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Encyclopedia > Liberty
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Look up Liberty, liberty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

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Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... Morphological freedom is, according to neuroscientist Anders Sandberg, an extension of one’s right to one’s body, not just self-ownership but also the right to modify oneself according to one’s desires. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ...

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Negative liberty
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For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, and civil liberties. ... For other uses of Transparency, see Transparency (disambiguation). ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ...

Self-ownership
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Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has the ability to act according to his or her own will. Self-ownership or sovereignty of the individual or individual sovereignty is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral right to control his or her own body and life. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Individualist and liberal conceptions of liberty relate to the freedom of the individual from outside compulsion; A socialist perspective, on the other hand, associates liberty with equality. As such, a socialist connects liberty (i.e. freedom) to the equal distribution of power (i.e. democracy), arguing that liberty without equality amounts to the domination of the most powerful. Thus, freedom and democracy are seen as intrinsically connected. Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Domination is a supreme or preeminate control, rule, or governing; plural dominion. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ...


John Stuart Mill, in his work, On Liberty, was the first to recognize the difference between liberty as the freedom to act and liberty as the absence of coercion. In his book, Two Concepts of Liberty, Isaiah Berlin formally framed the differences between these two perspectives as the distinction between two opposite concepts of liberty: positive liberty and negative liberty. The latter designates a negative condition in which an individual is protected from tyranny and the arbitrary exercise of authority, while the former refers to having the means or opportunity, rather than the lack of restraint, to do things. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ... Two Concepts of Liberty was the inaugural lecture delivered by Isaiah Berlin before the University of Oxford on October 31, 1958. ... Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997), was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Arbitrary is a term given to choices and actions which are considered to be done not by means of any underlying principle or logic, but by whim or some decidedly illogical formula. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ...


Mill offered insight into the notions of soft tyranny and mutual liberty with his harm principle.[1] Overall, it is important to understand these concepts when discussing liberty since they all represent little pieces of the greater puzzle known as freedom. In a philosophical sense, morality must supersede tyranny in any legitimate form of government. Otherwise, people are left with a societal system rooted in backwardness, disorder, and regression. The harm principle is laid out in John Stuart Mills arguably most famous work, On Liberty. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... The backwardness model is a theory of economic growth created by Alexander Gerschenkron. ... Disorder may refer to : Disease, an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress (see also: types of disorders) Chaos, unpredictability and in the metaphysical sense, it is the opposite of law and order Entropy, a state function of a thermodynamic system Lawlessness, a lack of... Generally, regression is related to moving backwards, and the opposite of progression. ...

Contents

Positive liberty

Main article: Positive liberty

Positive liberty is often described as freedom to achieve certain ends, while negative liberty is described as from external coercion.[2] The idea of positive liberty is often emphasized by those on the left-wing of the political spectrum, whereas negative liberty is most important for those who lean towards right-wing. However, not all on either the left or right would accept the positive/negative liberty distinction as genuine or significant. Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... Left wing redirects here. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ...


Among the right-wing, some conservatives also embrace some forms of positive liberty. For example, Puritans such as Cotton Mather often referred to liberty in their writings, but focused on the liberty from sin (e.g. sexual urges) even at the expense of liberty from the government. Many anarchists, and others considered to be on the left-wing, see the two concepts of positive and negative liberty as interdependent and thus inseparable. “Right wing” redirects here. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... This article is about the 17th century Puritan minister. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or...


While he described the concept of positive liberty, Isaiah Berlin was deeply suspicious of it. He argued that the pursuit of positive liberty could lead to a situation where the state forced upon people a certain way of life, because the state judged that it was the most rational course of action, and therefore, was what a person should desire, whether or not people actually did desire it. Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997), was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Defenders of ''positive liberty'' say that there is no need for it to have such totalitarian undertones, and that there is a great difference between a government providing positive liberty to its citizens and a government presuming to make their decisions for them. For example, they argue that any democratic government upholding positive liberty would not suffer from the problems Berlin described, because such a government would not be in a position to ignore the wishes of people or societies. Also, many on the left see positive liberty as guaranteeing equal rights to certain things like education and employment, and an important defense against discrimination — here, positive liberty could be the governmental demand that (for example) the sex of an applicant be ignored when a firm hires a new employee. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Negative liberty

Main article: Negative liberty

The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individual's liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. In this negative sense, one is considered free to the extent to which no person interferes with his or her activity. According to Thomas Hobbes, for example, "a free man is he that... is not hindered to do what he hath the will to doe." The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Hobbes redirects here. ...


Hobbes and Smith embrace protecting positive liberty along with continental European thinkers such as Hegel, Rousseau, Herder, and Marx. Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


The concept of negative liberty has several noteworthy aspects. First, negative liberty defines a realm or "zone" of freedom (in the "silence of law"). In Berlin's words, "liberty in the negative sense involves an answer to the question 'What is the area within which the subject -- a person or group of persons -- is or should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be, without interference by other persons." Some philosophers have disagreed on the extent of this realm while accepting the main point that liberty defines that realm in which one may act unobstructed by others. Second, the restriction (on the freedom to act) implicit in negative liberty is imposed by a person or persons and not due to causes such as nature, lack, or incapacity. Helvetius expresses this point clearly: "The free man is the man who is not in irons, nor imprisoned in a gaol (jail), nor terrorized like a slave by the fear of punishment... it is not lack of freedom not to fly like an eagle or swim like a whale." For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ...


