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Encyclopedia > Libretto
Cover of a 1921 libretto for Giordano's Andrea Chenier
Cover of a 1921 libretto for Giordano's Andrea Chenier

A libretto is the text used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, sacred or secular oratorio and cantata, musical, and ballet. The term "libretto" is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as mass, requiem, and sacred cantata. The Libretto 70ct with a Japanese keyboard The Libretto is a line of subnotebook computers designed and produced by Toshiba. ... The Electronic libretto system is used primarily in opera houses and is a device which presents translations of lyrics into an audiences language or transcribes lyrics that may be difficult to understand in the sung form. ... Andrea Chénier is an opera in four acts by Umberto Giordano to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica, based on the life of the French poet André Chénier (1762-1794). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ...

Libretto (pl. libretti), from Italian, is the diminutive of the word "libro" (book). A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot. A scenario (from the Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a brief description of an event or a series of events. ...

The relationship of the librettist (that is, the writer of a libretto) to the composer in the creation of a musical work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources and the writing techniques employed. A composer is a person who writes music. ...


Relationship of composer and librettist

Libretti for operas, oratorios, and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries generally were written by someone other than the composer, often a well-known poet. Metastasio (16981782) (real name Pietro Trapassi) was one of the most highly regarded librettists in Europe. His libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted 18th century librettist was Lorenzo da Ponte, who wrote the libretti for three of Mozart's greatest operas, as well as for many other composers. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer (with whom he had a lasting collaboration), Auber, Bellini, Donizetti, Rossini and Verdi. The French writers' duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a large number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet and Georges Bizet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli, composed two operas of his own. Pietro Trapassi (January 13, 1698 - April 12, 1782), Italian poet, is better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Lorenzo da Ponte Lorenzo Da Ponte (March 10, 1749–August 17, 1838) was an Italian librettist born in Ceneda (now Vittorio Veneto). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Augustin Eugène Scribe (December 24, 1791 - February 20, 1861), was a French dramatist and librettist. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) was a noted German-born opera composer, and the first great exponent of Grand Opera. ... Daniel François Esprit Auber (January 29, 1782 - May 13, 1871), French composer, the son of a Paris print-seller, was born in Caen in Normandy. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... Verdi redirects here. ... Henri Meilhac (February 21, 1831 - 1897), French dramatist, was born in Paris. ... Ludovic Halévy (January 1, 1834 - May 8, 1908), French author, was born in Paris. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Jacques Offenbach Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819, in Cologne – 5 October 1880, in Paris) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era and one of the originators of the operetta form. ... Jules Massenet Jules (Émile Frédéric) Massenet (May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer. ... Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Verdi redirects here. ... Amilcare Ponchielli (August 31, 1834 – January 17, 1886) was an Italian composer, largely of operas. ...

The composer of Cavalleria rusticana,Pietro Mascagni, flanked by his librettists,Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci
The composer of Cavalleria rusticana,
Pietro Mascagni, flanked by his librettists,
Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci

The libretto is not always written before the music. Some composers, such as Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Serov, Rimsky-Korsakov, Puccini, and Mascagni wrote passages of music without text and subsequently had the librettist add words to the vocal melody lines. (This has often been the case with American popular song and musicals in the 20th century, as with Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's collaboration, although with the later team of Rodgers and Hammerstein the lyrics were generally written first.) Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry) is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to a libretto by Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, adapted from a short story by Giovanni Verga. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Composer Alexander Serov by Valentin Serov, 1887-1888 Alexander Nikolayevich Serov (Александр Николаевич Серов in Cyrillic; Aleksandr Nikolaevič Serov in transliteration) (11/23 Jan. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... This article is about the American composer. ... Lorenz (Larry) Hart (May 2, 1895 - November 22, 1943) was the lyricist half of the famed Broadway songwriting team Rodgers and Hart. ... Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein (right), with Irving Berlin (middle) and Helen Tamiris, watching auditions at the St. ...

Some composers wrote their own libretti. Richard Wagner is perhaps most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchner's play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Karl Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 – February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ... Klaus Kinski in Werner Herzogs Woyzeck Woyzeck is a stage play written by Georg Büchner. ... Wozzeck is the first opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg (1885-1935). ...

Sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer; this can involve adaptation, as was the case with Rimsky-Korsakov and his librettist Bel'sky, or an entirely original work. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics, and the "book" (i.e., the spoken dialogue and the stage directions) may each have their own author. Thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer (Jerry Bock), a lyricist (Sheldon Harnick), and the writer of the "book" (Joseph Stein). Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... For the film, see Fiddler on the Roof (film). ... Jerry Bock (born 1928) is a Jewish-American musical theatre composer best known for his collaboration with lyricist Sheldon Harnick on shows such as Fiddler on the Roof. ... Sheldon Harnick (born 1924) is an American lyricist best known for his collaboration with composer Jerry Bock on hit musicals such as Fiddler on the Roof. ... Joseph Stein (born May 30, 1912, New York City) is a Jewish-American playwright best known for his books for hit musicals such as Fiddler on the Roof, Zorba, Rags, Take Me Along, and The Bakers Wife. ...

Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen. There are the preliminary steps of selecting or suggesting a subject and developing a sketch of the action in the form of a scenario, as well as revisions that might come about when the work is in production, as with out-of-town tryouts for Broadway musicals, or changes made for a specific local audience. A famous case of the latter is Wagner's 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... A scenario (from the Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a brief description of an event or a series of events. ... A view of Broadway in 1909 Broadway, as the name implies, is a wide avenue in New York City, and is the oldest north-south main thoroughfare in the city, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Tannhäuser (Tannhäuser and the Singers Contest on the Wartburg), an opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on the two Germanic legends of Tannhäuser and the song contest at Wartburg. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Literary characteristics

The opera libretto from its inception (ca. 1600) was written in verse, and this continued well into the 19th century, although genres of musical theater with spoken dialogue have typically alternated verse in the musical numbers with spoken prose. Since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. Much of the recitative of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, for instance, is merely DuBose and Dorothy Heyward's play Porgy set to music as written - in prose - with the lyrics of the arias, duets, trios and choruses written in verse. Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... Gershwin redirects here. ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... DuBose Heyward (August 31, 1885 – June 16, 1940) was an American author best known for his 1924 novel Porgy. ... Dorothy Heyward (1890 – November 19, 1961) was an American playwright. ... Binomial name Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus, 1766) The Scup or porgy, Stenotomus chrysops, is a fish which occurs primarily in the Atlantic from Massachusetts to South Carolina. ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... Duet may refer to: Duet, musical form Duet, Fox sitcom This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up trio in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chorus may refer to: // choir, a vocal ensemble Greek chorus refrain or chorus of a song, pre-chorus may refer to bridge (music) strophic form or chorus form, in music arrangement chorus effect, the perception of similar sounds from multiple sources as a single, richer sound; signal processors design to...

The libretto of a musical, on the other hand, is almost always written in prose (except for the song lyrics). The libretto of a musical, if the musical is adapted from a play, may even borrow their source's original dialogue liberally - much as Oklahoma! used dialogue from Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, Carousel used dialogue from Ferenc Molnar's Liliom, My Fair Lady took most of its dialogue word-for-word from George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, and the 1954 musical version of Peter Pan used J.M. Barrie's dialogue. Oklahoma! was the first musical play written by composer Richard Rodgers and lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II (see Rodgers and Hammerstein). ... Green Grow the Lilacs is a folk song of Irish origin that was popular in the United States during the mid 1800s. ... Carousel is a 1945 stage musical by Richard Rodgers (music) and Oscar Hammerstein II (book and lyrics) that was adapted from Ferenc Molnars play Liliom. ... Ferenc Molnár (b. ... Liliom is a 1909 play by Ferenc Molnár, famous as the basis for the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical Carousel. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... This article is about the play by J.M. Barrie. ... Sir James Matthew Barrie, Baronet, Scottish author Sir James Matthew Barrie, Baronet (May 9, 1860 - June 19, 1937), more commonly known as J. M. Barrie, was a Scottish novelist and dramatist. ...

