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Encyclopedia > Library of Alexandria
Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. 56 AD) which confirms that the Library of Alexandria must have existed in some form in the first century AD.
Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. 56 AD) which confirms that the Library of Alexandria must have existed in some form in the first century AD.

The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (602x700, 116 KB) Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Babillus of Rome (d. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (602x700, 116 KB) Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Babillus of Rome (d. ... Tiberius Claudius Balbilus was a Greek Freedman who was an astrologer in the reigns of the Emperors Claudius and Nero. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ...


It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt. The Library was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the Library complex, the temple of the Muses — the Museion, Greek Μουσείον (from which the modern English word museum is derived). The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... The original Musaeum or Temple of the Muses at ancient Alexandria was the source for the modern usage, which denoted in Early Modern France as much a community of scholars brought together under one roof as it did the collections themselves, which French and English writers referred to as a... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...


It has been reasonably established that the Library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive and time-consuming). To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2003 near the site of the old Library.[1] An interior view. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Library as a research institution

The Ancient Library of Alexandria

According to the earliest source of information, the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas, the Library was initially organized by Demetrius of Phaleron.[2] Demetrius was a student of Aristotle. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... The so-called Letter of Aristeas is a Hellenistic Jewish forgery or pseudepigrapha. ... Demetrius Phalereus ( - died approximately 280 BC) was an Athenian orator and one of the first Peripatetics. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Initially the Library was closely linked to a "museum," or research center, that seems to have focused primarily on editing texts. Libraries were important for textual research in the ancient world, since the same text often existed in several different versions of varying quality and veracity. The editors at the Library of Alexandria are especially well known for their work on Homeric texts. The more famous editors generally also held the title of head librarian, and included, among others,[3] Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...

The geographical diversity of the scholars suggests that the Library was in fact a major center for research and learning. In 2004, a Polish-Egyptian team found what they believe to be a part of the Library while excavating in the Bruchion region. The archaeologists unearthed thirteen "lecture halls", each with a central podium. Zahi Hawass, the president of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, said that all together, the rooms uncovered so far could have seated 5000 students;[4] the picture thus presented is most certainly of a fairly massive research institution, especially for that time. Zenodotus (Greek: ), Greek grammarian, literary critic, and scholar on Homer; first librarian of the Library of Alexandria; pupil of Philetas of Cos; a native of Ephesus. ... Aristophanes of Byzantium, Gr. ... Aristarchus of Samothrace, Gr. ... Didymus Chalcenterus (ca. ... This article is about grammar from a linguistic perspective. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ...


The Library likely encompassed several buildings, with the main book depositories either directly attached to or located close to the oldest building, the Museum, and a daughter library in the younger Serapeum, which was also a temple dedicated to the god Serapis. It is not always clear in the sources whether a phrase refers to a particular building, or to the institution as a whole. This has served to add to the confusion about when and by whom the Library was "destroyed." By the early 2nd century BC, Eumenes II of Mysia had founded a competing library and research center in Pergamum.[5] A Serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was palatable to the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria. ... Serapis can refer to: A series of British ships named HMS Serapis. ... Coin of Eumenes II Eumenes II of Pergamon (ruled 197 - 158 BC) was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty. ... Mysia. ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282...


Collection

A story concerns how its collection grew so large: by decree of Ptolemy III of Egypt, all visitors to the city were required to surrender all books and scrolls in their possession; these writings were then swiftly copied by official scribes. Sometimes the copies were so precise that the originals were put into the Library, and the copies were delivered to the unsuspecting previous owners.[6] This process also helped to create a reservoir of books in the relatively new city. The Ptolemies also purchased additional materials from throughout the Mediterranean area, including from Rhodes and Athens.[7] Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC). ...


The Library's collection was already famous in the ancient world, and became even more storied in later years. It is impossible, however, to determine how large the collection was in any era. The collection was made of papyrus scrolls. Later, parchment codices (predominant as a writing material after 300) may have been substituted for papyrus. A single piece of writing might occupy several scrolls, and this division into self-contained "books" was a major aspect of editorial work. King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309–246 BC) is said to have set 500,000 scrolls as an objective.[8] Mark Antony was supposed to have given Cleopatra over 200,000 scrolls for the Library as a wedding gift. These scrolls were taken from the great Library of Pergamum, impoverishing its collection. Carl Sagan, in his series Cosmos, states that the Library contained nearly one million scrolls, though other experts have estimated a smaller number. No index of the Library survives, and it is not possible to know with certainty how large and how diverse the collection was. It is likely, for example, that even if the Library had hundreds of thousands of scrolls (and thus, perhaps, tens of thousands of individual works), many of these were duplicate copies or alternate versions of the same texts. Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // Founded in the Hellenistic Age, Pergamum or Pergamom was an important ancient Greek city, located in Anatolia. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ...


