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Encyclopedia > Libido
Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

Constructs
Psychosexual development
Psychosocial development
ConsciousPreconsciousUnconscious
Psychic apparatus
Id, ego, and super-ego
LibidoDrive
TransferenceSublimationResistance Look up libido in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. ... // Psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson describes eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of ego and id, see EGO and ID. Id, ego, and superego are the three components of the human mind in the psychoanalytic model introduced by Sigmund Freud in the early 20th century. ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... For other uses, see Sublimation. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Important figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
Alfred AdlerOtto Rank
Anna FreudMargaret Mahler
Karen HorneyJacques Lacan
Ronald FairbairnMelanie Klein
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erik EriksonNancy Chodorow
Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Ernest JonesHeinz Kohut
Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Jung redirects here. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Anna Freud and Sadie Burkard (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Julia. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York – January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was a U.S. psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Susan Sutherland Isaacs (née Fairhurst) (1885–1948) was an educational psychologist and psychoanalyst from the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
Civilization and Its Discontents A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. ...


Schools of thought
Self psychologyLacanian
Analytical psychologyObject relations
InterpersonalRelational
Ego psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) refers to the school of psychology originating from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, and then advanced by his students and other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

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Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal development or individuation. Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... Jung redirects here. ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ...

Contents

History of the concept

Sigmund Freud popularized the term and defined libido as the instinct energy or force, contained in what Freud called the id, the largely unconscious structure of the psyche. Freud pointed out that these libidinal drives can conflict with the conventions of civilized behavior, represented in the psyche by the superego. It is this need to conform to society and control the libido that leads to tension and disturbance in the individual, prompting the use of ego defenses to dissipate the psychic energy of these unmet and mostly unconscious needs into other forms. Excessive use of ego defenses results in neurosis. A primary goal of psychoanalysis is to bring the drives of the id into consciousness, allowing them to be met directly and thus reducing the patient's reliance on ego defenses.[1] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... In his theory of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud sought to explain how the unconscious mind operates by proposing that it has a particular structure. ... Psyche can refer to: In psychology and related fields, the psyche is the entirety of the non-physical aspects of a person. ... In his theory of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud sought to explain how the unconscious mind operates by proposing that it has a particular structure. ... Neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a catch all term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


According to Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung, the libido is identified as psychic energy. Duality (opposition) that creates the energy (or libido) of the psyche, which Jung asserts expresses itself only through symbols: "It is the energy that manifests itself in the life process and is perceived subjectively as striving and desire." (Ellenberger, 697) Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Defined more narrowly, libido also refers to an individual's urge to engage in sexual activity. In this sense, the antonym of libido is destrudo. Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Look up Antonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Destrudo is the energy of the destructive impulse. ...


Libido impairment

Sometimes sexual desire can be impaired or reduced. It also may be weak or not be present at all, in occurrences such as asexuality. Factors of reduced libido can be both psychological and physical. Absence of libido may or may not correlate with infertility or impotence. This article is about the sexual orientation in humans. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ...


Psychological factors

Reduction in libido can occur from psychological causes such as loss of privacy and/or intimacy, stress, distraction or depression. It may also derive from the presence of environmental stressors such as prolonged exposure to elevated sound levels or bright light. A comprehensive list of stressors include: Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ...

  • depression
  • stress or fatigue
  • childhood sexual abuse, assault, trauma, or neglect
  • body image issues
  • adultery or attraction outside marriage
  • lack of interest/attraction in partner
  • sexual performance anxiety[2]
  • moral choices and/or conventions, such as observed in celibate people

Libido was first used in 1833 by Teresa Juncaj referring to her own life. This term was heard and spread quickly, and is now used in everyday language. Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


Physical factors

Physical factors that can affect libido are: levels of available testosterone in the bloodstream of both women and men, the effect of certain prescription medications, various lifestyle factors and, according to studies, the attractiveness and biological fitness of one's partner. [3] Inborn lack of sexual desire, often observed in asexual people, can be also considered to be a physical factor.


Lifestyle

Being very underweight, severely obese,[4] or malnourished can cause a low libido due to disruptions in normal hormonal levels The term underweight refers to a human who is considered to be under a healthy weight. ... Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Medications

Reduced libido is also often iatrogenic and can be caused by many medications, such as hormonal contraception, SSRIs and other antidepressants, and beta blockers. In some cases iatrogenic impotence or other sexual dysfunction can be permanent, as in PSSD. An iatrogenic (pronounced , IPA) condition is a state of ill health or adverse effect caused by medical treatment, usually due to mistakes made in treatment. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) is a type of sexual dysfunction caused by the previous use of SSRI antidepressants. ...


