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Encyclopedia > Liberty Bell
Coordinates: 39°56′61″N 75°09′01″W / 39.95028, -75.15028
Liberty Bell
Independence Bell, Old State House bell
Tower Bell
The Liberty Bell.
Country USA
State Pennsylvania
City Philadelphia
Location Liberty Bell Center
 - elevation 30 ft (9 m)
 - coordinates 39°56′61″N 75°09′01″W / 39.95028, -75.15028
Circumference 12 ft (3.7 m)
Weight 2,055 lb (900 kg)
Caster Whitechapel Bell Foundry
Materials Copper, Tin
Cast 1752
Owner City of Philadelphia
Location of the Liberty Bell within Pennsylvania
Website: www.ushistory.org

The Liberty Bell, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is a bell of great historic significance. The Liberty Bell is one of the most prominent symbols associated with the American Revolutionary War. It is one of the most familiar symbols of independence within the United States, and has been described as an international icon of liberty and justice for all.[1] The Liberty Bell is an American military march composed by famous bandmaster John Philip Sousa in 1893, and is considered one of his finest works. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... Liberty Bell; public domain. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... The Liberty Bell The Liberty Bell, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is an American bell of great historic significance. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kg redirects here. ... The Whitechapel Bell Foundry is a bell foundry based in the Whitechapel district of east London. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Independence Hall Philadelphia (sometimes referred to as Philly or the City of Brotherly Love) is the fifth most populous city in the United States and the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania, both in area and population. ... Image File history File links Pennsylvania_Locator_Map. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... This article is about military actions only. ...


According to tradition, its most famous ringing occurred on July 8, 1776, to summon citizens of Philadelphia for the reading of the Declaration of Independence. The bell had also been rung to announce the opening of the First Continental Congress in 1774 and after the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775. Historians today consider this highly doubtful, as the steeple in which the bell was hung had deteriorated significantly by that time. [2] is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... The Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 was the first battle of the American Revolutionary War and was described as the shot heard round the world in Emersons Concord Hymn. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Liberty Bell was known as the "Independence Bell" or the "Old Yankee's Bell" until 1837, when it was adopted by the American Anti-Slavery Society as a symbol of the abolitionist movement.[3] The American Anti-Slavery Society (1833-1870) was founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. ... Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ...

Contents

Inscription

The inscription on the Liberty Bell reads as follows:

Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants thereof Lev. XXV X

By Order of the ASSEMBLY of the Province of PENSYLVANIA for the State House in Philada
Pass and Stow
Philada
MDCCLIII

The source of the inscription is Leviticus 25:10, which reads "And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." The inscription was intended to mark the 50th anniversary of William Penn's Charter of Privileges of 1701. For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Penns draft of the First Frame The Frame of Government of Pennsylvania was a constitution for the Province of Pennsylvania, a proprietary colony granted to William Penn by Charles II of England. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ...


18th century history

Ordering of the bell from the Whitechapel Bell Foundry and first crack

The bell was ordered in 1745 by the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly for use in the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia. It was cast by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry in London and delivered to Philadelphia in late August/early September 1753 via the ship Hibernia. The following March, the bell was hung from temporary scaffolding in the square outside the State House. To the dismay of onlookers, the bell cracked. Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly, wrote "I had the mortification to hear that it was cracked by a stroke of the clapper without any other viollence [sic] as it was hung up to try the sound."[3] Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... The Whitechapel Bell Foundry is a bell foundry based in the Whitechapel district of east London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Scaffold may refer to: scaffolding as used in construction A gallows The Scaffold, UK musical group Scaffold - GNOME Development Environment Scaffold (Protein ECM) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Recasting of the bell by Pass and Stow and hanging in State House steeple

While a replacement from Whitechapel was ordered, the bell was rebuilt by John Dock Pass and John Stow of Philadelphia, whose surnames appear inscribed on the bell. Pass and Stow added copper to the composition of the alloy used to cast the bell, and the tone of the new bell proved unsatisfactory. The two recast the bell yet again, restoring the correct balance of metal, and this third bell was hung in the steeple of the State House in June 1753.[4]


