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Encyclopedia > Libra (constellation)
Libra
Libra
Click for larger image
List of stars in Libra
Abbreviation: Lib
Genitive: Librae
Symbology: the Balance
Right ascension: 15 h
Declination: −15°
Area: 538 sq. deg. (29th)
Main stars: 4, 6
Bayer/Flamsteed stars: 44
Stars with planets: 3
Bright stars: 2
Nearby stars: 2
Brightest star: Zubeneschamali (β Lib) (2.6m)
Nearest star: HD 131977 (19.3 ly)
Messier objects: 0
Meteor showers: May Librids
Bordering constellations: Serpens Caput
Virgo
Hydra
Centaurus (corner)
Lupus
Scorpius
Ophiuchus
Visible at latitudes between +65° and −90°
Best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of June

Libra (IPA: /ˈliːbrə/, Latin: balance, symbol , Unicode ) is a constellation of the zodiac. It is a fairly inconspicuous constellation and has no star of first magnitude, lying between Virgo to the west and Scorpius to the east. As the names of the brighter stars testify, it was at one point part of Scorpius' claws. This is a celestial map of the constellation Libra, the Scales. ... This is the list of notable stars in the constellation Libra, sorted by decreasing brightness. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... For meanings of the word balance, see: Look up balance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... Here is a list of the 88 modern constellations by their area in the sky, measured in square degrees. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Flamsteed designations for stars are similar to Bayer designations, except that they use numbers instead of Greek letters. ... Zubeneschamali is the common name for the star designated β Librae. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... A light-year or lightyear (symbol: ly) is a unit of measurement of length, specifically the distance light travels in vacuum in one year. ... The Messier objects are a set of astronomical objects catalogued by Charles Messier in his catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters first published in 1774. ... The Taurids Meteor Shower A meteor shower, some of which are known as a meteor storm or meteor outburst, is a celestial event where a group of meteors are observed to radiate from one point in the sky. ... Serpens (the snake) is one of the 88 modern constellations, and was also one of the 48 listed by Ptolemy. ... Virgo (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is a constellation of the zodiac. ... Hydra (IPA: ) is the largest of the 88 modern constellations, and was also one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy. ... Centaurus (Latin for centaur) was one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, and counts also among the 88 modern constellations. ... Lupus (Latin for Wolf) is a southern constellation. ... Scorpius (Latin for scorpion, symbol , Unicode ♏) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Ophiuchus (IPA: ), formerly referred to as Serpentarius (IPA: ), the former originating in the Greek language and the latter in the Latin language, both meaning serpent-holder, is one of the 88 constellations and was also one of the 48 listed by Ptolemy. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Digital kitchen scales. ... Image File history File links Libra. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... Virgo (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is a constellation of the zodiac. ... Scorpius (Latin for scorpion, symbol , Unicode ♏) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ...

Contents

Notable features

The brightest stars in Libra form a rectangle:

α and β Librae are the scales' balance beam, and γ and σ are the weighing pans. Alpha Librae (α Lib / α Librae) is the second brightest star in the constellation Libra (despite its Bayer designation as alpha). It also has the traditional name Zubenelgenubi. ... A visual binary star is a binary star for which the angular separation between the two components is great enough to permit them to be observed as a double star in a telescope. ... Beta Librae (β Lib / β Librae) is the brightest star in the constellation Libra. ... Zuben-el-Akrab (arab. ... Brachium is the name of the star sigma Librae. ...


σ Librae was formerly known as γ Scorpii despite being well inside the boundaries of Libra. It was not redesignated as σ Librae until 1851 (by Benjamin A. Gould). 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section should be merged with Benjamin Apthorp Gould Benjamin Apthorp Gould (September 27, 1824 – November 26, 1896) was an American astronomer. ...


Notable deep sky objects

Libra contains many deep star objects and galaxies of note. Of them are NGC 5792, NGC 5885, NGC 5812, NGC 5878, NGC 5728, and NGC 5897. STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... This article is about a celestial body. ...


Mythology

The constellation, which had originally formed part of the claws of the scorpion (Scorpio), is the youngest of the Zodiac and the only one not to represent a living creature. In later Greek mythology, the constellation, which when considered on its own looks vaguely like a set of scales, was considered to depict the scales held by Astraea (identified as Virgo), the goddess of justice. Scorpius (Latin for scorpion, symbol , Unicode ♏) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, Astraea (star-maiden) was a daughter of Zeus and Themis or of Eos and Astraeus. ... Virgo (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is a constellation of the zodiac. ...


Since Libra was originally part of Virgo (as scales), and before that part of Scorpio, it was not a distinct entity for which a zodiac sign was named. Its place may have been taken by Boötes, which is the nearest to the ecliptic. Since the place Boötes should have held on the ecliptic is vacant, it may have, together with Ursa Major, Draco, and Ursa Minor, also in Libra, led to the myth of the apples of the Hesperides, one of The Twelve Labours of Herakles. The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... Boötes (IPA: ), a name deriving from Egypt, is one of the 88 modern constellations and was also one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... Ursa Major (IPA: ) is a constellation visible throughout the year in most of the northern hemisphere. ... Draco (IPA: , Latin: ) is a far northern constellation that is circumpolar for many northern hemisphere observers. ... Ursa Minor (IPA: ) is a constellation in the northern sky, the name of which means Smaller Bear in Latin. ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... Hercules and the Hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours (Greek: dodekathlos) of Heracles (Latin: Hercules) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes. ... For the son of Alexander the Great, see Heracles (Macedon). ...