Destruction of the Library

Ancient and modern sources identify four possible occasions for the destruction of the Library:

  1. Caesar's conquest 48 BC;
  2. The attack of Aurelian in the 3rd century;
  3. The decree of Theophilus in 391;
  4. The Muslim conquest in 642 or thereafter.

Each of these has been viewed with suspicion by other scholars as an effort to place the blame on particular actors. Moreover, each of these events is historically problematic. In the first case, there is clear evidence that the Library was not in fact destroyed at that time. The third episode is attested by no ancient authors, and was more or less "deduced" by Edward Gibbon from a single vague sentence written by Paul Orosius that did not refer to the Serapeum at all.[9] The fourth episode was not documented by any contemporary source, although some maintain that the final destruction of the Library took place at this time.[10] Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...


Caesar's conquest 48 BC

Plutarch's Lives, written at the end of the first or beginning of the second century, describes a battle in which Caesar was forced to burn his own ships, which in turn set fire to the docks and then the Library, destroying it.[11] This would have occurred in 48 BC, during the fighting between Caesar and Ptolemy XIII; Ammianus Marcellinus may be an independent witness to this fact (see below). Only 25 years later Strabo saw the Library and worked in it; however, Plutarch also explains this. During Marcus Antonius' rule of the eastern part of the Empire, he plundered the second largest library in the world (that at Pergamon)and presented the collection as a gift to Kleopatra as a replacement for the loss of the original Museum library. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


Attack of Aurelian, 3rd century

The Library seems to have been maintained and continued in existence until its contents were largely lost during the taking of the city by the Emperor Aurelian (270–275), who was suppressing a revolt by Queen Zenobia of Palmyra.[12] The smaller library located at the Serapeum survived, but part of its contents may have been taken to Constantinople to adorn the new capital in the course of the 4th century. However, Ammianus Marcellinus, writing around 378 AD seems to speak of the library in the Serapeum temple as a thing of the past, and he states that many of the Serapeum library's volumes were burnt when Caesar sacked Alexandria. As he says in Book 22.16.12-13: Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... This article is about the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire. ... A general view of the site Palmyra was in the ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 120 km southwest of the Euphrates. ... Map of Constantinople. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


"Besides this there are many lofty temples, and especially one to Serapis, which, although no words can adequately describe it, we may yet say, from its splendid halls supported by pillars, and its beautiful statues and other embellishments, is so superbly decorated, that next to the Capitol, of which the ever-venerable Rome boasts, the whole world has nothing worthier of admiration. In it were libraries of inestimable value; and the concurrent testimony of ancient records affirm that 70,000 volumes, which had been collected by the anxious care of the Ptolemies, were burnt in the Alexandrian war when the city was sacked in the time of Caesar the Dictator."

5th century scroll which illustrates the destruction of the Serapeum by Theophilus
5th century scroll which illustrates the destruction of the Serapeum by Theophilus

While Ammianus Marcellinus may be simply reiterating Plutarch's tradition about Caesar's destruction of the library, it is possible that his statement reflects his own empirical knowledge that the Serapeum library collection had either been seriously depleted or was no longer in existence in his own day. Download high resolution version (434x646, 53 KB)Theophilus and the Serapeum. ... Download high resolution version (434x646, 53 KB)Theophilus and the Serapeum. ...


Decree of Theophilus in 391

In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria complied with this request[13]. Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ...


Socrates Scholasticus provides the following account of the destruction of the temples in Alexandria in the fifth book of his Historia Ecclesiastica, written around 440: Socrates Scholasticus was a Greek Christian church historian; born at Constantinople c. ...