The American War of Independence

Tradition holds that the bell was rung to announce the opening of the First Continental Congress in 1774 and after the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775. [2] The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... The Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 was the first battle of the American Revolutionary War and was described as the shot heard round the world in Emersons Concord Hymn. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


After Washington's defeat at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia was defenseless, and the city prepared for the inevitable. The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ordered that eleven bells, including the State House bell and the bells from Christ Church and St. Peter's Church, be taken down and removed from the city to prevent the British, who might melt the bells down to cast into cannons, from taking possession of them. A train of over 700 wagons, guarded by 200 cavalry from North Carolina and Virginia and under the command of Colonel Thomas Polk of the 4th Regiment North Carolina Continental Line, left Philadelphia for Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Hidden in the manure and hay were the bells, and hidden in the wagon of Northampton County militia private John Jacob Mickley was the State House bell. On September 18, the entourage and armed escort arrived in Richland Township (present-day Quakertown, Pennsylvania). On September 23, the bishop of the Moravian Church in Bethlehem reported that the wagons had arrived, and all bells except the State House bell had been moved to Northampton-Towne (present-day Allentown, Pennsylvania). The following day, the State House bell was transferred to the wagon of Frederick Leaser and taken to the historic Zion's Reformed Church in Allentown, where it was stored (along with the other bells), under the floorboards. On September 26, British forces marched into Philadelphia, unopposed, and occupied the city. The bell was restored to Philadelphia in June of 1778, after the end of the British occupation. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 10,600 (8,000 present) 17,000 (6,000 present) Casualties 1,200-1,300 casualties 93 killed 488 wounded 6 missing The Battle of Brandywine was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania represented the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790. ... The Anglicans of the Church of England founded Philadelphias Christ Church in 1695 and built a small wooden church on the site by the next year. ... Image Of St. ... Location in Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania Location within Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States State Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741 Government  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area  - Total 19. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Quakertown is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Close-up of the Liberty Bell. Inscribed are the names of John Pass and John Stow, together with city and date, along the inscription "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof—Lev. XXV, v. x. By order of the Assembly of the Province of Pensylvania for the State House in Philad[elphi]a." (The spelling "Pensylvania" was an accepted variant at the time.)
Close-up of the Liberty Bell. Inscribed are the names of John Pass and John Stow, together with city and date, along the inscription "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof—Lev. XXV, v. x. By order of the Assembly of the Province of Pensylvania for the State House in Philad[elphi]a." (The spelling "Pensylvania" was an accepted variant at the time.)

Liberty Bell inscription; public domain. ... Liberty Bell inscription; public domain. ...

19th Century

During the 19th century, the bell tolled at the death of Alexander Hamilton (1804), Lafayette's return to Philadelphia (1824), the deaths of Adams and Jefferson (1826), Washington's 100th birthday celebration (1832) and the deaths of Lafayette (1834), John Marshall (1835) and William Henry Harrison (1841).[5] Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ...


In 1839, William Lloyd Garrison's anti-slavery publication The Liberator reprinted a Boston abolitionist pamphlet containing a poem about the Bell, entitled, "The Liberty Bell," which represents the first known usage (in print) of the name, "Liberty Bell." [5] William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... This article is about the abolitionist newspaper. ...


It is not certain when the second crack appeared (the first after the recastings), but the bell was repaired in February 1846. The method of repair, known as stop drilling, required drilling along the hairline crack so that the sides of the fracture would not reverberate.


On February 22, 1846, the bell was tolled for several hours in the tower of Independence Hall in honor of George Washington's birthday.[6] When the bell was rung, the crack grew from the top of the repaired crack to the crown of the bell, rendering the bell unusable. Contrary to popular belief, the large crevice that currently exists in the Liberty Bell is a repair from the expansions, and not the crack itself. is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...

The Centennial Bell in a set of engravings of the American Centennial from 1876.
The Centennial Bell in a set of engravings of the American Centennial from 1876.

