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Encyclopedia > Library Science

Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. Historically, library science has also included Archival science. "The distinction between a library and an archive is relatively modern"[1]. This includes how information resources are organized to serve the needs of select user groups, how people interact with classification systems and technology, how information is acquired, evaluated and applied by people in and outside of libraries as well as cross-culturally, how people are trained and educated for careers in libraries, the ethics that guide library service and organization, the legal status of libraries and information resources, and the applied science of computer technology used in documentation and records management. Academic courses in library science typically include Collection management, Information Systems and Technology, Cataloging and classification, Preservation, Reference, Statistics and Management. Library science is constantly evolving, incorporating new topics like Database Management, Information Architecture and Knowledge Management, for example. Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Archival science is the study of the safe storage, cataloguing and retrieval of documents and items. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ēthikos, the adjective of ēthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, including genetics is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... The tower of a personal computer (specifically a Power Mac G5). ... In general terms, documentation is any communicable material (such as text, video, audio, etc. ... Records Management is the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying records. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... The card catalog at Yale Universitys Sterling Memorial Library goes almost completely unused, but adds to the austere atmosphere. ... Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... A graph of a Normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... Look up Management in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A database management system (DBMS) is computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Knowledge Management comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning. ...


There is no generally agreed distinction between library science, library and information science, and librarianship. To a certain extent they can be considered equivalent terms, perhaps adopted to increase the "science" aspect, or improve the popular image of librarians.


The term library and information science (LIS) is sometimes used; most librarians consider it as only a terminological variation, intended to emphasize the scientific and technical foundations of the subject, and its relationship with information science. LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information, or information science, a field related to computer science and cognitive science. A bundle of optical fiber. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... Computer scaence, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


One operational view, implied[citation needed] by some textbooks, is that librarianship means the professional aspects of work as a librarian, such as certification, in-service training, and issues of gender equality. The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ...

Contents

History

Library and information science, it may be argued, began with the first effort to organize a collection of information and provide access to that information.


Early history

At Ugarit in Syria excavations have revealed a palace library, temple library, and two private libraries which date back to around 1200 BCE, containing diplomatic texts as well as poetry and other literary forms. In the 7th century, King Ashurbanipal of Assyria assembled what is considered "the first systematically collected library" at Nineveh; previous collections functioned more as passive archives. The legendary Library of Alexandria is perhaps the best known example of an early library, flourishing in the 3rd century BC and possibly inspired by Demetrius Phalereus. The libraries of Ugarit (in modern Syria), ca 1200 BC, include diplomatic archives, literary works and the earliest privately-owned libraries yet recovered. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... For alternate uses see: Archive (disambiguation). ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Demetrius Phalereus ( - died approximately 280 BC) was an Athenian orator and one of the first Peripatetics. ...


Ancient information retrieval

One of the curators of the imperial library in the Han Dynasty is believed to have been the first to establish a library classification system and the first book notation system. At this time the library catalog was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. ... The card catalog at Yale Universitys Sterling Memorial Library goes almost completely unused, but adds to the austere atmosphere. ...


Jefferson's method

Thomas Jefferson, whose library at Monticello consisted of thousands of books, devised a classification system inspired by the Baconian method which grouped books more or less by subject rather than alphabetically, as it was previously done. Jefferson's collection became the nucleus of the first national collection of the United States when it was transferred to Congress after a fire destroyed the Congressional Library during the War of 1812. The Jefferson collection was the start of what we now know as the Library of Congress. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. ... The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Francis Bacon. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other...


20th century

The term "library science" first appeared in the early 1930's, in the title of S. R. Ranganathan's The Five Laws of Library Science, published in 1931, and in the title of Lee Pierce Butler's 1933 book, An introduction to library science (University of Chicago Press). Butler's new approach advocated research using quantitative methods and ideas in the social sciences with the aim of using librarianship to address society's information needs. This research agenda went against the more procedure-based approach of "library economy," which was mostly confined to practical problems in the administration of libraries. While Ranganathan's approach was philosophical it was tied more to the day-to-day business of running a library. Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (August 9, 1892, Shiyali, Tamil Nadu - September 27, 1972, Bangalore) was an innovative mathematician and librarian from India. ... Lee Pierce Butler (1884-1953) was a professor at the Graduate Library School of the University of Chicago. ... Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In more recent years, with the growth of digital technology, the field has been greatly influenced by information science concepts. Although a basic understanding is critical to both library research and practical work, the area of information science has remained largely distinct both in training and in research interests.


