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Encyclopedia > Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
"LTTE" redirects here. For the Led Zeppelin bootleg, see Listen to This Eddie.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Operational 1972 - present
Led by Velupillai Prabhakaran
Objectives The creation of a separate Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka
Active region(s) Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
Ideology Tamil nationalism
Status Runs de facto state Tamil Eelam, proscribed as a TERRORIST organization by 30 countries

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, Tamil: தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள்), commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, is a militant Tamil nationalist organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan government since the 1970s in order to create a separate Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). It is headed by its founder, Velupillai Prabhakaran. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Listen To This Eddie is a bootleg recording of a rock concert by English band Led Zeppelin, performed on June 21, 1977 at the Los Angeles Forum in Los Angeles, California. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: ; born November 26, 1954), also known as Thambi,[2] is the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a rebel organization that seeks an independent Tamil nation in part of the territory of Sri Lanka. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Tamil nationalism is a strong aspiration by some Tamils to establish traditional Tamil homelands in parts of India and Sri Lanka as separate nations. ... Area of Sri Lanka claimed for Tamil Eelam Political status Unrecognized state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed) Kilinochchi (effective) Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area 19,509 km² claimed[3] Population (of claimed area) 3,162,254 (2001)[4] Currency Sri Lankan... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Tamil nationalism is a strong aspiration by some Tamils to establish traditional Tamil homelands in parts of India and Sri Lanka as separate nations. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Area of Sri Lanka claimed for Tamil Eelam Political status Unrecognized state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed) Kilinochchi (effective) Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area 19,509 km² claimed[3] Population (of claimed area) 3,162,254 (2001)[4] Currency Sri Lankan... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: ; born November 26, 1954), also known as Thambi,[2] is the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a rebel organization that seeks an independent Tamil nation in part of the territory of Sri Lanka. ...

Contents

History

Sri Lankan Conflict Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

Background
Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka
Origins of the Civil War
Origins of the Civil War
Black JulyRiots and pogroms
Human rightsAllegations of state terror
Tamil militant groups
LTTE
LTTE • Attacks • Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
Current major figures
Mahinda Rajapaksa
Velupillai Prabhakaran
Karuna Amman
Gotabaya Rajapaksa
Sarath Fonseka
Indian Involvement
Operation Poomalai
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv GandhiRAW
See also
Military of Sri Lanka
TMVPEPDP
Notable assassinationsChild soldiers
This box: view  talk  edit
See also: Sri Lankan civil war

The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese, mostly Buddhist, and minority Tamil, mostly Hindu and Christian, community. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... Burnt shell of the post event library Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa () (born November 18, 1945) is the current President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: ; born November 26, 1954), also known as Thambi,[2] is the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a rebel organization that seeks an independent Tamil nation in part of the territory of Sri Lanka. ... Karuna Amman was the second highest commanding officer of the LTTE who broke away due to Tigers attacks on civilians in Batticaloa, corruption within LTTE and the recruitment of child soldiers. ... Gotabhaya Rajapaksa Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Gotabhaya Rajapaksa RWP, RSP, GR is the current Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Defence of the Government of Sri Lanka. ... Category: ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on July 29, 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force which comes under the Ministry of Defence. ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Since the onset of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983, militant and paramilitary groups have assassinated many public figures on suspicion of being sympahtizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from rival groups, or to stifle dissent. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

Rise to dominance

The LTTE was founded in 1972 by Velupillai Prabhakaran and attracted many supporters amongst disenchanted Tamil youth, who were dissatisfied with policies followed by successive governments towards solving various concerns of the nation's Tamil community. They carried out low-key attacks against various government targets, including policemen and local politicians. A notable attack carried out during the time was the assassination of the Mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiyappah. Initially the LTTE operated in cooperation with other Tamil militant groups which shared their same objectives, and in April 1984, the LTTE formally joined a common militant front, the Eelam National Liberation Front (ENLF), a union between itself, the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) and the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF).[1] Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: ; born November 26, 1954), also known as Thambi,[2] is the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a rebel organization that seeks an independent Tamil nation in part of the territory of Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna District. ... The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... PLOTE stands for Peoples Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam. ... The Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front is a political party in Sri Lanka. ...


TELO had always supported India as it was openly funded, trained and supplied by India. TELO usually held the Indian view of problems and pushed for India's view during peace talks with Sri Lanka and other groups. LTTE denounced the TELO view and claimed that India was only acting on it's own interest. As a result in 1986, the LTTE broke from the ENLF. Soon fighting broke out between the TELO and the LTTE. [2] [3] Over the next few months clashes took place between the LTTE and TELO. As a result almost the entire TELO leadership and many of the TELO militants were killed in the clashes. [4] [5][6] The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization is a political party in Sri Lanka. ...


A few months later, the LTTE attacked training camps of the EPRLF, forcing it to withdraw entirely from the Jaffna peninsula.[7][1] The Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front was a Tamil separatist group in Sri Lanka. ... The Jaffna Peninsula is an area in Northern Sri Lanka , where the underground water is used for purpose such as Drinking, Agricultural and Industries. ...


The LTTE then demanded that all remaining Tamil insurgents join the LTTE. Notices were issued to that effect in Jaffna and in Madras, India which Tamil groups used as their main headquarters. With the major groups including the TELO and EPRLF eliminated, the remaining Tamil insurgent groups, numbering around 20, were then absorbed into the LTTE. This made Jaffna an LTTE dominated city.[8]


LTTE's practice such as wearing a cyanide vial for consumption if captured appealed to the Tamil people as dedication and sacrifice. Other practices by the LTTE also involved taking an oath of loyalty which reiteration of the LTTE’s goal of establishing a state for the Sri Lankan Tamils also gave them the edge on the support by Tamil people. [9][2] Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ...