Astrology

Main article: Libra (astrology)

The Western astrological sign Libra of the tropical zodiac (September 23October 22) differs from the astronomical constellation and the Hindu astrological sign of the sidereal zodiac (October 31November 22). Spirit of Libra Libra is an astrological sign, which is associated with the constellation Libra, as can be seen here[1] in the Southern Hemisphere near Scorpius and Virgo. ... In astrology, the Signs of the Zodiac represent twelve equal segments or divisions of the zodiac. ... The tropical zodiac is a zodiac based upon tropical time, or the apparent motion of the Sun across the sky over the course of a year. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sidereal astrology is the system of astrology used by some western and all Jyotish astrologers which bases their interpretation around the use of the sidereal zodiac. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In some cosmologies, Libra is associated with the classical element Air, and thus called an Air Sign (with Aquarius and Gemini). It is also one of the four cardinal signs (along with Aries, Cancer, and Capricorn). Librans are the diplomats of the Zodiac. Their polar opposite is Aries. It is the domicile of Venus and the exaltation of Saturn. Each astrological sign is assigned a part of the body, viewed as the seat of its power. Libra rules the lower back and kidneys. The symbol for Libra is the Scales, making it the only sign of this zodiac whose symbol is not a living creature. Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand “The Four Elements” redirects here. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand According to modern science, Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of... In astrology, an air sign refers to any of the three signs Gemini, Libra and Aquarius. ... {{ZodiacSign| name= Aquarius| image= Aquarius. ... Gemini the twin(s) Gemini is an astrological sign, which is associated with the constellation Gemini. ... In astrology, a cardinal sign (also called by older astrologers a moveable sign) is a sign of the zodiac that initiates a change of temperate zone season when the Sun makes its annual passage into them. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Capricorn is an astrological sign, which is associated with the constellation Capricornus. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... In astrology, a planets domicile (or less commonly house, not to be confused with the astrological house system) is the zodiac sign over which it has rulership. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... In astrology, exaltation is the second strongest essential dignity of a planet, after the rulership or domicile. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... For meanings of the word balance, see: Look up balance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Graphic visualization

Diagram of a fuller way to connect the stars of the constellation Libra: showing the two plates and the beam of the balance.

The stars in the constellation Libra can be connected more fully, graphically showing a balance. Image File history File links Libra_constellation_map_visualization. ... Image File history File links Libra_constellation_map_visualization. ... Digital kitchen scales. ...


The star beta Librae, of third magnitude, represents the top of the balance. The stars gamma Librae and alpha Librae represent the balance beam: alpha Librae being of third magnitude as well. Beta Librae (β Lib / β Librae) is the brightest star in the constellation Libra. ... Zuben-el-Akrab (arab. ... Alpha Librae (α Lib / α Librae) is the second brightest star in the constellation Libra (despite its Bayer designation as alpha). It also has the traditional name Zubenelgenubi. ...


The stars upsilon Librae and tau Librae represent the left plate of the balance, whereas the star sigma Librae represents the right plate of the balance. All three of these stars are of the third magnitude. Upsilon Librae (Ï… Lib / Ï… Librae) is a Class K3, fourth-magnitude star in the constellation Libra. ... Tau Librae (Ï„ Lib / Ï„ Librae) is a Class B2. ... Brachium is the name of the star sigma Librae. ...


History

"Scorpion's claws" is zubānā in Arabic and zibanitu in Akkadian. In ancient Mesopotamia, a weighing scale was often the arm and the pans without a stand, and to use it was hung up by a string tied to the midpoint of the arm. A resulting fancied resemblance to a scorpion hung up by the end of its tail resulted in the Akkadian word zibanitu also being used to mean "weighing scale". The constellation was refigured by taking the other meaning of zibanitu. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... Digital kitchen scales. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ...


Planetary System

Recently, Gliese 581 c, the first Earth-like extrasolar planet to be found within its parent star's habitable zone, has been found in orbit around the star Gliese 581 in the constellation Libra, raising the question of whether it has life[1]. Gliese 581 is not a visible part of any constellation. Gliese 581 c (IPA: ) is a super-earth extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... In astronomy a habitable zone (HZ) is a region of space where conditions are favorable for life, as it can be found on earth. ... Gliese 581 is an M2. ... “Green people” redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/070424_hab_exoplanet.html
  • H. A. Rey, The Stars — A New Way To See Them. Enlarged World-Wide Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1997. ISBN 0-395-24830-2.
  • Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion (2007). Collins Stars and Planets Guide, HarperCollins, London. ISBN 978-0007251209.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Libra
  • The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations: Libra
  • Libra constellation


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Astronomy | Constellations of the Zodiac | Astrology A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...

Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces
The 88 modern Constellations
Andromeda • Antlia • Apus • Aquarius • Aquila • Ara • Aries • Auriga • Boötes • Caelum • Camelopardalis • Cancer • Canes Venatici • Canis Major • Canis Minor • Capricornus • Carina • Cassiopeia • Centaurus • Cepheus • Cetus • Chamaeleon • Circinus • Columba • Coma Berenices • Corona Australis • Corona Borealis • Corvus • Crater • Crux • Cygnus • Delphinus • Dorado • Draco • Equuleus • Eridanus • Fornax • Gemini • Grus • Hercules • Horologium • Hydra • Hydrus • Indus • Lacerta • Leo • Leo Minor • Lepus • Libra • Lupus • Lynx • Lyra • Mensa • Microscopium • Monoceros • Musca • Norma • Octans • Ophiuchus • Orion • Pavo • Pegasus • Perseus • Phoenix • Pictor • Pisces • Piscis Austrinus • Puppis • Pyxis • Reticulum • Sagitta • Sagittarius • Scorpius • Sculptor • Scutum • Serpens • Sextans • Taurus • Telescopium • Triangulum • Triangulum Australe • Tucana • Ursa Major • Ursa Minor • Vela • Virgo • Volans • Vulpecula

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