Language and translation

Henry Purcell (1659–1695) whose operas were written to English libretti
Henry Purcell (1659–1695) whose operas were written to English libretti

As the originating language of opera, Italian dominated that genre in Europe (except in France) well through the 18th century, and even into the next century in Russia, for example, when the Italian opera troupe in Saint Petersburg was challenged by the emerging native Russian repertory. Significant exceptions before 1800 can be found in Purcell's works, German opera of Hamburg during the Baroque, ballad opera and Singspiel of the 18th century, etc. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Ballad opera is a genre of 18th century English stage entertainment. ... Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ...

Just as with literature and song, the libretto has its share of problems and challenges with translation. In the past (and even today), foreign musical stage works with spoken dialogue, especially comedies, were sometimes performed with the sung portions in the original language and the spoken dialogue in the vernacular. However, this reinforces the idea that the words to the songs do not matter, a common misconception in those who do not really understand musicals or operettas. This does not really harm musicals such as the old Betty Grable - Don Ameche - Carmen Miranda vehicles, but it is especially misleading in translations of musicals such as Show Boat, The Wizard of Oz, My Fair Lady or Carousel, in which the lyrics to the songs and the spoken text are often or always closely integrated, and the lyrics serve to actually further the plot, not merely to provide words to a nice song. Availability of printed or projected translations today makes singing in the original language more practical, although one cannot discount the desire to hear a sung drama in one's own language. Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Betty Grable (December 18, 1916 – July 2, 1973) was an American dancer, singer, and actress. ... Not to be confused with former NBA player John Amaechi. ... Carmen Miranda, pron. ... For films based on the musical, see Show Boat (film). ... The Wizard of Oz was a 1902 stage play based on the book by L. Frank Baum, which was originally published in 1900. ...

The Spanish words libretista (playwright, script writer or screen writer) and libreto (script or screen play), which are used in the Hispanic TV and cinema industry, derived their meanings from the original operatic sense.

Status of librettists and the libretto

Poster for La figlia di Iorio where the librettist, Gabriele D'Annunzio, is given top billing
Poster for La figlia di Iorio where the librettist, Gabriele D'Annunzio, is given top billing

Librettists have historically received less prominent credit than the composer.[citation needed] In some 17th-century operas still being performed, the name of the librettist was not even recorded.{citation} As the printing of libretti for sale at performances became more common, these records often survive better than music left in manuscript. But even in late 18th-century London, reviews rarely mentioned the name of the librettist, as Lorenzo da Ponte lamented in his Memoirs. Lorenzo da Ponte Lorenzo Da Ponte (March 10, 1749–August 17, 1838) was an Italian librettist born in Ceneda (now Vittorio Veneto). ...

By the 20th century some librettists became recognized as part of famous collaborations, as with Gilbert and Sullivan. Today the composer (past or present) of the musical score to an opera or operetta is usually given top billing for the completed work, and the writer of the lyrics relegated to second place or a mere footnote, a notable exception being Gertrude Stein, who received top billing for Four Saints in Three Acts. Another exception was Alberto Franchetti's 1906 opera La figlia di Iorio which was a close rendering of a highly successful play by its librettist, Gabriele D'Annunzio, a celebrated Italian poet, novelist, and dramatist of the day. In some cases, the operatic adaptation has become more famous than the literary text on which it was based, as with Claude Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande after a play by Maurice Maeterlinck. W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Four Saints in Three Acts is an opera by American composer Virgil Thomson with a libretto by Gertrude Stein. ... Alberto Franchetti (18 September 1860 – 4 August 1942) was an Italian opera composer. ... Poster by Adolfo De Karolis for La figlio di Iorio La figlia di Iorio (The Daughter of Iorio), sometimes written as La figlia di Jorio, is an opera in three acts by Alberto Franchetti to a libretto by Gabriele DAnnunzio. ... Gabriele dAnnunzio (12 March 1863, Pescara – 1 March 1938, Gardone Riviera, province of Brescia) was an Italian poet, writer, novelist, dramatist and daredevil, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Pelléas et Mélisande (Pelléas and Mélisande) is an opera in five acts by Claude Debussy to a French libretto by Maurice Maeterlinck that almost exactly follows his famous symbolist play Pelléas et Mélisande. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ...