In 1852, the bell was removed from its steeple, and put on display in the "Declaration Chamber" of Independence Hall. In the meantime, a "Centennial Bell" replica was given as a gift to Philadelphia in 1876. The bell was cast by Meneely & Kimberly, a Troy, New York, bell foundry in June 1876. A third bell hangs in a modern tower nearby. Cast at the same British foundry as the original, this replica, called the Bicentennial Bell, was given to the people of the United States by Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain during a visit to Philadelphia in 1976. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 664 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1764 × 1593 pixel, file size: 976 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 664 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1764 × 1593 pixel, file size: 976 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exhibition The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official worlds fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. ...


From 1885-1915, the Liberty Bell traveled to numerous cities and was displayed at expositions and world's fairs. Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ...


20th and 21st century

Library of Congress image of the Liberty Bell in transport, circa 1905.
Library of Congress image of the Liberty Bell in transport, circa 1905.

In 1902, the Liberty Bell was involved in a train accident when the locomotive transporting the bell to an exposition in South Carolina derailed after a collision with another train. In November 1915, the bell took its last nationwide tour while returning from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. [7] In the 1930s, it was determined that moving the bell from location to location was too risky, and the practice was ended.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Palace of Fine Arts from the Exposition The Panama-Pacific International Exposition was a worlds fair held in San Francisco, California between February 20 and December 4 in 1915. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...


On January 1, 1976, in anticipation of increased visitation during the bicentennial year of American independence, the Liberty Bell was relocated from Independence Hall to a glass pavilion one block north (at the southwest corner of 5th and Market Streets). This small, unadorned pavilion proved somewhat unpopular with many visitors and this led to the idea of having a larger pavilion created, which finally opened in 2003. Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain visited Philadelphia in 1976 and presented a gift to the American people of a replica "Bicentennial Bell", cast in the same British foundry as the original. This 1976 bell now hangs in the Independence Living History Center near Independence Hall. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The...


That same year, a group of 30 demonstrators from the Procrastinator's Society of America turned out before the Whitechapel Foundry in London where they "...mounted a mock protest over the bell's defects and ... marched up and down ... with placards proclaiming WE GOT A LEMON and WHAT ABOUT THE WARRANTY?" The Whitechapel Foundry told the protesters that they "...would be happy to replace the bell - as long as it was returned to us in its original packaging."[9]


On April 1, 1996, the fast food restaurant chain Taco Bell took out a full-page advertisement in The New York Times and The Philadelphia Inquirer announcing that they had purchased the bell to "reduce the country's debt" and renamed it to "the Taco Liberty Bell". Thousands of people who did not immediately get the April Fool's Day hoax protested.[10] is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Taco Bell Corp. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ... The Taco Liberty Bell was an April Fools Day joke played by fast food restaurant chain Taco Bell. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On April 6, 2001, the Liberty Bell was struck several times with a hammer by Mitchell Guilliatt, a self-described wanderer from Nebraska. He hit the bell four times while shouting "God lives!"[11] The reason he gave was to declare his independence from the United States of America and not to attempt to deface or destroy the bell. After repairs, the damage caused by his striking of the bell was no longer visible. Gulliatt was sentenced to nine months jail time plus five years probation. He was also ordered to pay $7,093 to cover the cost of repairing the damage he made.[12] is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ...


In October 2003, the bell was moved a short distance southwest to a new pavilion, the Liberty Bell Center. There was some controversy about the site chosen for the new structure, which was just to the south of the site of where George Washington had lived in the 1790s. After the initial planning, the building's site was found to be adjacent to the quarters for the slaves owned by Washington. The decision over how to acknowledge this fact in the display has led to some debate.


As of 2006, the bell remains in this location at the northeast corner of 6th and Chestnut Streets. The new National Constitution Center is located two blocks to the north, and Independence Hall is located directly across the street, on the south side of Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. The Bell's former pavilion at the southwest corner of 5th and Market Streets was up for purchase after the move in an effort to reduce demolition costs, but after the auction drew little response, it was converted into a security station that screens tourists traveling in and around Independence Mall. The pavilion was removed from the site in March 2006. Exterior of the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The National Constitution Center is a 160,000 square foot museum that opened on July 4, 2003 in the historic district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and designed by American architect Henry N. Cobb. ... Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... Independence National Historic Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the historic area of downtown (or Center City) Philadelphia where Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, and the National Constitution Center are located, along with dozens of other historic buildings and educational centers. ...


