet. ...


Constituting the legislative branch of government, this sector comprises Local People's Congresses in each of the 1,500 urban wards, 32 Sha'biyat People's Congresses for the regions, and the National General People's Congress. These legislative bodies are represented by corresponding executive bodies (Local People's Committees, Sha'biyat People's Committees and the National General People's Committee/Cabinet). A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The General Peoples Congress (Mutammar al-shaab al âmm) consists out of circa 2700 representatives of the Basis Peoples Congresses. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ...


Every four years, the membership of the Local People's Congresses elects their own leaders and the secretaries for the People's Committees, sometimes after many debates and a critical vote. The leadership of the Local People's Congress represents the local congress at the People's Congress of the next level. The members of the National General People's Congress elect the members of the National General People's Committee (the Cabinet) at their annual meeting. The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... This article is about the governmental body. ...


The government controls both state-run and semi-autonomous media. In cases involving a violation of "certain taboos", the private press, like The Tripoli Post, has been censored,[16] although articles that are critical of policies have been requested and intentionally published by the revolutionary leadership itself as a means of initiating reforms.


Political parties were banned by the 1972 Prohibition of Party Politics Act Number 71.[17] According to the Association Act of 1971, the establishment of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is allowed. However, because they are required to conform to the goals of the revolution, their numbers are small in comparison with those in neighbouring countries. Trade unions do not exist,[18] but numerous professional associations are integrated into the state structure as a third pillar, along with the People's Congresses and Committees. These associations do not have the right to strike. Professional associations send delegates to the General People's Congress, where they have a representative mandate. Libyas political system is theoretically based on the political philosophy in Moammar Al Qadhafis Green Book, which combines socialist and Islamic theories and rejects parliamentary democracy and political parties. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...


Foreign relations

Foreign Minister Abd al-Rahman Shalgam with his US counterpart U.S. Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice. Libya is keen to shake off its pariah status and rejoin the international community.
Foreign Minister Abd al-Rahman Shalgam with his US counterpart U.S. Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice. Libya is keen to shake off its pariah status and rejoin the international community.

Libya's foreign policies have undergone much fluctuation and change since the state was proclaimed on December 24, 1951. As a Kingdom, Libya maintained a definitively pro-Western stance, yet was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States (Arab League), of which it became a member in 1953.[19] The government was in close alliance with Britain and the United States; both countries maintained military base rights in Libya. Libya also forged close ties with France, Italy, Greece, and established full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1955. Libyas foreign policies have undergone much fluctuation and change since the state declared its independence from Italy on December 24, 1951. ... Image File history File links Secretary_Rice_met_with_Libyan_Foreign_Minister_Abd_al-Rahman_Shalgam. ... Image File history File links Secretary_Rice_met_with_Libyan_Foreign_Minister_Abd_al-Rahman_Shalgam. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Flag of the League of Arab States The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية), is an organization of Arab states. ...


Although the government supported Arab causes, including the Moroccan and Algerian independence movements, it took little active part in the Arab-Israeli dispute or the tumultuous inter-Arab politics of the 1950s and early 1960s. The Kingdom was noted for its close association with the West, while it steered an essentially conservative course at home.[20] History The Arab-Israeli conflict is a modern phenomenon, which dates back to the end of the 19th century. ...


After the 1969 coup, Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partially nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya. He also played a key role in promoting oil embargoes as a political weapon for challenging the West, hoping that an oil price rise and embargo in 1973 would persuade the West, especially the United States, to end support for Israel. Gaddafi rejected both Eastern (Soviet) communism and Western (United States) capitalism and claimed he was charting a middle course for his government.[21] Coup redirects here. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


In the 1980s, Libya increasingly distanced itself from the West, and was accused of committing mass acts of state-sponsored terrorism. When evidence of Libyan complicity was discovered in the Berlin discotheque terrorist bombing that killed two American servicemen, the United States responded by launching an aerial bombing attack against targets near Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986.[22] The Berlin discotheque bombing of April 5, 1986 was a terrorist attack on the West Berlin La Belle discotheque that was frequented by U.S. soldiers. ... Operation El Dorado Canyon was the name of the joint United States Air Force and Navy air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ...