The dichotomy of positive and negative liberty is considered specious by political philosophers in traditions such as socialism, social democracy, libertarian socialism, and Marxism. Some of them argue that positive and negative liberty are indistinguishable in practice, while others claim that one kind of liberty cannot exist independently of the other. A common argument is that the preservation of negative liberty requires positive action on the part of the government or society to prevent some individuals from taking away the liberty of others. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Freedom as a triadic relation

In 1967, Gerald MacCallum argued that proponents of positive and negative liberty converge on a single definition of liberty, but simply have different approaches in establishing it. According to McCallum, freedom is a triadic relationship: X is an agent, Y is an obstacle, and Z is an action or state, where X is free to go from Y to do or become Z. In this way, rather than defining liberty in terms of two separate paradigms, positive and negative liberty, he defined liberty as a single, complete formula.


Liberty and political thought

Meaning of Liberty

The first known use of the word freedom in a political context dates back to the 4th century BC, in a text describing the restoration of social and economic liberty in Lagash, a Sumerian city-state. Urukagina, the king of Lagash, established the first known legal code to protect citizens from the rich and powerful. Known as a great reformer, Urukagina established laws that forbade compelling the sale of property and required the charges against the accused to be stated before any man accused of a crime could be punished. This is the first known example of any form of due process in the history of humanity. Lagash (Akkadian lagaš) or Sirpurla (Sumerian ŠIR.BUR.LAKI; modern Tell al-Hiba), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... Sumeria may refer to: A back-formation from the adjective Sumerian, often used to mean the ancient civilisation more properly known as Sumer Sumeria, a disco artist best known for the 1978 hit Golden Tears 1970 Sumeria, an asteroid discovered in 1954 by Miguel Itzigsohn Donna Sumeria, a song on... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lagash (Akkadian lagaš) or Sirpurla (Sumerian ŠIR.BUR.LAKI; modern Tell al-Hiba), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty...


Like Urukagina, most ancient freedoms focused on negative liberty, protecting the less fortunate from harassment or imposition. Other ancient legal codes, such as the Code of Hammurabi, similarly forbade compulsion in economic matters, like the sale of land, and made it clear that when a rich man murders a poor one, it is still murder. Still, these codes relied on a certain virtuousness of kings and ministers, which was far from reliable. An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ...


In the Persian Empire, citizens of all religions and ethnic groups were given the same rights and had the same freedom of religion, women had the same rights as men, and slavery was abolished. All the palaces of the kings of Persia were built by paid workers in an era where slaves typically did such work.[3] The Cyrus cylinder of Cyrus the Great documents the protection of the rights to liberty and security, freedom of movement, the right of property, and economic and social rights.[4] Persia redirects here. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ...


In the Maurya Empire of ancient India, citizens of all religions and ethnic groups had rights to freedom, tolerance, and equality. The need for tolerance on an egalitarian basis can be found in the Edicts of Ashoka the Great, which emphasize the importance of tolerance in public policy by the government. The slaughter or capture of prisoners of war was also condemned by Ashoka.[5] Slavery was also non-existent in ancient India.[6] A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Ashoka redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Roman law also embraced certain limited forms of liberty, even under the rule of the Roman Emperors. However, these liberties were accorded only to Roman citizens. Still, the Roman citizen enjoyed a combination of positive liberty (the right to freely enter contracts, the right to a legal marriage) and negative liberty (the right to a trial, a right to appeal and the right to not be tortured). Many of the liberties enjoyed under Roman law endured through the Middle Ages, but were enjoyed solely by the nobility, never by the common man. The idea of unalienable and universal liberties had to wait until the Age of Enlightenment. Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


Social contract

The Statue of Liberty is a very popular icon of liberty.
The Statue of Liberty is a very popular icon of liberty.

The social contract theory, invented by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, were among the first to provide a political classification of rights, in particular through the notion of sovereignty and of natural rights. The thinkers of the Enlightenment reasoned the assertion that law governed both heavenly and human affairs, and that law gave the king his power, rather than the king's power giving force to law. The divine right of kings was thus opposed to the sovereign's unchecked auctoritas. This conception of law would find its culmination in Montesquieu's thought. The conception of law as a relationship between individuals, rather than families, came to the fore, and with it the increasing focus on individual liberty as a fundamental reality, given by "Nature and Nature's God," which, in the ideal state, would be as expansive as possible. The Enlightenment created then, among other ideas, liberty: that is, of a free individual being most free within the context of a state which provides stability of the laws. Later, more radical philosophies such as socialism articulated themselves in the course of the French Revolution and in the 19th century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 269 KB) Summary Picture taken by BigMac on September 9, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 269 KB) Summary Picture taken by BigMac on September 9, 2005. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... This article is about the philosopher Thomas Hobbes. ... Locke is a common Western surname of English origin: John Locke, an English Enlightenment philosopher. ... Rousseau is a French surname. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Modern perspectives

The modern conceptions of democracy, whether representative democracies or other types of democracies (including the past communist "popular democracies"), are all found on the Rousseauist idea of popular sovereignty [original research?]. However, liberalism distinguishes itself from socialism and communism in that it advocates for a form of representative democracy, while socialism claims to work for a direct democracy (although, in the case of communism, this was supposed to be achieved through a period of dictatorship of the proletariat, a concept which was instrumentalized during the Cold War to legitimate authoritarian regimes). Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Pooybuttpular sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and therefore subject to the will of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ...


Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defence of individual liberty as the purpose of government. Two main strands are apparent, although both are founded on an individualist ideology. In continental Europe the term usually refers to economic liberalism, that is the right of individual to contract, trade and operate in a market free of constraint. In the United States it often refers to social liberalism, including the right to dissent from orthodox tenets or established authorities in political or religious matters. Both are core political issues, and highly contentious. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ...


A school of thought popular among US libertarians holds that there is no tenable distinction between the two sorts of liberty -- that they are, indeed, one and the same, to be protected (or opposed) together. In the context of U.S. constitutional law, for example, they point out that the constitution twice lists "life, liberty, and property" without making any distinctions within that troika. This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ...


Anarcho-Individualists, such as Max Stirner, demanded the utmost respect for the liberty of the individual. From a very similar perspective from North America, primitivists like John Zerzan proclaimed that civilization not just the state (as in socialist thought) would need to be abolished to foster liberty. Some in the US see protecting the ideal of liberty as a conservative policy, because this would conform to the spirit of individual liberty that they consider is at the heart of the American constitution. Some think liberty is almost synonymous with democracy, at least in one sense of that word, while others see conflicts or even opposition between the two concepts, with democracy being nothing more than the tyranny of the majority. Individualist anarchism (or anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism, philosophical anarchism or scientific anarchism) is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on the non-aggression principle and individual sovereignty. ... Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner (the nom de plume he adopted from a schoolyard nickname he had acquired as a child because of his high brow Stirn), was a German philosopher, who ranks as one of the literary grandfathers of nihilism... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. ... Central New York City. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


Ross Bearman, infamous freeware developer was described by Liberty (pressure group) spokesperson last year as '...the greatest threat to internet safety and freedom the western world has known since Thatcher.' Liberty is a pressure group based in the United Kingdom. ...


Liberty and religious thought

Mormon perspective

In Mormon theology (see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) liberty is achieved by the individual who voluntarily submits to God’s will. Mormon scripture teaches: This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ...


“Men are free according to the flesh…and they are free to choose liberty and eternal life through the great Mediator of all men, or to choose captivity and death, according to the captivity and power of the devil; for he seeketh that all men might be miserable, like unto himself.” Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 2:27 The Book of Mormon[1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Mormonism grants that it is the natural state of man to be free. It is his unique right to act, and not be acted upon. This liberty is maintained so long as man voluntarily submits to the will of his Creator. When man chooses to follow after his own will, or the will of Satan, he rejects his liberty and becomes captive to the will of the devil. When man chooses to follow the will of God, his liberty is retained and he is free to pursue his ultimate potential as a child of God. For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


For example, the Word of Wisdom, which prescribes against the use of tobacco products, alcohol and hot drinks (taken to mean tea and coffee), is seen by Mormons as increasing freedom rather than curtailing it. Apart from the theological basis that God's commandments inherently increase the freedom of those who choose to obey them, Mormons argue that the effects of use of these substances (drunkenness, 'highs', dependency and addiction) limit the user's self-control, thereby reducing their abiliy to choose their own actions, make rational decisions or choose whether to partake of that substance in the future. Choosing not to partake of these substances leaves one with the continuing choice whether to use them or not, thereby maintaining the original standard of liberty.


See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Gratis versus Libre is the distinction between zero price and freedom. ... On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ... Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for Liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood), [1] is the motto of the French Republic, and is a typical example of a tripartite motto. ...

References

  1. ^ John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and Utilitarianism, (New York: Bantam Books, 1993), 12-16.
  2. ^ <a href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberty-positive-negative/">Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy</a>
  3. ^ Engineering an Empire: Persian Empire
  4. ^ Arthur Henry Robertson, John Graham Merrills (1996). Human Rights in the World: An Introduction to the Study of the International Protection of Human Rights. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719049237.
  5. ^ Amartya Sen (1997). Human Rights and Asian Values. ISBN 0-87641-151-0.
  6. ^ Arrian, Indica:

    "This also is remarkable in India, that all Indians are free, and no Indian at all is a slave. In this the Indians agree with the Lacedaemonians. Yet the Lacedaemonians have Helots for slaves, who perform the duties of slaves; but the Indians have no slaves at all, much less is any Indian a slave." Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Indica is the name of an ancient book about India written by Arrian, one of the main ancient historians of Alexander the Great. ... Laconia (Λακωνία; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, was in ancient Greece the portion of the Peloponnese of which the most important city was Sparta. ... Helots were Peloponnesian Greeks who were enslaved under Spartan rule. ...


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