At the solicitation of Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, the Emperor issued an order at this time for the demolition of the heathen temples in that city; commanding also that it should be put in execution under the direction of Theophilus. Seizing this opportunity, Theophilus exerted himself to the utmost to expose the pagan mysteries to contempt. And to begin with, he caused the Mithreum to be cleaned out, and exhibited to public view the tokens of its bloody mysteries. Then he destroyed the Serapeum, and the bloody rites of the Mithreum he publicly caricatured; the Serapeum also he showed full of extravagant superstitions, and he had the phalli of Priapus carried through the midst of the forum. Thus this disturbance having been terminated, the governor of Alexandria, and the commander-in-chief of the troops in Egypt, assisted Theophilus in demolishing the heathen temples.

The Serapeum once housed part of the Library, but it is not known how many, if any, books were contained in it at the time of destruction. Notably, the passage by Socrates Scholasticus, unlike that of Ammianus Marcellinus, makes no clear reference to a library or library contents being destroyed, only to religious objects being destroyed. The pagan author Eunapius of Sardis witnessed the demolition, and though he detested Christians, and was a scholar, his account of the Serapeum's destruction makes no mention of any library. In short, there is simply no evidence whatsoever to support the contention that Christians destroyed the Library. Paulus Orosius admitted in the sixth book of his History against the pagans: "Today there exist in temples book chests which we ourselves have seen, and, when these temples were plundered, these, we are told, were emptied by our own men in our time, which, indeed, is a true statement." But Orosius is not here discussing the Serapeum, nor is it clear who "our own men" are (the phrase may mean no more than "men of our time," since we know from contemporary sources that pagans also occasionally plundered temples). Bronze sculpture of Priapus making an offering to his phallus, House of the Vettii, Pompeii Fresco of Priapus, House of the Vettii, Pompeii. ... A Serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was palatable to the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ...


As for the Museum, Mostafa El-Abbadi writes in Life and Fate of the ancient Library of Alexandria (Paris 1992):

The Mouseion, being at the same time a 'shrine of the Muses', enjoyed a degree of sanctity as long as other pagan temples remained unmolested. Synesius of Cyrene, who studied under Hypatia at the end of the fourth century, saw the Mouseion and described the images of the philosophers in it. We have no later reference to its existence in the fifth century. As Theon, the distinguished mathematician and father of Hypatia, herself a renowned scholar, was the last recorded scholar-member (c. 380), it is likely that the Mouseion did not long survive the promulgation of Theodosius' decree in 391 to destroy all pagan temples in the City.

John Julius Norwich's "Byzantium: The Early Centuries" places the destruction of the library's collection during the anti-Arian riots in Alexandria that transpired after the imperial decree of 391 (p314). Synesius (c. ... An imagined portrait of Hypatia of Alexandria Hypatia of Alexandria (Greek: Υπατία; born between 350 and 370 AD – 415 AD) was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, the first notable woman in mathematics, and also taught in the fields of astronomy and astrology. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... Arian may refer to: Arian, being well endowed. ...


Carl Sagan alleges in his book and series Cosmos that the Serapeum may have been destroyed at the same time as the murder of the Greek philosopher Hypatia by a Christian mob in 415 (or soon thereafter), but this popularized 'factoid' is no doubt is own misunderstanding. Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... A Serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was palatable to the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria. ...


Muslim conquest in 642

The tale of the Muslim destruction of the Library comes from several small Alexandrian historians, writing several hundred years later. The legend has it that the caliph Umar posed to commander Amr ibn al 'Ass the following dilemma: "Touching the books you mention, if what is written in them agrees with the Book of God, they are not required; if it disagrees, they are not desired. Destroy them therefore." [14] The tale goes on to say that the books fueled the city's bath-houses for the next six months. Since the 18th century, this story has been universally regarded as a fiction. Normally it has been put down to Christian crusader propaganda, but recently some historians, including Bernard Lewis, have argued that although the tale is certainly false, its true origin may be more complex.[15][16] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... Look up Dilemma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the Nelly song, see Dilemma (song). ... Prof. ...


Conclusion

Although the actual circumstances and timing of the physical destruction of the Library remain uncertain, it is however clear that by the 8th century, the Library was no longer a significant institution and had ceased to function in any important capacity. Alexandria was not a major research center for the Islamic world. Moreover, if the collection had survived to the early 700s, it would very likely have been incorporated into the library of the Al-Azhar mosque (and later university) in Cairo. This collection has come down to the present intact, but does not include Alexandrine texts.[17] Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ...