In 1991, two Libyan intelligence agents were indicted by federal prosecutors in the U.S. and Scotland for their involvement in the December 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103. Six other Libyans were put on trial in absentia for the 1989 bombing of UTA Flight 772. The UN Security Council demanded that Libya surrender the suspects, cooperate with the Pan Am 103 and UTA 772 investigations, pay compensation to the victims' families, and cease all support for terrorism. Libya's refusal to comply led to the approval of UNSC Resolution 748 on March 31, 1992, imposing sanctions on the state designed to bring about Libyan compliance. Continued Libyan defiance led to further sanctions by the UN against Libya in November 1993.[23] Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ... PA 103 redirects here. ... Route taken by UTA Flight 772 UTA Flight 772 of the French airline, Union des Transports Aériens, was a scheduled flight operating from Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo, via NDjamena in Chad, to Paris CDG airport in France. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 2003, more than a decade after the sanctions were put in place, Libya began to make dramatic policy changes in regard to the Western world with the open intention of pursuing a Western-Libyan détente. The Libyan government announced its decision to abandon its weapons of mass destruction programs and pay almost 3 billion US dollars in compensation to the families of Pan Am flight 103 as well as UTA Flight 772.[24] The decision was welcomed by many western nations and was seen as an important step for Libya toward rejoining the international community.[25] Since 2003 the country has made efforts to normalize its ties with the European Union and the United States and has even coined the catchphrase, 'The Libya Model', an example intended to show the world what can be achieved through negotiation rather than force when there is goodwill on both sides. Occident redirects here. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


An event considered pivotal by many in Libyan-Western relations is the HIV trials (1999–2007) of five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor. Their release is seen as marking new stage in Libyan-Western relations. The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials, appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV in 1998, causing an epidemic at El-Fath Childrens Hospital in Benghazi. ...


On May 15, 2006 the United States State Department announced it would fully restore diplomatic relations with Libya if it dismantled its weapons programs. The State Department also removed Libya from their state sponsored terrorism list which it had been on for 27 years. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 16, 2007, Libya was voted to serve on the United Nations Security Council for two years starting January 2008.[26]


Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Libya

According to the U.S. Department of State’s annual human rights report for 2004, Libya’s authoritarian regime continued to have a poor record in the area of human rights. Some of the numerous and serious abuses on the part of the government include poor prison conditions, arbitrary arrest and detention, prisoners held incommunicado, and political prisoners held for many years without charge or trial. The judiciary is controlled by the state, and there is no right to a fair public trial. Libyans do not have the right to change their government. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, and religion are restricted. Independent human rights organizations are prohibited. Ethnic and tribal minorities suffer discrimination, and the state continues to restrict the labor rights of foreign workers. According to the U.S. Department of State’s annual human rights report for 2004, Libya’s authoritarian regime continued to have a poor record in the area of human rights. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech often through a state constitution for its citizens, and associations of individuals extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ...


In 2005, the Freedom House rated political rights in Libya as "7" (1 representing the most free and 7 the least free rating), civil liberties as "7" and gave it the freedom rating of "Not Free,"[27] although the organization itself has been criticized as politically slanted. See Freedom House#Criticism and praise Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ...


Municipalities

Libya was divided into several governorates (muhafazat) [3] before being split into 25 municipalities (baladiyat), see map of 25 baladiyat in Municipalities of Libya.[28] Recently, Libya was divided into thirty two sha'biyah.[29] These were then further rearranged into twenty two. The following list and map show the previous arrangement which is slightly different than the current one.[30] There are 25 municicipalities of Libya. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Governorate. ... There are 32 Municipalities of Libya. ... There are 25 municicipalities of Libya. ... Shabiyah (Arabic: ‎) is a subdivision term translated as municipality. ...

The 32 municipalities are:

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2062x2105, 484 KB) Summary New numbered municipalities of Libya. ...

