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Encyclopedia > Liberty ship
SS John W. Brown is one of only two surviving operational Liberty ships.
SS John W. Brown, one of two surviving
operational Liberty ships.
General Characteristics
Displacement: 7,000 tons deadweight
Length: 441 ft 6 in (135 m)
Beam: 56 ft 10.75 in (17.3 m)
Draft: 27 ft 9.25 in (8.5 m)
Propulsion: Two oil fired boilers,
triple expansion steam engine,
single screw, 2500 horsepower (1.9 MW)
Speed: 11 to 11.5 knots (20 to 21 km/h)
Range:
Complement: 41
Armament: Stern-mounted 4 in (102 mm) deck gun for use against surfaced submarines, variety of anti-aircraft guns.
Capacity: 9,140 tons cargo

The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. Based on vessels ordered by Britain to replace ships torpedoed by German U-boats, they were purchased for the U.S. fleet and for lend-lease provision to Britain. Sixteen American shipyards built 2,751 Liberties between 1941 and 1945, easily the largest number of ships produced to a single design. SS on the Great Lakes in 2000. ... The SS is a Liberty ship, one of two remaining still floating today. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The production of these vessels mirrored, at much larger scale, the manufacture of the Hog Island ship and similar standardized types during the First World War. The immense effort to build Liberty ships, the sheer number of ships built, and the fact that some of the ships survived far longer than the original design life of five years, make them the subject of much study. Hog Islanders were cargo ships built at the Hog Island emergency shipyard in Philadelphia at the end of World War I. Hog Island was the first shipyard ever built for mass production of ships from fabricated parts and sub-assemblies, produced at dozens of subcontractors. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...

Contents


History and service

In 1936, the American Merchant Marine Act was passed to subsidize the annual construction of 50 commercial merchant vessels to be used in wartime by the United States Navy as naval auxilaries. The number was doubled in 1939 and again in 1940 to 200 ships a year. Ship types included a tanker and three types of merchant vessel, all to be powered by steam turbines. But limited industrial capacity, especially for turbine construction, meant that relatively few of these ships were built. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations around the globe. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


In 1940, the British Government ordered 60 tramp steamships from American yards to replace war losses and boost the merchant fleet. This Ocean class were simple but fairly large (for the time) with a single coal-fired, 2,500 horsepower (1.9 MW) reciprocating engine of obsolete but reliable design. Britain specified coal plants because it had plenty of coal mines but no indigenous oil fields. The predecessor designs, including the Northeast Coast, Open Shelter Deck Steamer, were based on a simple ship originally produced in Sunderland by J.L. Thompson & Sons in 1879, and widely manufactured until the SS Dorrington Court of the 1930s. The order specified an 18 inch (457 mm) increase in draught to boost displacement by 800 tons to 10,100 tons. The accommodation, bridge and main engine of these vessels were located amidships, with a long tunnel to connect the main engine shaft to its aft extension to the propeller. The first Ocean-class ship, Ocean Vanguard was launched on 16 August 1941. The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Sunderland is an industrial area and port in the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


The design was modified by the United States Maritime Commission to conform to American construction practices and to make it even quicker and cheaper to build. The U.S. version was designated EC2-S-C1 — Emergency Cargo, 2 = large ship. The new design replaced much riveting, which accounted for one-third of the labour costs, with welding. The order was given to a conglomerate of West Coast engineering and construction companies known as the Six Companies, headed by Henry J. Kaiser, and also adopted as the Merchant Marine Act design. Categories: Stub ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Six Companies, Inc. ... Henry J. Kaiser perches above Hawaii Kai in April 1963, his suburban development in Honolulu. ...


On 27 March 1941, the number of lend-lease ships was increased to 200 by the Defense Aid Supplemental Appropriations Act, and increased again in April to 306, of which 117 would be Liberty ships. March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


The ships initially had a poor public image. To try to assuage public opinion, 27 September 1941 was designated Liberty Fleet Day, and the first 14 "Emergency" vessels were launched that day. The first of these was SS Patrick Henry, launched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In remarks at the launch ceremony, FDR cited Patrick Henry's 1775 speech that finished "Give me liberty or give me death". Roosevelt said that this new class of ships would bring liberty to Europe, which gave rise to the name Liberty Ship. September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... The SS Patrick Henry was the first Liberty ship launched. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... 1775 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Early on, each ship took about 230 days to build (Patrick Henry took 244 days), but the average eventually dropped to 42 days. The record was set by Robert E. Peary, which was launched 4 days and 15 1/2 hours after the keel was laid, although this publicity stunt was not repeated. The ships were made assembly-line style, from prefabricated sections. In 1943, three new Liberty ships were being completed every day. They were mainly named after famous Americans, starting with the signatories of the Declaration of Independence. SS was the Liberty ship which was built in the shortest time. ... A fer is a large beam around which the hull of a ship is built. ... The media itself often stages stunts for movies and television shows. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...