Training in librarianship

Most professional library jobs require a professional post-baccalaureate degree in library science, or one of its equivalent terms, library and information science as a basic credential . In the United States and Canada the certification usually comes from a Master's degree granted by an ALA -accredited institution, so even non-scholarly librarians have an originally academic background. In the United Kingdom, however, there have been moves to broaden the entry requirements to professional library posts, such that qualifications in, or experience of, a number of other disciplines have become more acceptable. For the main discussion of this topic, see Education for librarianship A bachelors degree (Artium Baccalaureus, A.B. or B.A.) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ... Education for librarianship is the term for the educational preparation for professional librarians. ...


Subdisciplines

Subdisciplines of library science include the study of:

  • Human Information Behaviors (information-seeking, search strategies, and use)
  • Knowledge Organization (which includes bibliographies, cataloging, classification, indexing & abstracting, metadata, semantic & syntactic analysis (controlled vocabularies, etc.))
  • Digital libraries
  • Collection development
  • Preservation
  • Public reference and other services
  • Scholarly communication (includes bibliometrics, informetrics, scientometrics, webmetrics)

A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. ...

Types of library science professionals

The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... An archivist surveying an unprocessed collection of materials. ... The card catalog at Yale Universitys Sterling Memorial Library goes almost completely unused, but adds to the austere atmosphere. ... A curator of a cultural heritage institution (e. ... Look up Index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Information Architecture (IA) is the art and science of structuring knowledge (technically data), and defining user interactions (also see use case). ... Information Broker An Information Broker is someone who buys and sells information based on the needs of a client. ... The simplest definition of metadata is that it is data about data. ... The simplest definition of metadata is that it is data about data. ... Preservation administrators are librarians who are trained in the management of preservation in libraries and archives. ... A Conservator (From Latin conservare) is a judge delegated by the pope to defend certain privileged classes of persons — as universities, religious orders, chapters, the poor — from manifest or notorious injury or violence, without recourse to a judicial process. ...

Librarians in different types of libraries

Public

The study of librarianship for public libraries covers issues such as cataloging, collection development for a diverse community, information literacy, community standards, public services-focused librarianship, serving a diverse community of adults, children, and teens, Intellectual freedom, Censorship and legal and budgeting issues. Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ... Library Collection Development is the process of planning and acquiring a balanced collection of library materials of many formats, including books, periodicals, online resources, and other media. ... Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. ... Intellectual Freedom is a human right. ... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ...


School

The study of school librarianship covers library services for children in schools up until (but not including) university. In some regions, the local government may have stricter standards for the education and certification of school librarians (who are often considered a special case of teacher), than for other librarians, and the educational program will include those local standards. School librarianship may also include issues of intellectual freedom; pedagogy; and how to build a cooperative curriculum with the teaching staff. Students in Rome, Italy. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Intellectual Freedom is a human right. ... Pedagogy, the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek παιδαγωγέω (paidagōgeō; from παῖς (child) and ἄγω (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, παιδαγωγός was (usually) a slave who supervised the education... Curriculum has many different conceptions. ...


Academic

The study of academic librarianship covers library services for colleges and universities. Issues of special importance to the field may include copyright; technology, digital libraries, and digital repositories; academic freedom; open access to scholarly works; as well as specialized knowledge of subject areas important to the institution and the relevant reference works. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ... A digital library is, like a traditional library, a collection of books and reference materials. ... Academic freedom is the freedom of teachers, students, and academic institutions to pursue knowledge wherever it may lead, without undue or unreasonable interference. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled for ease of reference. ...


Some academic librarians are considered faculty, and hold similar academic ranks as professors, while others are not. In either case, the minimal qualification is a Master's degree in Library Studies or Library Science, and, in some cases, a Master's degree in another field. A faculty is a division within a university. ...