The Liberty Bell Center, with its storied bell, and the nearby Independence Hall, are part of Independence National Historical Park, administered by the National Park Service. Independence National Historic Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the historic area of downtown (or Center City) Philadelphia where Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, and the National Constitution Center are located, along with dozens of other historic buildings and educational centers. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


Visiting the Liberty Bell

The Liberty Bell Center is open daily with the exception of Christmas Day from 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. with extended hours of operation during the summer months. No tickets are required; however, visitors must submit to a security checkpoint before entering, similar to security at a U.S. airport. Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...


Replicas of the Liberty Bell and other bells

The Liberty Bell depicted on the Franklin half dollar.
The Liberty Bell depicted on the Franklin half dollar.

One replica of the Liberty Bell is the Illinois Freedom Bell, which was cast in the early 1860s, and is located in Mount Morris, Illinois.[13] Citizens Bank Park, home of the Philadelphia Phillies baseball team, features a large neon version of the bell that is illuminated and swung back and forth each time a member of the team hits a home run or the team wins a game. Veterans Stadium, former home of the Phillies and Philadelphia Eagles, was capped with an iron replica of the bell. An earlier image of the bell, located at the top of the stadium's scoreboard (predating the one near the stadium's top) was once hit by a home run in 1972 by Phillies player Greg "The Bull" Luzinski. There is also a full scale replica of the bell in the Liberty Square area of the Magic Kingdom park in the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The bell is rung on real-life American holidays of particular significance to the American Revolution. A full scale replica with a painted-on crack hangs in the Rotunda of the Academic Building at Texas A&M University. It was presented to the school in recognition of the numerous Texas Aggies who fought in World War II. There is a full scale replica in Buena Park, California, and a 3/4 scale Independence Hall just outside of Knott's Berry Farm. Benjamin Franklin half dollar (back) Source: US Mint File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Benjamin Franklin half dollar (back) Source: US Mint File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Franklin half dollar is a coin of the United States, minted from 1948 to 1963. ... The Illinois Freedom Bell is the official freedom bell of the U.S. state of Illinois. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Mount Morris is a village located in Ogle County, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Citizens Bank Park is a 43,647-seat baseball-only stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that opened on April 3, 2004 and hosted its first regular season baseball game on April 12 of that same year, as the tenants of the facility, the Philadelphia Phillies lost to the Cincinnati Reds, 4... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 14, 20, 32, 36, 42 Name Philadelphia Phillies (1884–present) Philadelphia Quakers (1883-1889) (Also referred to as Blue Jays 1943-1945 despite formal name remaining Phillies) Other nicknames The Phils, The Phightin Phils... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... Homerun redirects here. ... For the stadium in New Britain, Connecticut, see Veterans Stadium. ... City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Team colors Midnight Green, Black, White, and Silver Head Coach Andy Reid Owner Jeffrey Lurie General manager Tom Heckert Fight song Fly, Eagles Fly Mascot Swoop League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1933–present) Eastern Division (1933-1949) American Conference (1950-1952) Eastern Conference (1953-1969) Capitol... A scoreboard is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game or match. ... Gregory Michael The Bull Luzinski (born on November 22, 1950 in Chicago, Illinois) is a former left fielder in Major League Baseball. ... Liberty Square is one of the seven themed lands at the Magic Kingdom park in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA. A replica of the Liberty Bell is located in the middle of the square, and a New England-themed version of the Haunted Mansion is adjacent to the Rivers of... The Magic Kingdom is a theme park within the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, near Orlando. ... Cinderella Castle is the symbol of the Magic Kingdom. ... Lake Buena Vista is a city located in Orange County, Florida, U.S., at the 2000 census the population was 16. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Texas A&M University redirects here. ... Texas Aggie is a term encompassing all those who are students or former students (alumni) of Texas A&M University. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Buena Park is a city located in northwestern Orange County, California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Knotts Berry Farm is a brand name of two separate entities: a theme park in Buena Park, California, and a manufacturer of food specialty products (primarily jams and preserves) based in Placentia, California. ...