In 1987 the LTTE established the Black Tigers, a unit of the LTTE responsible for conducting suicide attacks against political, economic and military targets,[10] and launched its first suicide attack against a Sri Lanka Army camp, killing 40 soldiers. The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ...


The IPKF period

In 1987, faced with growing anger amongst its own Tamils, and a flood of refugees,[1] India intervened directly in the conflict for the first time by initially airdropping food parcels into Jaffna. After subsequent negotiations, India and Sri Lanka entered into an agreement whereby Sri Lanka agreed to a federal structure, which would grant autonomy to the Tamils, and the Tamil militant groups would all lay down their arms. However, the Tamil Tigers or any other Tamil militant group did not have role in the signing on the accord. [2] India was to send a peacekeeping force, named the IPKF to Sri Lanka to enforce the disarmament.[11] Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on July 29, 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ...


Although most Tamil militant groups accepted this agreement,[12] the LTTE rejected the accord because they opposed the candidate for chief administrative officer of the merged Northern and Eastern provinces. Instead the LTTE named three other candidates for the position. The candidates proposed by the LTTE were rejected by India. [13] The LTTE subsequently refused to hand over their weapons to the IPKF. [2]


The result was that the LTTE now found itself engaged in military conflict with the Indian Army, and launched their first attack on an Indian army rations truck on October 8, killing five Indian para-commandos who were on board by strapping burning tires around their necks.[14] The government of India then decided that the IPKF should disarm the LTTE by force,[15] and the Indian Army launched number of assaults on the LTTE, including a month-long campaign dubbed Operation Pawan to win control of the Jaffna peninsula from the LTTE. The ruthlessness of this campaign, and the Indian army's subsequent anti-LTTE operations made it extremely unpopular amongst many Tamils in Sri Lanka.[16][17] This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ...


The post-IPKF LTTE

The Indian intervention was also unpopular amongst the Sinhalese majority, and the IPKF became bogged down in the fighting with the Tamil Tigers for over 2 years, experiencing heavy losses. The last members of the IPKF, which was estimated to have had a strength of well over 50,000 at its peak, left the country in 1990 upon request of the Sri Lankan government. A shaky peace initially held between the government and the LTTE, and peace talks progressed towards providing devolution for Tamils in the north and east of the country.[citation needed]


Fighting continued throughout the 1990s, and was marked by two key assassinations carried out by the LTTE, that of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, and Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in 1993, using suicide bombers in both occasions. The fighting was briefly halted in 1994 following the election of Chandrika Kumaratunga as President of Sri Lanka and the onset of peace talks, but fighting resumed following the sinking two Sri Lanka Navy boats in April 1995 by the LTTE.[18] In a series of military operations that followed, the Sri Lanka Army re-captured the Jaffna peninsula, the heartland of Tamils in Sri Lanka.[19] Further offensives followed over the next three years, and the military captured vast areas in the north of the country from the LTTE, including area in the Vanni region, the town of Kilinochchi and many smaller towns. However, from 1998 onward the LTTE hit back, reversing these losses, culminating in the capture of the strategically important Elephant Pass base complex, which is located at the entrance of the Jaffna Peninsula, in April 2000, after prolonged fighting against the Sri Lanka Army.[20] Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jaffna District. ... Vanni District. ... Kilinochchi District. ... Elephant Pass, Northern Province, Sri Lanka is a importnat military base and a salt field located in the gateway of Jaffna Peninsula. ...


Mahattaya, a one time the deputy leader of the LTTE, was accused of treason by the LTTE and killed in 1994.[21] He is said to have collaborated with the Indian Research and Analysis Wing to remove Prabhakaran from the LTTE leadership.[22] Gopalaswamy Mahendraraja (1956-1994), better known by his nom de guerre Mahattaya was a Sri Lankan Tamil militant, who was at one time a leading member of the LTTE. Mahattaya joined the LTTE in 1978. ... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ...


The 2001 ceasefire

A LTTE bicycle infantry platoon north of Killinochi in 2004
A LTTE bicycle infantry platoon north of Killinochi in 2004

In 2001 the LTTE dropped its demand for a separate state. Instead, they stated that a form of regional autonomy would meet their demands [23] Following the landslide election defeat of Kumaratunga and the coming to power of Ranil Wickramasinghe in December 2001, the LTTE declared an unilateral ceasefire [24]. As a result the Sri Lankan Government also agreed to the cease fire. In March of 2002 both sides signed off signed an official Ceasefire Agreement (CFA). As part of the agreement, Norway and the other Nordic countries agreed to jointly monitor the ceasefire through the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission.[25] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 986 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the picture in 2004, it shows a LTTE bike platoon north of Kilinochi. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 986 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the picture in 2004, it shows a LTTE bike platoon north of Kilinochi. ... Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using bicycles. ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ranil Wickramasinghe, is the opposition leader of Sri Lankan parliment, he is also the leader of the united national party. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...