On the other hand, the affiliation of a poor libretto to great music has sometimes given the libretto's author a kind of accidental immortality. Certainly it is common for works of classical music to be admired in spite of, rather than because of, their libretti. An example is Mozart's inept librettist Varesco. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Father Varesco (1735-1805) was a chaplain, musician, poet and (most famously) librettist to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...

The question of which is more important in opera — the music or the words — has been debated over time, and forms the basis of — of all things — an opera, specifically Strauss's last, Capriccio. Capriccio is an opera by German composer Richard Strauss. ...

Publication of libretti

Pages from an 1859 libretto for Verdi's Ernani, with the original Italian lyrics, English translation, and musical notation for one of the arias
Pages from an 1859 libretto for Verdi's Ernani, with the original Italian lyrics, English translation, and musical notation for one of the arias

Libretti have been made available in several formats, some more nearly complete than others. The text — i.e., the spoken dialogue, sung lyrics, and stage directions, as applicable — is commonly published separately from the music (such a booklet is usually included with sound recordings of most operas). Sometimes (particularly for operas in the public domain) this format is supplemented with melodic excerpts of musical notation for important numbers. Ernani is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Hernani by Victor Hugo. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... A number in music is a self-contained piece that is combined with other such pieces in a performance. ...

Printed scores for operas naturally contain the entire libretto, although there can exist significant differences between the score and the separately printed text. More often than not, this involves the extra repetition of words or phrases from the libretto in the actual score. For example, in the aria 'Nessun dorma' from Puccini's Turandot, the final lines in the libretto are "Tramontate, stelle! All'alba, vincerò!" (Fade, you stars! At dawn, I will win!). However, in the score they are sung as "Tramontate, stelle! Tramontate, stelle! All'alba, vincerò! Vincerò! Vincerò!" Sheet music is written representation of music. ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... Nessun Dorma (None Shall Sleep) is an aria from the final act of Giacomo Puccinis opera Turandot,[1] and is one of the best known tenor arias in all opera. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ...

Because the modern musical tends to be published in two separate but intersecting formats (i.e., the book and lyrics, with all the words, and the piano-vocal score, with all the musical material, including some spoken cues), both are needed in order to make a thorough reading of an entire show.

See also

This is a list of authors who have written libretti for operas. ...