1 Ajdabiya 17 Ghat
2 Al Butnan 18 Ghadamis
3 Al Hizam Al Akhdar 19 Gharyan
4 Al Jabal al Akhdar 20 Murzuq
5 Al Jfara 21 Mizdah
6 Al Jufrah 22 Misratah
7 Al Kufrah 23 Nalut
8 Al Marj 24 Tajura Wa Al Nawahi AlArba'
9 Al Murgub 25 Tarhuna Wa Msalata
10 An Nuqat al Khams 26 Tarabulus (Tripoli)
11 Al Qubah 27 Sabha
12 Al Wahat 28 Surt
13 Az Zawiyah 29 Sabratha Wa Surman
14 Benghazi 30 Wadi Al Hayaa
15 Bani Walid 31 Wadi Al Shatii
16 Darnah 32 Yafran

Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Ghat is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... The Al Butnan municipality (Arabic: Shabiyan)in Libya has a population of 116,106, with its capital city being Tubruq (Arabic: طبرق). Category: ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya | Cities in Libya ... Al Hizam al Akhdar is one of the 32 municipalities of Libya. ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Al Jfara is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Mizdah is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Misratah (rarely Misrata or Misurata), (Arabic: مصراته, MiÅŸrātah Libyan vernacular:Məşrātah ), a city and Shabiyah (top level administrative division) in northwestern Libya, situated 210 km to the east of Tripoli on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misratah. ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Nalut is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Al-Marj (Arabic: the meadows) Administrative Division of al-Fâtîh (Arabic: الفاتح ), Latitude 32. ... Tajura Wa Al Nawahi AlArba is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Al Murgub is one of the municipilaties of Libya. ... Tarhuna Wa Msalata is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... An Nuqat al Khams (Arabic: النقاط الخمس) is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Tripoli (population 1 million, Arabic: Ţarabulus) is the capital of Libya. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Al Qubah is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Sabha is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Al Wahat is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... This article is about the municipality of Libya. ... Az Zawiyah Municipality (Arabic: شعبية الزاوية; transliterated: Shabiyat az-Zawiyah) is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Sabratha Wa Surman is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... Wadi Al Hayaa is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Bani Walid is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Wadi Al Shatii is a municipality in Libya. ... Darnah (Arabic: درنة) is one of the municipalities of Libya. ... Categories: Stub ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Libya
Map of Libya
Map of Libya
The Jabal Al Akdhar near Benghazi is Libya's wettest region. Annual rainfall averages at between 400 and 600 millimetres (15-24 inches).
The Jabal Al Akdhar near Benghazi is Libya's wettest region. Annual rainfall averages at between 400 and 600 millimetres (15-24 inches).[31]

Libya extends over 1,759,540 square kilometres (679,182 sq. mi), making it the 17th largest nation in the world by size. Libya is somewhat smaller than Indonesia, and roughly the size of the US state of Alaska. It is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, the west by Tunisia and Algeria, the southwest by Niger, the south by Chad and Sudan and to the east by Egypt. At 1770 kilometres (1100 miles), Libya's coastline is the longest of any African country bordering the Mediterranean.[32][33] The portion of the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya is often called the Libyan Sea. The climate is mostly dry and desert-like in nature. However, the northern regions enjoy a milder Mediterranean climate. Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E Map references: Africa Area: total: 1,759,540 km² land: 1,759,540 km² water: 0 km² Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska Land boundaries: total: 4,383 km border countries... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jabal_Al_Akdhar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jabal_Al_Akdhar. ... For the Jebel Akhdar region of Oman, see Jebel Akhdar (Oman). ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Countries by area. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ...


Natural hazards come in the form of hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco (known in Libya as the gibli). This is a southern wind blowing from one to four days in spring and autumn. There are also dust storms and sandstorms. Oases can also be found scattered throughout Libya, the most important of which are Ghadames and Kufra as well as others. Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or, rarely, siroc is a strong southerly to southeasterly wind in the Mediterranean that originates from the Sahara and similar North African regions. ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... Ghadames is an oasis in the west of Libya. ... Kufra (also spelled Cufra) is an Oasis in Southeastern Libya that played a minor role in the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. It is in a particularly isolated location not only because it is in the middle of the Sahara Desert but also because it is surrounded on...