Six rounds of peace talks between the Government of Sri Lanka and Tamil Tigers were held but was temporarily suspended after the LTTE pulled out of the talks in 2003 claiming "certain critical issues relating to the ongoing peace process".[26][27]


In 2003 the LTTE proposed an Interim Self Governing Authority (ISGA). This move by the LTTE was welcomed by the international community. This proposal was based on self-governing authority. However, the then Sri Lankan President rejected this offer. [28]


In December 2005, the LTTE boycotted the 2005 presidential election. While LTTE claimed that the people under it's control were free to vote it is alleged that they used threats to force the population from voting. The United States condemned this act.[29][30]


Further peace talks were scheduled in Oslo, Norway, between June 8-9 but canceled when the LTTE refused to meet directly with the government delegation claiming its fighters were not been allowed safe passage to travel to the talks. Norwegian mediator Erik Solheim told journalists that the LTTE should take direct responsibility for the collapse of the talks.[31]


Rift grew between the Government of Sri Lanka and LTTE which resulted in a number of cease fire agreement violations by both sides. Suicide attack, military skirmish and Air raid took place during the latter part of 2006. [32][33] Military confrontation followed into 2007 and 2008. On January 2008 the Government officially pulled out of the Cease Fire Agreement[34]


Dissension

In the biggest show of dissent from within the organization, a senior LTTE commander named Colonel Karuna (nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan) broke away from the LTTE in March 2004 and formed the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal amid allegations that the northern commanders were overlooking the needs of the eastern Tamils. The LTTE leadership accused him of mishandling of funds and questioned him about his recent personal behavior. He tried to take control of the eastern province from the LTTE, which caused clashes between the LTTE and TEMVP. The LTTE has suggested that TEMVP is backed by the government,[35] and the Nordic SLMM monitors have corroborated this.[36] Colonel Karuna Amman is the nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan (born 1966), the President of the TMVP (TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal), a breakaway faction of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ...

See also: Colonel Karuna

Colonel Karuna Amman is the nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan (born 1966), the President of the TMVP (TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal), a breakaway faction of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...

Organization and activities

Structure

The LTTE is organized into two main divisions namely, a military wing and political wing. A central governing body oversees both of those divisions, which is headed by the LTTE supreme leader, Velupillai Prabakaran.


Military

Tamil rebels in a pickup truck in Killinochchi in 2004
Tamil rebels in a pickup truck in Killinochchi in 2004

In the LTTE, recruits are instructed to be prepared to die for the cause, and are issued with a cyanide capsule to be swallowed in the case of capture.[37] The LTTE also has a special squad of suicide bombers, called the Black Tigers, which it deploys for critical missions.[38] Killinochchi is a small city in the north of Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ...


The military wing contains following specific subdivisions, which are directly controlled and directed by the central governing body:

  • Sea Tigers - an amphibious warfare unit focusing on utilization of naval firepower and logistics, mainly consisting lightweight boats.[39]
  • Air Tigers - an airborne group, consisting of several lightweight aircraft. It is known to be the world's first air force controlled by an organization proscribed as terrorists. [40]
  • Black Tigers - a suicide commando unit.
  • A intelligence
  • A political wing.

LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers is the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984 [1]. The Sea Tigers have a number of small, but very effective suicide-bomber vessels [2]. During its existence it has... The Air Tigers (Vaanpuligal) is the air-wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or LTTE, who are fighting a civil war with the Government of Sri Lanka. ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ...

Sea Tigers

The Sea Tigers is the naval force of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and is lead by Colonel Soosai [41]. The sea Tigers are believed to have about 2000 personnel and have become a potent threat to the Sri Lankan Navy at Sea[42]. Over the years it is reckoned that they have destroyed 35-50 percent of the Sri Lankan Navy's coastal crafts.[43][44] LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers is the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984 [1]. The Sea Tigers have a number of small, but very effective suicide-bomber vessels [2]. During its existence it has... Colonel Soosai in a Sea Tigers fast attack boat in 2003. ...


Air Tigers

The Air Tigers is the air force of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The Air Tigers are believed to operate five light aircraft. The Air Tigers were revealed on 2007 when it conducted it's first air raid on the Sri Lankan Air Force base. Since then they have conducted another four air raids. With the Air force the Tamil Tigers became the first rebel organization to establish an air force . [45] The Air Tigers (Vaanpuligal) is the air-wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or LTTE, who are fighting a civil war with the Government of Sri Lanka. ...


Administrative

Even though the LTTE was formed as a military group, it has later transformed itself to a de facto Government. The LTTE controls sections in the north of the island, especially the regions lying around the cities of Killinochchi and Mulathivu. Killinochchi is a small city in the north of Sri Lanka. ...


The LTTE has implemented a judicial system that consists of courts to adjudicate in criminal and civil matters. Currently the Tamil Eelam judicial system consists of district courts, High courts and Supreme court as well as a court of appeal. The district courts handle civil and criminal cases. The two high courts handles criminal cases such as Rape, murder, treason and arson. The supreme court has jurisdiction over the whole of Tamil Eelam. The Tamil Eelam courts are said to be effective [46] and people who have a choice sometimes go to the Tamil Eelam courts rather than the Sri Lankan courts [46] [28] [47] Area of Sri Lanka claimed for Tamil Eelam Political status Unrecognized state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed) Kilinochchi (effective) Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area 19,509 km² claimed[3] Population (of claimed area) 3,162,254 (2001)[4] Currency Sri Lankan... Area of Sri Lanka claimed for Tamil Eelam Political status Unrecognized state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed) Kilinochchi (effective) Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area 19,509 km² claimed[3] Population (of claimed area) 3,162,254 (2001)[4] Currency Sri Lankan... Area of Sri Lanka claimed for Tamil Eelam Political status Unrecognized state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed) Kilinochchi (effective) Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area 19,509 km² claimed[3] Population (of claimed area) 3,162,254 (2001)[4] Currency Sri Lankan...