External links

An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... The Aria di sorbetto, or sherbet aria, was a convention of Italian opera in the early nineteenth century. ... Below is a list of terms used in musical terminology which are likely to occur on printed or sheet music. ... The term Bel Canto may refer to: Belcanto, a vocal technique; or Bel Canto, a novel by Ann Patchett. ... A breeches role (also pants role or trouser role) is a role in which an actress appears in male clothes (breeches being tight-fitting knee-length pants, the standard male garment at the time breeches roles were introduced). ... A burletta (Italian, meaning little joke), also sometimes burla or burlettina, is a musical term generally denoting a brief comic Italian (or, later, English) opera. ... A Cabaletta is form of aria within 19th century Italian opera. ... In music, a cadenza (Italian for cadence) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a free rhythmic style, and often allowing for virtuosic display. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Musical terminology. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... For the piece of music known as Cavatina or Theme from The Deer Hunter, see Cavatina (song) Cavatina (Italian diminutive of cavata, the producing of tone from an instrument, plural cavatine) is a musical term, originally a short song of simple character, without a second strain or any repetition of... The chest register is generalized to be the range of vocal notes below middle C (C4). ... A report in The Etude of July 1931 on the Vienna Opera House banning claquing Claque (French for clapping) is, in its origin, a term which refers to an organized body of professional applauders in French theatres. ... Coloratura is an old word meaning colouring. ... A Comprimario is a secondary role in an opera or singing. ... Convenienze (literally, conveniences) were the rules relating to the ranking of singers (primo, secondo, comprimario) in 19th-century Italian opera, and the number of scenes, arias etc. ... Coup de glotte or shock of the glottis is a term used in the theory of singing technique to describe a particular method of emitting or opening a note by an abrupt physical mechanism of the glottis, or false vocal chords (membranes situated above the true vocal chords in the... The da capo aria was a musical form prevalent in the Baroque era. ... For other senses of this word, see diva (disambiguation). ... The German Fach (pl. ... Falsetto (Italian diminutive of falso, false) is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range, in the treble range. ... Fioritura is the name given to the flowery, embellished vocal line found in many arias from nineteenth-century opera. ... Look up Gesamtkunstwerk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The head register is generalized to be the range of vocal notes above middle C (C4). ... InterMezzo is a distributed file system written for Linux, distributed with a GPL licence. ... Kammersänger or Kammersängerin (or Ks. ... A leitmotif (pronounced ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ... Literaturoper (literature opera, plural Literaturopern) is opera with music composed for a pre-existing text, as opposed to an opera with a libretto written specifically for the work. ... The Mad Scene was a popular convention of Italian and French opera in the early decades of the nineteenth century. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... A Melodramma is an Italian term for opera which was used in the 19th century. ... A monodrama (also Solospiel in German; solo play) is a theatrical melodrama in which there is only one character. ... Messa di voce (Italian, placing the voice) is a musical technique that involves a gradual crescendo and decrescendo while sustaining a single pitch. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... Passaggio is a singing term used to describe the pitch range at which a singers voice breaks or switches over from ones chest voice (natural singing voice) to ones head voice or falsetto (generally for males). ... Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ... Look up Prima donna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The prompter in an opera house gives the singers the opening words of each phrase a few seconds early. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... Regietheater (in English, directors opera; more commonly producers opera) is a term that refers to the modern (essentially post-WWII) practice of allowing a director or producer such freedom in devising the way a given opera is staged that not only may the composers specific stage directions... Répétiteur (Fr. ... Sitzprobe is a term used in opera and musical theater to describe a seated rehearsal where the singers sing with the orchestra, focusing attention on integrating the two groups. ... Soprano C, sometimes called High C, is the C two octaves above Middle C It is named because it is considered the highest usable note of the soprano, particularly for choral singers (although some can go higher; Mozarts Der Hölle Rache, the Queen of the Night aria from... Spinto is a vocal term used to characterize a soprano or tenor voice of a weight between lyric and dramatic that is capable of handling large dramatic climaxes at moderate intervals. ... Sprechgesang and sprechstimme (German for spoken-song and spoken-voice) are musical terms used to refer to an expressionist vocal technique that falls between singing and speaking. ... Squillo (Italian for ring) is a resonant, trumpet-like ringing sound in voice of opera singers. ... Stagione (Italian season) is an organizational system for presenting opera, often used by large companies. ... Supertitles or SURTITLESTM (a registered trademark of the Canadian Opera Company[1]) are translated or transcribed lyrics projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera or other musical performances. ... Tenor C is the C one octave above Middle C. It is also known as C5. ... In music, tessitura (Italian: texture) is a range of pitches compared to the instrument for which it was intended to be used. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ...

  Results from FactBites:
libretto 100 (2850 words)
Apart from the Libretto 100 and 110, all other models only have a single Type II PCMCIA slot, which can mean a lot of swapping of cards when you want to use a LAN, then use a modem, then use the floppy disk drive (which is also a PCMCIA device).
The Libretto has a "hibernate" feature by which the contents of the RAM are saved to the hard disk, so that you can stop work, and then restore the previous machine state later and carry on.
When the Libretto senses that the battery is about to give out, the machine begins a steady bleeping sound, and the charging LED flashes.
Libretto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (464 words)
A libretto is the body of words used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, oratorio, or musical.
Others adapted the libretto from an existing play (as Alban Berg did with Georg Büchner's Woyzeck), or had this done for them, as with Francesco Maria Piave, who adapted works by Victor Hugo, the Duke of Rivas, and others.
Sometimes the libretto is an entirely original work, written in close collaboration with the composer, as with the libretti Hugo von Hofmannsthal wrote for Richard Strauss.
  More results at FactBites »



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