Libyan Desert

Moving sand dunes in Tadrart Acacus
Moving sand dunes in Tadrart Acacus
Satellite image of Libya, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Libya, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Desert landscape in Libya; 90% of the country is desert
Desert landscape in Libya; 90% of the country is desert

The Libyan Desert, which covers much of eastern Libya, is one of the most arid places on earth. In places, decades may pass without rain, and even in the highlands rainfall happens erratically, once every 5–10 years. At Uweinat, the last recorded rainfall was in September 1998.[34] There is a large depression, the Qattara Depression, just to the south of the northernmost scarp, with Siwa oasis at its western extremity. The depression continues in a shallower form west, to the oases of Jaghbub and Jalo. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... Tadrart Acacus is a rock-art site in western Libya. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1903x1643, 1845 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Libya Geography of Libya Maps of Libya ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1903x1643, 1845 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Libya Geography of Libya Maps of Libya ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ... This article is about precipitation. ... The term highland is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Qattara Depression (local: Munkhafad al-Qattarah) is a desert basin within the Libyan Desert of north-western Egypt. ...


Likewise, the temperature in the Libyan desert can be extreme; in 1922, the town of Al 'Aziziyah, which is located west of Tripoli, recorded an air temperature of 57.8 °C (136.0 °F), generally accepted as the highest recorded naturally occurring air temperature reached on Earth.[35] Al Aziziyah is one of the municipalities of Libya, located in the north of the country. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


There are a few scattered uninhabited small oases, usually linked to the major depressions, where water can be found by digging to a few feet in depth. In the west there is a widely dispersed group of oases in unconnected shallow depressions, the Kufra group, consisting of Tazerbo, Rebianae and Kufra.[34] Aside from the scarps, the general flatness is only interrupted by a series of plateaus and massifs near the centre of the Libyan Desert, around the convergence of the Egyptian-Sudanese-Libyan Borders. For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ...


Slightly further to the south are the massifs of Arkenu, Uweinat and Kissu. These granite mountains are very ancient, having formed much before the sandstones surrounding them. Arkenu and Western Uweinat are ring complexes very similar to those in the Aïr Mountains. Eastern Uweinat (the highest point in the Libyan Desert) is a raised sandstone plateau adjacent to the granite part further west.[34] The plain to the north of Uweinat is dotted with eroded volcanic features. For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The Aïr Mountains (also known as the Air Massif or Azbine) is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara desert. ...


With the discovery of oil in the 1950s also came the discovery of a massive aquifer underneath much of the country. The water in this aquifer pre-dates the last ice ages and the Sahara desert itself.[36] The country is also home to the Arkenu craters, double impact craters found in the desert. Arkenu is a double impact crater in Libya. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Libya
The infrastructure of Libya's capital Tripoli has benefited from the country's oil wealth.
The infrastructure of Libya's capital Tripoli has benefited from the country's oil wealth.

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which constitute practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of gross domestic product (GDP). These oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest GDPs per person in Africa and have allowed the Libyan state to provide an extensive and impressive level of social security, particularly in the fields of housing and education.[37] Dont call it a comeback I been here for years Rockin my peers Puttin suckers in fear Makin the tears rain down like a monsoon Listen to the bass go boom Explosion, overpowerin Over the competition, Im towerin Records shock When I drop these lyrics Thatll make... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... GDP redirects here. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...

Tripoli's Old City - (El-Madina El-Kadima) - situated in the city centre, is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean and an important tourist attraction.
Tripoli's Old City - (El-Madina El-Kadima) - situated in the city centre, is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean and an important tourist attraction.

Compared to its neighbours, Libya enjoys an extremely low level of both absolute and relative poverty. Libyan officials in the past three years have carried out economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the global capitalist economy.[38] This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003, and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 134 KB) Summary The inner streets of Tripolis Medina. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 134 KB) Summary The inner streets of Tripolis Medina. ... The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ...


Libya has begun some market-oriented reforms. Initial steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organisation, reducing subsidies, and announcing plans for privatisation.[40] The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel and aluminium. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food.[38] Water is also a problem, with some 28% of the population not having access to safe drinking water in 2000.[41] For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Fe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