LTTE has also established a police force. The Tamil Eelam police is the other key factor in maintaining law and order. The Tamil Eelam police was formed in 1991 and currently has it's head office at Killinochi.[28] Police stations have been established in all areas that is controlled by the LTTE. The LTTE claims that their police force is the reason for the low crime rate but critics of LTTE claim that the police force is an integrated arm of the LTTE armed force and that the crime rate is low as a result of LTTE authoritarian rules. However, everyone agrees the Tamil Eelam police force and the judicial system is reason for high degree of rule of law in the areas controlled by the LTTE.[46]


Other state function of the LTTE administration is social welfare. This humanitarian assistant arm is funded by tax collection internally .[46] [48] [47]. LTTE has also established education and health sector that offers services to the people under their control. [28] They have also created a human rights organization, called Northeast Secretariat on Human Rights, that functions as to advocating the rights of Tamils. Thought not recognized by international government it acts as a Human rights commission. The commission has communicated with the LTTE from complains of child recruiting which has resulted in the release of the recruit. [46]. The Planning and Development Secretariat (PDS) was established in 2004 which acted as a needs assessment body which was responsible for studying the needs for people and formulating a plan for effective action in areas that needed humanitarian assistant. There are also many civil servants who work in the LTTE controlled areas who are directed by the LTTE but are paid by the Sri Lankan government.[49][50] [51][46]. Furthermore, a customs service is also operated at the "border" by the Tamil Tigers. [47][52]


In addition to the civil administration LTTE also runs it's own Radio and Television station. These entities are named Voice of Tigers and National Tamil Eelam Television respectively. Both the radio and television channel is aired from the areas in it's control. [48] [53]


LTTE also runs a bank named the Bank of Tamileelam which uses the Sri Lankan rupee as its currency but offers higher rates than any bank on the Island.[54][55] [56] For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Humanitarian assistance

After the Boxing Day tsunami the Tigers set up a special task force called tsunami task force. The newly established force was responsible for Humanitarian assistance to the people affected by the Tsunami. The Planning and Development Secretariat (PDS) was responsible for needs assessments for various humanitarian organization to maximize effectiveness of resettlement reconstruction and rehabilitation. After the Tsunami the PDS was responsible of coordinating and directing the various NGO's that were involved in Tsunami relief work. [46] Furthermore, according to Tsunami Evaluation Coalition the key NGO's who responded also claimed that the LTTE forces provided extremely efficient and focused leadership and support to the relief effort in the areas controlled by the Tigers. [57] For related articles, including charities accepting donations, see Category:2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ...


During the second round of negotiation between Tigers and the Government of Sri Lanka a agreement was reached for a joint Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS). This mechanism would allow the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE to share funds for Tsunami relief. However, this agreement was bitterly opposed by hardliners in the Sri Lankan government and some moderates. As a result the P-TOMS was challenged in the Sri Lankan supreme court. The Sri Lankan supreme court put the P-TOMS on hold. [57][46]


Political

The 2002 Cease Fire Agreement made the LTTE shift it's struggle for self-determination from militant to more political means. The LTTE's own political wing was the result of this. This political wing also played a critical role in regard to both peace process and local state building. However, LTTE's political wing did not participate in Sri Lankan parliamentary elections. The LTTE instead openly supported the Tamil National Alliance. The Tamil National Alliance won overwhelmingly in 22 out of 25 electorates in the North-east and won over 90% of votes in the electoral district of Jaffna [46][28] [58] Formed in November of 2001 in preparation for the December election, the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) is an extreme nationalistic grouping of parties consisting of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), the All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO) and the Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation... Formed in November of 2001 in preparation for the December election, the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) is an extreme nationalistic grouping of parties consisting of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), the All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO) and the Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Jaffna District. ...


Women in LTTE

Sothiya Regiment of the LTTE - Female soldiers
Sothiya Regiment of the LTTE - Female soldiers

In 1984, LTTE created a unit of female squad called the Freedom Birds (Suthanthirap Paravaikal). This unit was the first group of women to be given military training in India. The LTTE advocates equality for women from both male oppression and social oppression. [59][60]The support of the LTTE for equality attracted many women into the LTTE ranks. As a result LTTE became the first Tamil militant group to employ women as a soldiers in the battlefield.[citation needed] The main believe of the Tamil women fighter is that their participation in the armed struggle would bring them advantage in the future, peaceful society and to take part in "liberating" their society. The proportion of female combatants in the LTTE was smaller until June 1990 but increased rapidly after.[60] Freedom Birds' first operation was in October of 1987 and the first woman combatant to die was 2nd Lt. Malathi,[59][60] on October 10, 1987, in an encounter with the IPKF at Kopai in Jaffna peninsula. An estimated 4000 women cadres have been killed since then, including over a hundred in 'Black Tiger' suicide squads.[59] Apart from military roles the female soldiers have also produced numerous publications and many of them are described to be rich in culture and writing.[60][61][62] is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... Jaffna District. ...


Alleged Links to other designated terrorist organizations

Some experts have alleged the existence of connections between the LTTE and other internationally designated terrorist organizations including al-Qaeda.[63] While other experts dismiss this claim. They further add that "that the secular nationalist LTTE currently has no operational connection with al-Qaeda, its radical Islamist affiliates, or other terrorist groups" [64] ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...