Testosterone is one of the hormones controlling libido in human beings. Emerging research[5] is showing that hormonal contraception methods like "the pill" (which rely on estrogen and progesterone together) are causing low libido in females by elevating levels of Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG binds to sex hormones, including testosterone, rendering them unavailable. Research is showing that even after ending a hormonal contraceptive method, SHBG levels remain elevated and no reliable data exists to predict when this phenomenon will diminish[6]. Some[who?] question whether "the pill" and other hormonal methods (Depo-Provera, Norplant, etc) have permanently altered gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Affected women may seek herbal and hormonal therapies. Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. ... Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Epigenetic inheritance is the transmission of information from a cell or multicellular organism to its descendants without that information being encoded in the nucleotide sequence of the gene. ...


Left untreated, women with low testosterone levels will experience loss of libido which in turn can often cause relationship stress[citation needed], and loss of bone and muscle mass throughout their lives. (Low testosterone may also be responsible for certain kinds of depression and low energy states.)


Conversely, increased androgen steroids (e.g. testosterone) generally have a positive correlation with libido in both sexes.[citation needed] Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...


Menstrual cycle

Women's libido is correlated to their menstrual cycle. Many women experience heightened sexual desire in the several days immediately before ovulation.[7] Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive-age females. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ...


See also

Look up libido in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Cathexis is the libidos charge of energy. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC) Conatus, (Latin: an exertion, effort; an impulse, inclination; an undertaking),[1] is a term used in philosophy to refer to a few different theories on psychology and metaphysics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thanatos (Freud). ... Destrudo is the energy of the destructive impulse. ... In Freudian psychology, Eros is the life instinct innate in all humans. ... A demon sating his lust in a 13th century manuscript Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification and excitement. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... Self preservation is part of an animals instinct that demands that the organism survives. ...

References

  1. ^ Reber, Arthur S.; Reber, Emily S. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Penguin Reference. ISBN 0-140-51451-1. 
  2. ^ (Yalom, I.D., Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books, 1989.)
  3. ^ Psychology Today - The orgasm Wars
  4. ^ "Obesity increases risk of erectile dysfunction" [1]
  5. ^ Warnock JK, Clayton A, Croft H, Segraves R, Biggs FC. Comparison of androgens in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: those on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) vs. those not on COCs.. J Sex Med 2006;3:878-882. PMID 16942531.
  6. ^ Panzer C, Wise S, Fantini G, Kang D, Munarriz R, Guay A, Goldstein I. Impact of oral contraceptives on sex hormone-binding globulin and androgen levels: a retrospective study in women with sexual dysfunction.. J Sex Med 2006;3:104-113. PMID 16409223.
  7. ^ Susan B. Bullivant, Sarah A. Sellergren, Kathleen Stern, et al (February 2004). "Women's sexual experience during the menstrual cycle: identification of the sexual phase by noninvasive measurement of luteinizing hormone". Journal of Sex Research 41 (1): 82–93 (in online article, see pp.14–15,18–22). PMID 15216427. 
  • Gabriele Froböse, Rolf Froböse, Michael Gross (Translator): Lust and Love: Is it more than Chemistry? Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, ISBN 0-85404-867-7, (200
  • Ellenberger F. Henri (1970). The discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books

  Results from FactBites:
 
Increase Libido : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., low libido enhancement, libido herbs, how to increase low libido (4491 words)
Most libido enhancer herbs have mild to moderate heart stimulating properties and are therefore not advised for those who have a heart or cardiovascular medical problem or are taking heart medicines.
The causes of psychological sexual dysfunction and loss of libido are numerous, and it is difficult to list them all, but most often low libido is related to stress, lack of adequate sleep, depression, anxiety, marital or relationship problems, life crisis, financial difficulties, problems at work, religious repression, or some forms of mental illness.
Libido disturbance was related to antihypertensive drugs in 46% of cases, more often in men (59%) than in women (24%).
Libido - definition of Libido in Encyclopedia (197 words)
Libido in its common usage means sexual desire, however more technical definitions, such as found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative, or psychic, energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation.
It is the need to conform to society and control the libido, contained in what Freud defined as the Id, that leads to tension and disturbance in both society and the individual.
Using this term, the antonym of libido is destrudo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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