Under the previous Prime Minister, Shukri Ghanem, and current prime minister Baghdadi Mahmudi, Libya is undergoing a business boom. Many government-run industries are being privatised. Many international oil companies have returned to the country, including oil giants Shell and ExxonMobil.[42] Tourism is on the rise, bringing increased demand for hotel accommodation and for capacity at airports such as Tripoli International. A multi-million dollar renovation of Libyan airports has recently been approved by the government to help meet such demands.[43] At present 130,000 people visit the country annually; the Libyan government hopes to increase this figure to 10,000,000 tourists.[44] Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, the oldest son of Muammar al-Gaddafi, is involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which seeks to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area.[45]
Shukri Ghanem Dr Shukri Mohammed Ghanem (Arabic: شكرى محمد غانم ) (born 1942) is the former General Secretary of the Peoples Committee in Libya (prime minister). ... Libyan prime minister, Baghdadi Mahmudi Dr Baghdadi Ali Mahmudi (born 1945?) was appointed prime minister of Libya in March 2006, in succession to Shukri Ghanem. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... Tripoli International Airport (IATA: TIP, ICAO: HLLT) (Arabic: مطار طرابلس العالمي) serves Tripoli, Libya. ... Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi (Arabic: ) is a son of Muammar al-Gaddafi, leader of Libya. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Libya
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya.
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya.

Libya has a small population within its large territory, with a population density of about 3 people per square kilometre (8.5/mi²) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, and less than one person per square kilometre (1.6/mi²) elsewhere. Libya is thus one of the least densely populated nations by area in the world.[46] 90% of the people live in less than 10% of the area, mostly along the coast. More than half the population is urban, concentrated to a greater extent, in the two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi.[47] Native Libyans are a mixture of indigenous Berber peoples and the later arriving Arabs. Libya has a small population in a large land area. ... Image File history File links Libya_ethnic. ... Image File history File links Libya_ethnic. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ...


There are small Tuareg (a Berber population) and Tebu tribal groups concentrated in the south, living nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles. Among foreign residents, the largest groups are citizens of other African nations, including North Africans (primarily Egyptians and Tunisians), and Sub-Saharan Africans.[48] According to the CIA Factbook, Libyan Berbers and Arabs constitute 97% of the population; the other 3% are Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Afghanis, Turks, Indians, and Sub-Saharan Africans.[49] However, this only counts legal residents, as Libya is also home to a large illegal Sub-Saharan African population which according to some estimates numbers as much as a million.[50] For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Tebu are a people that live mainly in Chad, but also in Libya, Niger and Sudan. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ...


The main language spoken in Libya is Arabic, which is also the official language. Tamazight (i.e. Berber languages), which do not have official status, are spoken by Libyan Berbers.[51] Berber speakers live above all in the Jebel Nafusa region (Tripolitania), the town of Zuwarah on the coast, and the city-oases of Ghadames, Ghat and Awjila. In addition, Tuaregs speak Tamahaq, the only known Northern Tamasheq language. Italian and English are sometimes spoken in the big cities, although Italian speakers are mainly among the older generation. Arabic redirects here. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Jebel Nafusa is a region in Libya where the majority of the countrys Berbers are concentrated. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Zuwarah (Arabic: زوارة) is a port city in northwestern Libya, near the Tunisian border, with a population of 280,000 (1990 est. ... Ghadames is an oasis in the west of Libya. ... Ghat (Arabic: غات) is a city in remote south-western Libya. ... Awjila is an oasis after which an Eastern Berber language spoken there is named. ... Tamahaq is the only known Northern Tamasheq language, spoken in southern Algeria, western Libya, and northern Niger. ... Tuareg or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso (with a few speakers, the Kinnin, even in Chad[1].) They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth. Although the Libyan Arabs traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities.[52] Because of this, their old ways of life are gradually fading out. An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries. Most of the population has occupations in industry and services, and a small percentage is in agriculture. A tower block, block of flats, or apartment block, is a multi-unit high-rise apartment building. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ...


Education

The Benghazi campus of the former University of Libya (Al-Jami'a al-Libiya), Libya's first university.
The Benghazi campus of the former University of Libya (Al-Jami'a al-Libiya), Libya's first university.