As part of the Liberty Bell Savings Bonds drive in 1950, replicas were ordered by the United States Department of the Treasury and were cast in France. The purpose of the bells was to be transported around each state to drum up support for the purchase of savings bonds. After the bond drive was completed, the replicas were given to each state, as well as Alaska and Hawaii (which were not yet states), Washington D.C., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Many of the bells today are in the state capitols. [14]


Outside of the United States, replicas of the Liberty Bell can be found in Belgium, Germany, Israel, and Japan.[15]


The Liberty Bell in Berlin was inspired by the American Liberty Bell, although it is not a replica, but a distinct bell. It was given as a gift from Americans to the city of Berlin, as a symbol of the fight for freedom and against communism in Europe in 1950. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Sister Bell

The replacement bell ordered from the Whitechapel Bell Foundry in 1753 became known as the "Sister Bell". It was installed at the Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall), and attached to the State House clock. The Sister Bell rang the hours until the late 1820s, when the bell was removed during a renovation and loaned to the Olde St. Augustine Church in Philadelphia. In 1829, the bell was hung in a new cupola and tower designed by architect William Strickland. There it remained until May 8, 1844, when it was destroyed, along with the Olde St. Augustine Church, during the Philadelphia Nativist Riots. The friars of St. Augustine had the "Sister Bell" recast and transferred to Villanova University, which had been established in 1842. It is currently enshrined in the Falvey Memorial Library on Villanova's campus.[16] Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... Churches and other ecclesiastical buildings dedicated to Augustine of Canterbury or, less commonly, Augustine of Hippo include: In the United Kingdom: St. ... William Strickland was a noted architect in 19th Century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The Philadelphia Nativist Riots (also known as the Philadelphia prayer riots of 1844 and the Bible Riots) were a series of riots that took place May 3 and July 4, 1844. ... Detail of St. ... Villanova University is a private university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


See also

Philadelphia Portal
  • "The Liberty Bell March", composed by John Philip Sousa
  • The Mercury spacecraft that astronaut Gus Grissom flew on July 21, 1961, was dubbed Liberty Bell 7. Mercury capsules were somewhat bell-shaped, and this one received a painted crack to mimic the original bell. Liberty Bell 7 became the only Mercury capsule to suffer an integrity failure.
  • Margaret Buechner composed a work for chorus and orchestra, Liberty Bell, that incorporates a 1959 recording of the actual bell made by Columbia Records.

Liberty Bell; public domain. ... The Liberty Bell is an American military march composed by famous bandmaster John Philip Sousa in 1893, and is considered one of his finest works. ... John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era known particularly for American military marches. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mercury 4 was a Mercury program manned space mission launched on July 21, 1961 using a Redstone rocket. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ...