Others security and counter-terrorism experts, such as the Council on Foreign Relations have rejected claims of links as propaganda. Al Qaeda is well known to have a deep loathing of secular politics of the sort pursued by the LTTE, and the LTTE is formally a secular organization with no interest is helping establish Islamic regimes elsewhere. If anything, the LTTE is more associated with Hinduism (Tamils being Hindus) than any other religion.[64]


Copying of LTTE tactics

Some of LTTE's attacks in Sri Lanka have been copied by other proscribed groups. Some examples are:

  • The Anti-Rebel website, South Asian Terrorism Portal, claimed that there are increasing intelligence reports that the LTTE was smuggling arms to various terrorist organizations, including to Islamics in Pakistan to their counterparts in the Philippines,[67] using their covert smuggling networks, and findings by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies that they were building commercial links with al-Qaeda and other militants in Afghanistan.[68][69]
  • Allegations that the LTTE stole Norwegian passports and sold them to the al-Qaeda organization to earn money to fund their arms purchases.[70]

However, most of these allegations have been made by Sri Lankan government officials and their sympathizers (especially post 9/11), and are therefore subject to some skepticism. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... The second USS Cole (DDG 67) is an Arleigh Burke class Aegis-equipped guided missile destroyer homeported in NS Norfolk, Virginia. ... USN redirects here. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef) (Arabic: ‎), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim (Arabic: ‎) and also known by dozens of aliases,[1][2] is a Kuwaiti of mixed Pakistani and Palestinian descent who was one of the planners of the... For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies is a British think tank based in London. ...


According to a Anti-Rebel website, Glen Jenvey, a former employee of the government of Sri Lanka and a specialist on international terrorism claimed that al-Qaeda has copied most of its terror tactics from the LTTE [71] He highlighted the LTTE as the mastermind that sets the pattern for organizations like al-Qaeda to pursue. However, has established no causal link, no interaction between groups, just coincidences. LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Glen Jenvey is the spy who nailed terror chief Abu Hamza al-Masri. ...

  • According to Asian Tribune, an Anti-Rebel website, attacks on civilians in buses and trains in Sri Lanka were copied on the attack public civilian transport during the July 2005 bombings in London [71]

LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ...

Human rights

Main article: List of attacks attributed to the LTTE

The US state department claims that its reason for banning LTTE as a proscribed Terrorist group is based on allegations that it does not have respect for human rights and that it does not adhere to the standards of conduct expected of a resistance movement or what might be called "freedom fighters".[72] [73] [74] [75] Other countries have also proscribed LTTE under the same rationale. Some countries cite that LTTE attacks civilians and recruit children.[76] The FBI has described the LTTE as the "amongst the most dangerous and deadly extremist outfit in the world".[77] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... The Contras were often referred to as Freedom Fighters by US President Ronald Reagan. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Attacks on civilians

The LTTE has attacked non-military targets including commuter trains and buses, farming villages, temples and mosques resulting in civilian deaths. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Some of the attacks resulting in civilian deaths include the Kebithigollewa massacre, the Gonagala massacre (54 dead), the Anuradhapura massacre (146 dead), the Dehiwala train bombing (56 dead),[78] the Palliyagodella massacre (109 dead) and the bombing of Sri Lanka's Central Bank (102 dead). The LTTE claims that some of these attacks resulting on civilian targets are collateral damage. The Kebithigollewa massacre was carried out by the LTTE, an organization which has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... The Gongala Massacre was a massacre that occurred on September 18, 1999, in the small village of Gonagala, located in the Ampara District of Sri Lanka. ... The Anuradhapura massacre was carried out by the LTTE, an organization which has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... The Dehiwala train bombing was carried out on July 24, 1996, by the LTTE. The LTTE has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... The Palliyagodella massacre was carried out by the LTTE, an organization which has been banned in 29 countries including the US, Australia, EU, India and Canada due to its terrorist activities. ... The Central Bank Bombing was one of the most devastating terrorist bombings in the 1990s, and was the deadliest attack in the long civil war in Sri Lanka between the government and the Tamil Tigers. ... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ...


The Anti-Rebel website, South Asian Terrorism Portal, claimed that even after the signing of the Ceasefire agreement in 2002, the LTTE has continued to carry out attacks against civilians. They murdered 6 Sinhalese farmers on April 23, 2006 and killed a further 13 laborers on May 30.[79] In one of the deadliest attacks against civilians, a claymore antipersonnel mine attack by the LTTE on June 15, 2006 on a bus carrying 140 civilians killed 68 people including 15 children, and injured 60 others.[80] LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Victims of the massacre Gomarankadawala is a tiny village in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka, where 6 Sinhalese civilians were gunned down by suspected LTTE cadres in an incident known as the Gomarankadawala massacre. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Parts of the M18A1 Claymore The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine used by the U.S. military. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Assassinations

The LTTE has been accused by various groups for assassination of political opponents and military opponents. The victims include both Tamil moderates, Tamil paramilitary groups and Sinhalese people. Most notably the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi and Ranasinghe Premadasa, who were the heads of India and Sri Lanka respectively, were attributed to LTTE. Since the onset of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983, militant and paramilitary groups have assassinated many public figures on suspicion of being sympahtizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from rival groups, or to stifle dissent. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


LTTE sympathizers justify some of the targeted assassinations by arguing that the people attacked were combatants or persons closely associated with Sri Lankan military intelligence. Specifically in relation to the TELO, the LTTE has said that it had to perform preemptive self-defence because the TELO was in effect functioning as a proxy for India. [81] Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ...