Libya's population includes 1.7 million students, over 270,000 of whom study at the tertiary level.[53] Education in Libya is free for all citizens,[54] and compulsory up until secondary level. The literacy rate is the highest in North Africa; over 82% of the population can read and write.[55] After Libya's independence in 1951, its first university, the University of Libya, was established in Benghazi.[56] In academic year 1975/76 the number of university students was estimated to be 13,418. As of 2004, this number has increased to more than 200,000, with an extra 70,000 enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector.[53] The rapid increase in the number of students in the higher education sector has been mirrored by an increase in the number of institutions of higher education. Since 1975 the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in 1980, the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 (with 12 public universities).[53] Libya's higher education is financed by the public budget. In 1998 the budget allocated for education represented 38.2% of the national budget.[56] Image File history File linksMetadata Benghazi_University. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Benghazi_University. ... ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The main universities in Libya are:

Al Fateh University (Arabic: جامعة الفاتح) is the largest and most important institute of higher education in Libya. ... Garyounis University (Arabic: ‎) is a university in Benghazi, Libya. ...

Religion

Main article: Religion in Libya

By far the predominant religion in Libya is Islam with 97% of the population associating with the faith.[57] The vast majority of Libyan Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam, which provides both a spiritual guide for individuals and a keystone for government policy, but a minority (between 5 and 10%) adhere to Ibadism (a branch of Kharijism), above all in the Jebel Nefusa and the town of Zuwarah. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ...

Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border. About 97% of Libyans are followers of Islam.
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border. About 97% of Libyans are followers of Islam.

Before the 1930s, the Sanusi Movement was the primary Islamic movement in Libya. This was a religious revival adapted to desert life. Its zawaayaa (lodges) were found in Tripolitania and Fezzan, but Sanusi influence was strongest in Cyrenaica. Rescuing the region from unrest and anarchy, the Sanusi movement gave the Cyrenaican tribal people a religious attachment and feelings of unity and purpose.[58] This Islamic movement, which was eventually destroyed by both Italian invasion and later the Gaddafi government,[58] was very conservative and somewhat different from the Islam that exists in Libya today. Gaddafi asserts that he is a devout Muslim, and his government is taking a role in supporting Islamic institutions and in worldwide proselytizing on behalf of Islam.[59] A Libyan form of Sufism is also common in parts of the country.[60] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x677, 116 KB) Summary A mosque in Ghadames, a Libyan town close to the Algerian, Tunisian, Libyan border. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x677, 116 KB) Summary A mosque in Ghadames, a Libyan town close to the Algerian, Tunisian, Libyan border. ... Ghadames is an oasis in the west of Libya. ... The Senussi or Sanussi refers to a Muslim political-religious order in Libya and Sudan founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1791–1859). ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


Other than the overwhelming majority of Sunni Muslims, there are also small foreign communities of Christians. Coptic Orthodox Christianity, which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya. There are over 60,000 Egyptian Copts in Libya, as they comprise of over 1% of the population alone.[61] There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt.[62] There is also an estimated 40,000 Roman Catholics in Libya who are served by two Bishops, one in Tripoli (serving the Italian community) and one in Benghazi (serving the Maltese community). Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... This article is about the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria in African countries other than Egypt. ... Religions Predominantly: Coptic Orthodox Christianity. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ...


Libya was until recent times the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BC.[63] A series of pogroms beginning in November 1945 lasted for almost three years, drastically reducing Libya's Jewish population.[64] In 1948, about 38,000 Jews remained in the country. Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated. After the Suez Crisis in 1956, all but about 100 Jews were forced to flee. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Libya
Coastline of Benghazi, Libya's second largest city. With the longest Mediterranean coastline among African nations, Libyia's mostly unspoilt beaches are a social gathering place.
Coastline of Benghazi, Libya's second largest city. With the longest Mediterranean coastline among African nations, Libyia's mostly unspoilt beaches are a social gathering place.

Libya is culturally similar to its neighboring Maghrebian states. Libyans consider themselves very much a part of a wider Arab community. The Libyan state tends to strengthen this feeling by considering Arabic as the only official language, and forbidding the teaching and even the use of the Berber language. Libyan Arabs have a heritage in the traditions of the nomadic Bedouin and associate themselves with a particular Bedouin tribe. Many people, Men and women enjoy eating their poo and drinking their urine. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Benghazi_coast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Benghazi_coast. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ...