See also

An interior view. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Bibliotheca Alexandrina website.
  2. ^ Letter of Aristeas 9–12.
  3. ^ Whibley, Leonard; A Companion to Greek Studies 1916 pp. 122–123.
  4. ^ Whitehouse, David, "[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3707641.stm Library of Alexandria Discovered," BBC News.
  5. ^ Whibley, Leonard; A Companion to Greek Studies 1916 pp. 123
  6. ^ James Burke related this story in an episode of Connections.
  7. ^ Erksine, Andrew. 1995. Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Museum and Library of Alexandria. Greece & Rome, 2nd ser., 42(1), 38-48.
  8. ^ Tarn, W.W. 1928. Ptolemy II. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 14(3/4), 246-260.
  9. ^ Gibbon's account, based on various sources, including Orosius.
  10. ^ Lionel Casson, Libraries in the Ancient World (Yale University Press, 2001) and Luciano Canfora, The Vanished Library (University of California Press, 1989).
  11. ^ Plutarch, Life of Caesar 49.3.
  12. ^ "What happened to the great Library of Alexandria," The Straight Dope, 6 December 2005.
  13. ^ Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch. 28.
  14. ^ from Alfred J. Butler's Arab Conquest of Egypt, cited here.
  15. ^ 'Abd al-Latif (1203): "the library which 'Amr ibn al-'As burnt with the permission of 'Umar."
  16. ^ Bernard Lewis article, review of the arguments, older article on Amr-ibn-el-Ass, and libraries.
  17. ^ Al-Azhar website, [1].

James Burke James Burke (born November 22, 1936) is a British science historian, author and television producer best known for his documentary television series called Connections, focusing on the history of science and technology leavened with a sense of humour. ... James Burke, the creator and host of Connections, explains the Haber-Bosch Process Connections was a ten-episode documentary television series created and narrated by science historian James Burke. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Abd al-Latif (d. ...

References

  • Alexander Stille: The Future of the Past (chapter: "The Return of the Vanished Library"). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. 246-273.
  • Uwe Jochum, "The Alexandrian Library and its aftermath" from Library History vol), pp 5-12.
  • Edward Parsons: The Alexandrian Library. London, 1952. Relevant online excerpt.
  • Edward Gibbon: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (chapter: "Destruction of Paganism", "The temple of Serapis at Alexandria" and "Its final destruction, A.D. 389" subchapters)
  • Ellen Brundige: The Decline of the Library and Museum of Alexandria, December 10, 1991
  • Canfora, Luciano (trans. Martin Ryle) (1989). The Vanished Library. A Wonder of the Ancient World. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN. 
  • El-Abbadi, Mostafa (1992). Life and fate of the ancient Library of Alexandria, 2nd edition, Paris: UNESCO. ISBN. 
  • Macleod, Roy, editor (2nd ed.). The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning in the Ancient World. London and New york: I.B. Tauris. ISBN. 
  • Orosius, Paulus (trans. Roy J. Deferrari) (1964). The seven books of history against the pagans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America. (No ISBN). 
  • Macleod, Roy, editor (2nd ed.). The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning in the Ancient World. I. B. Tauris. ISBN. 

Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...

External links

Coordinates: 31°12′32″N, 29°54′33″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Library of Alexandria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1647 words)
The smaller library located at the Serapeum survived, but part of its contents may been taken off to Constantinople to adorn the new capital in the course of the 4th century and more of the collection may have been destroyed, when the Serapeum was razed in the year 390.
The Library's contents were likely distributed over several buildings, with the main library either located directly attached to or close to the oldest building, the Museum, and a daughter library in the younger Serapeum, also a temple dedicated to the god Serapis.
Ellen Brundige: The Decline of the Library and Museum of Alexandria, December 10, 1991
Alexandrian Scholarship (2813 words)
While it is doubtful the library had a perfectly systematic organization, but rather tended to house new chests and shelves of papyri in the groups in which they were acquired, the Alexandrians from Callimachus onwards tried to keep track of their holdings via a subject catalog.
For Alexandria, whose lifeblood was export of grain and papyrus to the rest of the Mediterranean, developments in astronomy allowed sailors to do away with consultation of oracles, and to risk year-round navigation out of sight of the coast.
Alexandria and its cousins, the Lyceum, Academy, and the younger Pergamon library, were probably the prototypes both for the medieval monastery and universities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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