Any group which raised War bonds worth $2 million could propose a name. Most were named for deceased people. The only living namesake was Francis J. O'Gara, the purser of the SS Jean Nicolet, who was thought to have been killed in a submarine attack but in fact survived the war in a Japanese prisoner of war camp. Other exceptions to the naming rule were the SS Stage Door Canteen, named for the USO club in New York, and the SS U.S.O., named after the organisation itself [1]. An American War Bonds poster from 1942 War bonds were a form of savings bond used by many combatant nations to help fund World War I and World War II. They were also a measure to manage inflation by removing money from the economy heated up by the war efforts. ... A ships purser, or just purser is the person on a ship responsible for the handling of money on board. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The United Service Organizations The United Service Organizations (USO) is a volunteer organization that provides morale and recreational services to members of the U.S. military worldwide. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ...

SS Carlos Carrillo
SS Carlos Carrillo

Another notable Liberty ship was SS Stephen Hopkins, which sank a German commerce raider in a ship-to-ship gun battle in 1942 and became the first American ship to sink a German surface combatant. From history. ... From history. ... The SS Stephen Hopkins was a United States Merchant Marine Liberty ship that served in World War II. She was the first US ship to sink a German surface combatant during the war. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... This article is about the year. ...


SS Richard Montgomery is also notable, though in a less positive way; the wreck of the ship lies off the coast of Kent with 1,500 tons of explosives still on board, enough to match a small nuclear weapon should they ever go off. The SS Richard Montgomery was an American Liberty ship built during World War II, one of the 2,710 used to carry cargo during the war. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...


Many Liberty ships suffered hull and deck cracks, and some were lost to such structural defects. During WWII, there were nearly 1,500 serious brittle fractures. Nineteen ships broke in half without warning, including the SS John P. Gaines, which sank on 24 November 1943 with the loss of 10 lives. The ships were built in great haste, often by inexperienced people, in the era before embrittlement effects on steel were well understood; they were frequently grossly overloaded; and some of the problems occurred during or after severe storms at sea that would have placed any ship at risk. Still, the successor design, the Victory ship, was built stronger and less stiff. A fracture is the separation of a body into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Victory ship was a type of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. ...


Several designs of mass-produced petroleum tankers were also produced, the most numerous being the T2 tanker series, with about 490 built between 1942 and the end of 1945. The T2 tanker, or only the T2 was a tanker ship constructed and produced in large quantities in the US under World War II to replace vessels sunk. ...


The last Liberty ship constructed was the SS Albert M. Boe, launched on 26 September 1945 and delivered on 30 October 1945. She was named after the chief engineer of a United States Army freighter who had stayed belowdecks to shut down his engines after a 13 April 1945 explosion, an act that won him a posthumous Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal [2]. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... US Army Seal The United States Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... 13 April is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Many Liberty ships survived the war, and made up a large percentage of the postwar cargo fleet. The term "Liberty-size cargo" for 10,000 tons may still be heard in the shipping business. As of 2005, two operational Liberty ships survive: the SS John W. Brown and the Jeremiah O'Brien. Both museum ships, they still put out to sea regularly. The SS Albert M. Boe survives as Star of Kodiak a floating cannery, docked in Kodiak Harbor. The SS is a Liberty ship, one of two remaining still floating today. ... SS Jeremiah OBrien was a Liberty ship during World War II. She was named for Jeremiah OBrien. ... A museum ship, or sometimes memorial ship, is an old ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Canning is a method of preserving food by first heating it to a temperature that destroys contaminating microorganisms, and then sealing it in air-tight jars, cans or pouches. ... Kodiak is a city located in Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska. ...