Child soldiers

The LTTE has recruited and used child soldiers to fight against Sri Lankan government forces.[82][83][84] The LTTE was accused of having up to 5,794 child soldiers in it's ranks since 2001.[85][86] Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ...


Amid international pressure, the LTTE announced in July 2003 that it would stop conscripting child soldiers, but both UNICEF[87][88] and Human Rights Watch[89] have accused it of reneging on its promises, and of conscripting Tamil children orphaned by the tsunami.[90] However, since 2007, the LTTE has pleaded that it will release all of the recruits under the age of 18 before the end of the year. On 18 June 2007, the LTTE released 135 children under the age of 18. UNICEF claims that 506 child recruits remain under the LTTE and notes, along with the United States, that there has been a significant drop in LTTE recruitment of children.[91] A report released by the LTTE's Child Protection Authority (CPA) in 2008 reported that less than 40 soldiers under the age of 18 remained in their forces.[92] UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


The LTTE argues that instances of child recruitment occurred mostly in the east, under the purview of former LTTE regional commander Colonel Karuna. After leaving the LTTE and forming the TMVP, it is alleged that Karuna continued to forcibly kidnap and induct child soldiers.[93] Its official position is that earlier, some of its cadres erroneously recruited volunteers in their late teens.[citation needed] It says that its official policy is now that it will not accept child soldiers. It also says that some underage youths lie about their age and are therefore allowed to join, but are sent back home to their parents as soon as they are discovered to be underage.[citation needed] Colonel Karuna Amman is the nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan (born 1966), the President of the TMVP (TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal), a breakaway faction of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ...


Suicide bombing

The LTTE counts more than 5000 martyrs that died from 1982 onwards. More than 300 of them are young women. What motivates the fighters to become martyrs is their ideology, but very few Westerners know about it. Therefore, some key concepts are given here in their context.


In the sacrificial ideology of the LTTE the following terms are highly frequent:


அர்ப்பணிப்பு - arppanipu வீரர் - virar மறம் - maram தியாகம் - tiyakam சாட்சி - catci, martyr


The word arppanippu (alternatively arppanam or arppanam) means sacrifice. It belongs to a religious ritual context to the libation offered to the god in the temple or to any gift presented to the god. We have the word tèvãrppnnam, offering that is acceptable to gods. Arppi, to offer, could include the totality of a human as expressed in the Tamil composite ivvutampai unakkarpanam ãkkinên - I have sacrificed this body to you . This sacrifice becomes in the context of the LTTE a sacrifice for the realisation of Tatnililam. [1] Not being aware of the religious sacrificial connotation of this Hindu term, the reader misses the point that is communicated to the reader of the Tamil text: like a libation or any gift is sacrificed to a god, so you sacrifice yourself totally for the sake of the holy aim. The sacrifice on the battlefield is rationalised by reference to a well known sacrifice to a god. The LTTE has frequently used suicide bombers as a tactic. They pioneered the use of concealed suicide bomb vests,[94]. The tactic of deploying suicide bombers was used to assassinate Rajiv Gandhi, who was killed in 1991 using a prototype suicide vest, and Ranasinghe Premadasa, assassinated in 1993.[76] A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Explosive belt (technically, a vest) worn by a Palestinian bomber captured by Israeli police An explosive belt (also called suicide belt, suicide vest or shaheed belt) is a vest packed with explosives and armed with a detonator, worn by suicide bombers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


According to Jane's Information Group, between 1980 and 2000 LTTE had carried out a total of 168 suicide attacks on civilians and military targets. The number of suicide attacks easily exceeded the combined total of Hezbollah and Hamas suicide attacks carried out during the same period.[76] Janes Information Group (often referred to as Janes) was founded by John F.T. Jane in 1898. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ...


Allegation of Ethnic cleansing

The LTTE has been blamed for forcibly removing (or "ethnically cleansing")[95][96] Sinhalese and Muslim inhabitants from areas under its control, including the use of violence against those who refuse to leave. Most notably, the LTTE forcibly expelled the entire Muslim population of Jaffna with two hours notice in 1990.[97] The LTTE are also accused of organising massacres of Sinhala villagers who settled in the Northeast under the dry lands policy.[98][99][100] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jaffna District. ...


In 2002, the LTTE leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran had formally apologized for the expulsion of Muslims from the North and asked the Muslims to return back. Some families have returned and the re-opened Osmaniya College and two Mosque are functioning now. According to a Jaffna Muslim source there is a floating population of about 2000 Muslims in Jaffna at any given time. [101] LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Proscription as a terrorist group

30 countries have listed the LTTE as a terrorist organisation.[102][103] As of May 2007, these include:

Australia[107] and other countries have listed the LTTE as a terrorist group in accordance with Resolution 1373. Canada does not grant residency to LTTE members on the grounds that they have participated in crimes against humanity.[108] Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Foreign Terrorist Organizations are foreign organizations that are designated as terrorist by the United States Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. ... Department of State redirects here. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Terrorism Act 2000 is a current United Kingdom Act of Parliament - An Act to make provision about terrorism; and to make temporary provision for Northern Ireland about the prosecution and punishment of certain offences, the preservation of peace and the maintenance of order. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


The first country to ban the LTTE was its early ally, India. The Indian change of policy came gradually, starting with the IPKF-LTTE conflict, and culminating with the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi. Sri Lanka itself lifted the ban on the LTTE before signing the ceasefire agreement in 2002. This was a prerequisite set by the LTTE for signing of the agreement.[109][citation needed]