External links

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References

  1. ^ The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon. Independence National Historical Park (October 16, 2006).
  2. ^ a b Liberty Bell
  3. ^ a b FAQs about the Liberty Bell
  4. ^ http://www.whitechapelbellfoundry.co.uk/Liberty.htm
  5. ^ a b Liberty Bell Timeline
  6. ^ The Liberty Bell-Reading 2
  7. ^ "Liberty Bell Attracts Crowd in Greenville During 1915 Stop", Greenville Advocate, July 3, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. 
  8. ^ The Liberty Bell Wreck
  9. ^ The Liberty Bell
  10. ^ PainePR
  11. ^ According to eyewitness testimony reported in The Philadelphia Inquirer
  12. ^ BBC News | AMERICAS | Man jailed for hammering Liberty Bell
  13. ^ Illinois Official Freedom Bell Retrieved on September 03, 2007
  14. ^ Flynn, Lona. Freedom Bells (pamphlet based on information presented to the New York State Education Department on September 12, 1996, by Lona Flynn, Cicero Town Historian)
  15. ^ Liberty Bell Replicas
  16. ^ Liberty Bell's Sister
is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about military actions only. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... The Articles of Association was a petition of grievances against Great Britain by the American colonies, and a compact among them to collectively impose economic sanctions to pressure a resolution. ... Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 3986 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 has been described as the most democratic in America and was authored primarily by Timothy Matlock, Dr. Thomas Young, George Bryan, James Cannon, and Benjamin Franklin. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutze, 1851, Metropolitan Museum Washingtons crossing of the Delaware, occurring on December 25, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack against the Hessian forces at Trenton, New Jersey in the Battle of Trenton. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Henry Clinton The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 10,600 (8,000 present) 17,000 (6,000 present) Casualties 1,200-1,300 casualties 93 killed 488 wounded 6 missing The Battle of Brandywine was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought... War for Independence Battle of the Clouds September 16, 1777 The Battle of the Clouds (also known as the Battle of Warren or Whitehorse Tavern or the Battle of Goshen) occurred September 16, 1777. ... This article is about the bell in the United States. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders Anthony Wayne Charles Grey Strength 3,850 troops 1,300 troops Casualties 53 killed, 113 wounded, 17 captured 4 killed, 5 wounded The Battle of Paoli (also known as the Battle of Paoli Tavern or the Paoli Massacre) was a battle in the Philadelphia... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 11,700 8,000 Casualties 152 killed, 521 wounded, 400 captured 71 killed, 450 wounded, 14 missing The Battle of Germantown was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 4... Soldiers Barracks Artillery Shed Mifflin Hospital Originally called Fort Island Battery, and also known as Mud Island Fort, Fort Mifflin was commissioned in 1771 and sits on the Delaware River near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Combatants Continental Army Colonial militia Great Britain German mercenaries Commanders George Washington William Howe Charles Cornwallis W. von Knyphausen Strength 11,000 14,000 Casualties 90 killed or wounded 32 captured 60 killed or wounded Map of the Battle of White Marsh The Battle of White Marsh was a battle... Combatants Pennsylvania militia Great Britain Commanders John Lacey Charles Cornwallis Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Matsons Ford was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought December 11, 1777 in the area surrounding Matsons Ford (present-day Conshohocken and West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania). ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ... Combatants Pennsylvania militia Great Britain, Commanders John Lacey Lt. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Henry Clinton The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Colonel John Butler Colonel Zebulon Butler Strength 900 regulars and Native American warriors 360 milita Casualties 3 killed 8 wounded 300+ killed and captured (164+6 known dead) The Wyoming Valley battle and massacre was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liberty Bell - MSN Encarta (260 words)
Liberty Bell, historic bell in Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, rung on July 8, 1776, after the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence.
The bell weighs 943.5 kg (2080 lb) and is 3.7 m (12 ft) in circumference at the lip.
Thereafter, the bell was rung on every July 4 and on every state occasion until 1835, when, according to tradition, it cracked as it was being tolled for the death of Chief Justice John Marshall.
Liberty Bell - Facts (881 words)
Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the inhabitants thereof Levit.
Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the Land unto all the inhabitants thereof Lev.
The saddest time in the bell's illustrious history was in 1894 when it was discovered that the private night watchman hired to protect the bell had instead chipped away substantial pieces from it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Gramj
20th January 2011

Thanks for the information on the Liberty Bell. It really is a nice monument to visit. There are so many great places to see in Philadelphia. Whether a person is a movie fan, Phillies baseball fan, or aspiring historian, there are a lot of options of places to visit. http://www.phillysportsworld.com
Phillie Fan
20th January 2011
Thanks for the information on the Liberty Bell. It really is a nice monument to visit. There are so many great places to see in Philadelphia. Whether a person is a movie fan, Phillies baseball fan, or aspiring historian, there are a lot of options of places to visit.
KEITH HYLAND
1st September 2010
I HAVE A LIBERTY BELL COPPER BADGE, TWO DATES ARE ON IT, 1829 AND 1929, AND SAOIRSE CREIOM, ENGRAVED ROUND IT

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