Shipyards

Liberty ships were built at eighteen shipyards located along the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coasts

See also: Motto: Nickname: The Azalea City Map Political Statistics Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Mobile County Mayor Sam Jones Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 412. ... A view of the Baltimore skyline from the water taxi. ... Nickname: City of Angels Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot Official website: http://www. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Location in Bay County, Florida Political Statistics Founded Sister Cities {{{sister cities}}} Incorporated 1909 County Bay County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 69. ... Brunswick is a city located in Glynn County, Georgia. ... Brunswick is a city located in Glynn County, Georgia. ... City of Vancouver Logo Vancouver, Washington is a city on the north shore of the Columbia River, in the state of Washington, USA. It is the county seat of Clark County. ... When the United States had entered World War II on December 8, 1941, some extraordinary changes began to take place in communities all over the nation. ... Sausalito is a city located in Marin County, California. ... Seal of South Portland South Portland is a city located in Cumberland County, Maine. ... Bath Iron Works from NAS Brunswick photo gallery Bath Iron Works (BIW) is located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine. ... Official website: www. ... For other places called Wilmington, see Wilmington Wilmington is a city located in New Hanover County, North Carolina. ... Nickname: City of Roses, Stumptown, Bridgetown Official website: http://www. ... Permanente Metals Company managed several shipbuilding yards owned by Henry J. Kaiser. ... Richmond is a city located in Contra Costa County, California, USA. It is north of El Cerrito and Albany in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Permanente Metals Company managed several shipbuilding yards owned by Henry J. Kaiser. ... Richmond is a city located in Contra Costa County, California, USA. It is north of El Cerrito and Albany in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Henry J. Kaiser perches above Hawaii Kai in April 1963, his suburban development in Honolulu. ... Nickname: Where Florida Begins Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: The Coastal Empire or The Hostess City Official website: Savannah, Georgia Location Government County Chatham Mayor Otis S. Johnson Geographical characteristics Area Total 202. ... Nickname: Space City Official website: www. ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry Motto: Official website: http://www. ...

  • Project Liberty Ship - The Shipyards [3]
  • The United States Merchant Marine - Liberty Ships Built During World War II by Shipyard. [4]
  • WWII Construction Records - Private-Sector Shipyards that Built Ships for the U.S. Maritime Commission [5]
  • Shipbuilding under the United States Maritime Commission, 1936 to 1950 [6]

Fictional appearances

In David Gerrold's Star Wolf novels, liberty ships were destroyer-type warships designed to be cheaply mass-produced in an effort to rapidly beef up the human starfleets. The ships were assigned hull numbers (example: LS-1187), and were required to be victorious in space combat before they could take on an official name chosen by a majority vote of the ship's crew. David Gerrold, born Jerrold David Friedman (January 24, 1944), is a science fiction author who started his career in 1966 as a college student by submitting an unsolicited story outline for the television series Star Trek. ... The Star Wolf is a Liberty Ship, officially designated the LS-1187, in the Star Wolf novels by David Gerrold. ...


See also

This is a list of Liberty ships, freighters built in the United States of America during World War II. Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Alphabetical... This is a list of Liberty ships, cargo ships built in the United States during World War II, sorted by Maritime Commission hull numbers. ... The Victory ship was a type of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. ... Type C1 ships were small cargo ships built for the U.S. Maritime Commission before and during World War II. The C1 types were the smallest of the 3 original Maritime Commission designs. ... Hog Islanders were cargo ships built at the Hog Island emergency shipyard in Philadelphia at the end of World War I. Hog Island was the first shipyard ever built for mass production of ships from fabricated parts and sub-assemblies, produced at dozens of subcontractors. ...

External links

  • Liberty Ships built by the United States Maritime Commission in World War II
  • Links to Liberty Ship information
  • SS Jeremiah O'Brien website (one of two still operational liberty ships)
  • SS John W. Brown website (one of two still operational liberty ships)
  • Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in Warfor a lesson on Liberty ships and Victory ships from the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places.
  • American Victory
  • http://www.ssrichardmontgomery.com ( Liberty ship SS Richard Montgomery wreck)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liberty ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1401 words)
On 27 March 1941, the number of lend-lease ships was increased to 200 by the Defense Aid Supplemental Appropriations Act, and increased again in April to 306, of which 117 would be Liberty ships.
Another notable Liberty ship was SS Stephen Hopkins, which sank a German commerce raider in a ship-to-ship gun battle in 1942 and became the first American ship to sink a German surface combatant.
The ships were built in great haste, often by inexperienced people, in the era before embrittlement effects on steel were well understood; they were frequently grossly overloaded; and some of the problems occurred during or after severe storms at sea that would have placed any ship at risk.
Liberty ship - definition of Liberty ship in Encyclopedia (452 words)
The Liberty ships were cargo ships built as part of a WWII era program to increase the number of U.S. flag vessels.
Liberty ships were slow, but economical to build; more than 2,700 of them were built by major shipyards and by emergency shipyards that had been set up to fill the need for cargo shipping.
Late in the war, the building of Liberty ships was replaced by that of Victory ships and other more substantial types of cargo ships.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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