Archives

The study of archives covers the training of archivists, librarians specially trained to maintain and build archives of records intended for historical preservation. Special issues include physical preservation of materials and mass deacidification; specialist catalogs; solo work; access; and appraisal. Many archivists are also trained historians specializing in the period covered by the archive. An archivist surveying an unprocessed collection of materials. ... For alternate uses see: Archive (disambiguation). ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... Title page to Historians History Of The World. ... Look up preservation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mass deacidification is a term used in Library and Information Science for one possible measure against the degradation of paper in old books (the so-called slow fires). One technique proposed was to place books in an evacuated chamber, then introduce diethyl zinc (DEZ). ...


Special

Special librarians include almost any other form of librarianship, including those who serve in medical libraries (and hospitals or medical schools), corporations, news agency libraries, or other special collections. The issues at these libraries will be specific to the industries they inhabit, but may include solo work; corporate financing; specialized collection development; and extensive self-promotion to potential patrons. A hospital today is an institution for professional health care provided by physicians and nurses. ... Medical school generally refers to a tertiary educational institution (or part of such an institution) which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners (medical doctors). ... A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects. ...


Preservation

Main article: Preservation: Library and Archival Science

Preservation librarians most often work in academic libraries. Their focus is on the management of preservation activities that seek to maintain access to content within books, manuscripts, archival materials, and other library resources. Examples of activities managed by preservation librarians include binding, conservation, digital and analog reformatting, digital preservation, and environmental monitoring. It has been suggested that Digital obsolescence be merged into this article or section. ...


Theory and practice

Many practicing librarians do not contribute to LIS scholarship but focus on daily operations of their own library systems. Other practicing librarians, particularly in academic libraries, do perform original scholarly LIS research and contribute to the academic end of the field. This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ...


On this basis, it has sometimes been proposed that LIS is distinct from librarianship, in a way analogous to the difference between medicine and doctoring. In this view, librarianship, the application of library science, would comprise the practical services rendered by librarians in their day-to-day attempts to meet the needs of library patrons.[citation needed] The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ...


Other uses of these terms do not make the distinction and treat them as synonyms.[citation needed]


Powell's widely used introductory textbook does not make a formal distinction, but its bibliography uses the word librarianship as the heading for articles about the library profession.


Current issues in LIS

Education for librarianship is the term for the educational preparation for professional librarians. ... The Childrens Internet Protection Act, also known as CIPA, is one of a number of bills that the United States Congress has proposed in an attempt to limit childrens exposure to pornography and other controversial material online. ... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... In Library and Information Science, information explosion is a term used for the ever increasing rate of publication. ... Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Intellectual Freedom is a human right. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A Public Lending Right program is one which pays authors for having works in public libraries. ... Slow fires is a term from library and information science used to describe the self-destruction of acid paper. ... The term serials crisis has become common shorthand for the runaway cost increases of many scholarly journals. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Harris, Michael H. History of Libraries in the Western World. 4th ed. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow, 1995. 3

See also

Library science or library and information science (abbreviated LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... Archival science is the study of the safe storage, cataloguing and retrieval of documents and items. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... // International Association of Christian Librarians Website International Association of Law Libraries Website International Association of Music Libraries Website International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres Website International Association of School Librarianship Website International Association of Technological University Libraries Website International Council on Archives Website International Federation of Library... // Africa University of Natal University of South Africa Asia Universiti Teknologi Mara Faculty of Information Management University of Hong Kong, Master of Science in Library and Information Management (MSc[LIM]) Chiang Mai University Chonnam National University Chulalongkorn University Wuhan University Peking University Sun Yat-sen University Nanjing University Nankai University... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ...

External links

History

Library related wikis


  Results from FactBites:
 
Library Science Colleges India, Library Services, Library Management, India Library Science Courses, Library ... (154 words)
Library science or Library Information Science is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.
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Library science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (843 words)
Library science or library and information science (abbreviated LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.
The term "library science" first appeared in the early 1930's, in the title of S.
The study of librarianship for public libraries covers issues such as cataloging, collection development for a diverse community, information literacy, community standards, public services-focused librarianship, serving a diverse community of adults, children, and teens, Intellectual freedom, Censorship and legal and budgeting issues.
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