As with some other countries in the Arab world, Libya boasts few theatres or art galleries.[65][66] Conversely, for many years there have been no public theatres, and only a few cinemas showing foreign films. The tradition of folk culture is still alive and well, with troupes performing music and dance at frequent festivals, both in Libya and abroad. The main output of Libyan television is devoted to showing various styles of traditional Libyan music. Tuareg music and dance are popular in Ghadames and the south. Libyan television programmes are mostly in Arabic with a 30-minute news broadcast each evening in English and French. The government maintains strict control over all media outlets. A new analysis by the Committee to Protect Journalists has found Libya’s media the most tightly controlled in the Arab world.[16] To combat this, the government plans to introduce private media, an initiative intended to bring the country's media in from the cold.[67] Folk culture refers to the localized lifestyle of a subsistence or otherwise inward looking culture. ... The Berbers are an ethnic group in North and West Africa. ... Ghadames is an oasis in the west of Libya. ... The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an independent, nonprofit organization based in New York which is dedicated to promoting press freedom worldwide and defending the right of journalists to report the news without fear of reprisal. ...


Many Libyans frequent the country's beaches. They also visit Libya's beautifully-preserved archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna, which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world.[68] Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ...


The nation's capital, Tripoli, boasts many good museums and archives; these include the Government Library, the Ethnographic Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the National Archives, the Epigraphy Museum and the Islamic Museum. The Jamahiriya Museum, built in consultation with UNESCO, may be the country's most famous. It houses one of the finest collections of classical art in the Mediterranean.[69] Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Further information: Music of Libya
Further information: Literature of Libya

Libya is a North African country. ...

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal 2007 Index of Economic Freedom 154 out of 157
The Economist The World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005 70 out of 111
Energy Information Administration Greatest Oil Reserves by Country, 2006 9 out of 20
Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index (2005) 162 out of 167
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2007 131 out of 180
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2005 56 out of 177

The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...

See also

Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born circa 1942 near Sirte, Libya), has been the leader of Libya since 1969. ... Libyan Arab Airlines, the countrys flag carrier // Railways Libya has had no railway in operation since 1965, all previous small systems having been dismantled. ... Muammar al-Gaddafi maintains a 40 member group of women unofficially referred to as the Amazonian Guard as his personal bodyguards and protectors. ...

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  • This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain.
  • This article contains material from the US Department of State's Background Notes which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain.

For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Flavius Cresconius Corippus, Roman epic poet of the 6th century AD. He was a native of Africa, and in one of the manuscripts is called grammaticus (teacher). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ilan Pappé (‎, born 1954) is an Israeli historian who used to teach at Haifa University. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, and civil liberties. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Background Notes series is a collection of works by the United States Department of State. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Libya Portal
Find more about Libya on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Libyan Embassy Washington D.C.
  • General People's Committee (The Cabinet)
  • The People's Committee of Foreign Affairs
  • A Window to Libya by Tarek Alwan
  • Worldstatesmen.org's History and list of rulers of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan and Libya (before and after unification).
  • Libyan People's Bureau (Libyan Embassy), London - UK
  • Libyan People's Bureau (Libyan Embassy), Ottawa
  • Libyan Cultural Affairs, London.
  • Libyan American Chamber of Commerce
  • Libya travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Limes Tripolitanus
  • "libye") 20 digital objects in The European Library
  • Libya Directory


Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a large group of countries[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPEC in November 2007). ...


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Libya (10/07) (4894 words)
Libya's use--and heavy loss--of Soviet-supplied weaponry in its war with Chad was a notable breach of an apparent Soviet-Libyan understanding not to use the weapons for activities inconsistent with Soviet objectives.
Libya paid compensation in 1999 for the death of British policewoman Yvonne Fletcher, a move that preceded the reopening of the British Embassy in Tripoli, and paid damages to the families of the victims in the bombing of UTA Flight 772.
Libya re-established its diplomatic presence in Washington with the opening of an Interest Section on July 8, 2004, which was subsequently upgraded to a Liaison Office in December 2004 and to a full embassy on May 31, 2006.
Libya News - Breaking World Libya News - The New York Times (3233 words)
Libya was a very poor agricultural country with bleak economic prospects until 1958, when petroleum was discovered 200–300 mi (320–480 km) S and SE of the Gulf of Sidra; crude petroleum was exported on an increasingly significant scale between 1961 and 1981.
Libya was made an integral part of Italy in 1939, and the Muslim population was granted a limited form of citizenship.
Libya agreed in 2003 to a $2.7 billion settlement with the families of the victims.
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