The Europian Union banned LTTE as a terrorist organization on May 17 2006. In a statement, the European Parliament said that the LTTE did not represent all the Tamils and called on it to "allow for political pluralism and alternate democratic voices in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka". [110] Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Relationship with foreign states & International organizations

Even thought LTTE is proscribed as a terrorist organization, many states like China, Japan, United kingdom, Germany, Italy and Norway have continued contact with the LTTE . International organization like Asian Development Bank, World Bank and many UN Agencies also established contact with the LTTE after the 2002 ceasefire. [47] Notably the Asian Development Bank president held direct meeting with the LTTE in 2003. [111]. LTTE also held direct meeting with Danny K. Davis a United States House of Representatives, Kofi Annan's Special envoy and António Guterres, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).[112] [113] They also have held direct meeting with Norwegian government representatives and officials of other Scandinavian countries. “UK” redirects here. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... Danny K. Davis (born September 6, 1941), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1997, representing the 7th District of Illinois (map). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres (pron. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Criminal activities

On the 10th January 2008, the FBI stated that the Tigers (LTTE) have raised funds under a variety of cover organizations, often by posing as charities. A great deal of money, for example, was raised for the Tigers following the 2004 tsunami that devastated Sri Lanka and many other countries,[114].


One factor that has benefited the LTTE greatly has been its sophisticated international support network. While some of the funding obtained by the LTTE is from legitimate fund raising and extortion among the Tamil diaspora,[115][116] a significant portion is obtained through criminal activities, involving sea piracy[citation needed], human smuggling[citation needed], drug trafficking[citation needed] and gunrunning[citation needed].[117][118][119][63] The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack This article is about sea piracy; for other uses of Piracy or Pirate, see Pirate (disambiguation). ... People smuggling is a term which is used to describe transportation of people across international borders to a non-official entry point of a destination country for financial gain. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... A tower of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya Gunrunning, also known as arms trafficking, is trafficking in (smuggling) contraband weapons and ammunition. ...


LTTE has also been accused of committing credit card fraud in a number of countries including India and the United Kingdom.[63] In April 2007, the Sri Lankan High Commission in London also accused the LTTE of being behind a credit card scam, however a police spokesman said there was no definite link to the LTTE or Sri Lankan gangs.[120][121][122][123] Williams, a writer at US Institute of Peace Press, alleged the LTTE of crimes such as organized crime, social security fraud, counterfeit currency trading,[120][124]. Credit card fraud is a wide-ranging term for theft and fraud committed using a credit card or any similar payment mechanism as a fraudulent source of funds in a transaction. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...


A numbers of individuals, arrested in 2007, are facing charges for allegedly planning to use stolen credit cards information to steal $250,000. The prosecutes claim that they were also planning to steal tens of millions more from ATMs worldwide. The prosecutes further alleged that these individuals had LTTE links. However, the defense lawyers deny these claim and insist that they were local criminals. [63] Cash machine redirects here. ...


Two Tamils in Australia are facing charges for allegedly raising thousands of dollars in Australia under the pretense of being for charities and aid for those affected by the 2004 Asian Tsunami but instead using the money to fund the LTTE. The case is still in process at a Australian court.[125] ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation rate 2. ... -1...


Sea piracy

The LTTE are reported to hijack ships and boats of all sizes, and it is common practice for them to kidnap and kill the crew members on board the hijacked vessels.[126][127] LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers is the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984 [1]. The Sea Tigers have a number of small, but very effective suicide-bomber vessels [2]. During its existence it has...


The LTTE has been accused of hijacking several vessels in waters outside Sri Lanka including the Irish Mona (in August 1995), Princess Wave (in August 1996), Athena (in May 1997), Misen (in July 1997), Morong Bong (in July 1997), MV Cordiality (in Sept 1997), Princess Kash (in August 1998) and MV Farah III (December 2006) . When the LTTE captured the MV Cordiality near the port of Trincomalee, they killed all five Chinese crew members on board. The MV Sik Yang, a 2,818-ton Malaysian-flag cargo ship which sailed from Tuticorin, India on May 25, 1999 was reported missing in waters near Sri Lanka. The ship with a cargo of bagged salt was due at the Malaysian port of Malacca on May 31. The fate of the ship's crew of 15 is unknown. It is suspected that the vessel was hijacked by the LTTE and is now been used as a phantom vessel. A report published on June 30, 1999 confirmed that the vessel had been hijacked by the LTTE.[126]. Likewise the crew of a Jordanian ship, MV Farah III , that ran aground near rebel-controlled territory off the island's coast, accused the Tamil Tigers of forcing them to abandon the vessel which was carrying 14,000 tonnes of Indian rice and risking their lives [128] Thoothukudi (தூத்துக்குடி in Tamil), also known as Tuticorin is a city and district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... A phantom vehicle is a supposed ghostly or haunted vehicle. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


Arms smuggling

The Mackenzie Institute, an anti-Rebel website, alleges that another one of LTTE's most secretive International operations is the smuggling of weapons, explosives, and "dual use" technologies to keep up with the military operations. The part of the LTTE responsible for these activities is given the nickname "KP Branch", taking the initials of its highest level operative, Kumaran Padmanathan (KP). The workers for the KP Branch are outsiders from the fighting wing of the LTTE, since the identities of the those fighters are recorded and available to law enforcement and counter-intelligence agencies by India's RAW, who had helped train many Tiger cadres in the early 1980s. The KP Branch operates extremely secretively by having the minimum connection possible with the LTTE's other sections for further security. It finally hands over the arms shipments to a highly trusted team of the sea Tigers to deliver them to the LTTE dominated areas.[129] The Mackenzie Institute for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda is a think tank in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... One of the few known pictures of Kumaran Pathmanadan Kumaran Pathmanadan (also know as Shanmugam Kumaran Tharmalingam or simply KP; last name also spelt as Padmanadan or Pathmanaban; born April 6, 1955[1]) was the chief procurer of arms for the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the Tamil Tigers... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ...


The Mackenzie Institute, an anti-Rebel website, further claimed that In order to carryout the activities of International arms trafficking, the LTTE operates it own fleet of ocean-going vessels. These vessels only operate a certain period of time for the LTTE and in the remaining time they transport legitimate goods and raise hard cash for the purchase of weapons. The LTTE initially operated a shipping base in Myanmar, but they were forced to leave due to diplomatic pressure. To overcome the loss of this, a new base has been set up on Phuket Island, in Thailand.[129] The Mackenzie Institute for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda is a think tank in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Phuket (Thai: ; formerly known as Tha-Laang or Talang) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ...


Furthermore, The Mackenzie Institute, an anti-Rebel website, claimed that the most expertly carried out operation of the KP Branch was the theft of 32,400 rounds of 81mm mortar ammunition purchased from Tanzania for the Sri Lanka Army. Being aware of the purchase of 35,000 mortar bombs, the LTTE made a bid to the manufacturer through a numbered company and arranged a vessel of their own to pick up the load. Once the bombs were loaded into the ship, the LTTE changed the name and registration of their ship. The vessel was taken to Tiger-held territory in Sri Lanka's north instead of transporting it to its intended destination.[129] The Mackenzie Institute for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda is a think tank in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...


Western countries are the main territory for fund raising activities of the LTTE. The money raised from donations and criminal enterprises are transferred into bank accounts of the Tigers and from there to the accounts of a weapons broker, or the money is taken by KP operatives themselves. LTTE's need for resources is mostly fulfilled by the Tamils who reside outside Sri Lanka. In 1995, when the LTTE lost Jaffna, their international operatives were ordered to increase, by a massive 50%, the amount raised from Tamils outside of the island.[129]


See also

Since the onset of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983, militant and paramilitary groups have assassinated many public figures on suspicion of being sympahtizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from rival groups, or to stifle dissent. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna. ... Narayan Swamy an Indian hermit and social worker. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Daily News and Analysis (DNA) is a daily English newspaper published from Mumbai, India, launched on July 30, 2005. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Balasingham, Adele. (2003) The Will to Freedom - An Inside View of Tamil Resistance, Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. ISBN 1-903679-03-6
  • Balasingham, Anton. (2004) War and Peace - Armed Struggle and Peace Efforts of Liberation Tigers, Fairmax Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-903679-05-2
  • de Votta, Neil. (2004) Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay, and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka. Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-4924-8
  • Gamage, Siri and I.B. Watson (Editors). (1999) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka - 'Pearl of the East' or 'Island of Tears'?, Sage Publications Ltd, ISBN 0-7619-9393-2
  • Hansard Australia (2006), Senate Transcript for 16 June 2006[3]
  • Hellmann-Rajanayagam, D. (1994) "The Groups and the rise of Militant Secessions". in Manogaram, C. and Pfaffenberger, B. (editors). The Sri Lankan Tamils. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-8133-8845-7
  • Human Rights Watch (2003) Child Soldier Use 2003: A Briefing for the 4th UN Security Council Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict[4]
  • La, J.. 2004. "Forced remittances in Canada's Tamil enclaves". Peace Review 16:3. September 2004. pp. 379-385.
  • Narayan Swamy, M. R. (2002) Tigers of Lanka: from Boys to Guerrillas, Konark Publishers; 3rd ed. ISBN 81-220-0631-0
  • Pratap, Anita. (2001) Island of Blood: Frontline Reports From Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Other South Asian Flashpoints

Eelam Nation News Group The Stanford University Press is a publishing house, a division of Stanford University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... SAGE Publications is an independent academic publisher of books, journals and databases in the humanities, social sciences and scientific, technical and medical fields. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...


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Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), Terrorist Group of Sri Lanka (2230 words)
The LTTE aims to create a separate homeland for the Tamils known as the Tamil Eelam (state) in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka.
LTTE cadres are known for their high sense of discipline, dedication, strong determination, a high degree of motivation and innovation.
The LTTE has also set up a parallel civil administration within its territory by establishing structures such as a police force, law courts, postal services, banks, administrative offices, television and radio broadcasting station, etc. The most prominent of the LTTE ‘state structure' is the ‘Tamil Eelam Judiciary’ and the ‘Tamil Eelam Police’.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4440 words)
The LTTE proclaims itself as the sole representative and protector of Sri Lankan Tamils, and is generally seen as being the main body with whom the Sri Lankan government must negotiate in the long-running conflict.
However, the tactics of the LTTE, and particularly its treatment of non-Tamil civilians and Tamil political opponents, have drawn sharp criticism from the international community and led to it being proscribed as a terrorist organisation by India (1992), Malaysia (1996), USA (1997), UK (2000) and Canada (2006).
The LTTE is suspected of involvement in the assassinations of Appapillai Amirthalingam, Neelan Tiruchelvam, Sarojini Yogeswaran, Pon Sivapalan, Lakshman Kadirgamar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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