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Encyclopedia > Liberal Party (UK)
United Kingdom

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United Kingdom
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This article is about the historic Liberal Party. For the new Liberal Party formed by those opposing the 1988 merger with the SDP, see Liberal Party (UK, 1989).

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Contents

Origins

Viscount Palmerston
Viscount Palmerston

The Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, which had their origins as an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II. The Whigs were in favour of reducing the power of the Crown and increasing the power of the Parliament, and although their motives in this were originally to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs gradually came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake. The great figures of reforming Whiggery were Charles James Fox (died 1806) and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition the Whigs came to power under Grey in 1830, and carried the First Reform Act in 1832. Lord Palmerston This a common engraving, it could have come from anywhere. ... Lord Palmerston This a common engraving, it could have come from anywhere. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Charles James Fox Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...


The Reform Act was the climax of Whiggery, but also brought about the Whigs' demise. The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led eventually to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a fairly traditional Whig, and then by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, and Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and essentially a conservative, although capable of radical gestures. Whiggery may mean: Whiggism, support for the principles of the British Whig Party of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century Whiggishness, a more cosmic attitude on progress, liberalism, and the arrow of time in history. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792–28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a British Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid 19th century. ... The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ...


As early as 1839 Russell had adopted the name Liberal Party, but in reality the party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act. They favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England (many of them were Nonconformists), avoidance of war and foreign alliances (which were bad for business), and above all free trade. For a century free trade was the one cause which could unite all Liberals. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Radicals were a parliamentary political grouping in the United Kingdom in the early to mid 19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party. ... John Bright John Bright (November 16, 1811–March 27, 1889), was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ... Richard Cobden Richard Cobden (June 3, 1804 – April 2, 1865) was an a British manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with John Bright in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


In 1841 the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short, because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue, and a faction known as the Peelites (but not Peel himself, who died soon after), defected to the Liberal side. This allowed ministries led by Russell, Palmerston and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. The leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, who was a zealous reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments. The formal foundation of the Liberal party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... The Peelites (or Liberal Conservatives as they were also occasionally known) are those MPs and Peers who remained loyal to British Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel following the break up of the British Conservative Party on the issue of abolishing the Corn Laws in 1846. ... The Right Honourable George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, PC (January 28, 1784–December 14, 1860) was a Tory/Peelite politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 until 1855. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ...


The Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party, however, while it was dominated by aristocrats, and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party. This was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative interlude (during which the Second Reform Act was passed by agreement between the parties), Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government. The establishment of the party as a national membership organisation came with the foundation of the National Liberal Federation in 1877. The Reform Act 1867 (also known as the Second Reform Act) was a piece of British legislation that greatly increased the number of men who could vote in elections in the UK. In its final form, the Reform Act 1867 enfranchised all male householders and abolished compounding (the practice of...


The Gladstonian era

William Gladstone
William Gladstone

For the next thirty years Gladstone and Liberalism were synonymous. The "Grand Old Man", as he became known, was Prime Minister four times and the powerful flow of his rhetoric dominated British politics even when he was out of office. His rivalry with the Conservative leader Benjamin Disraeli became legendary. Gladstone was a High Church Anglican and enjoyed the company of aristocrats, but he grew ever more radical as he grew older: he was, as one wit put it, "a Tory in all but essentials". Queen Victoria, who had grown up as a Whig supporter under the tutelage of Melbourne, became a Tory in reaction to Gladstone's moralizing Liberalism. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was an English statesman and literary figure. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ...


Gladstone's great achievements in office were his reforms to education, land reform (particularly in Ireland, where he ended centuries of landlord oppression), the disestablishment of the (Anglican) Church of Ireland, the introduction of democratic local government, the abolition of patronage in the civil service and the army, and the Third Reform Act which greatly extended the vote to almost all adult males. In foreign policy, Gladstone was in general against foreign entanglements but did not resist the reality of imperialism. For example he approved of the occupation of Egypt by British forces in 1882. Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Representation of the People Act 1884 In the United Kingdom, The Representation of the People Act of 1884 (48 & 49 Vict. ...


In 1874 Gladstone was defeated by the Tories under Disraeli during a sharp recession. He formally resigned as Liberal leader and was succeeded by the Marquess of Hartington, but he soon changed his mind and returned to active politics. He strongly disagreed with Disraeli's pro-Ottoman foreign policy and in 1880 he conducted the first outdoor mass-election campaign in Britain, known as the Midlothian campaign. The Liberals won a large majority in the 1880 election. Hartington ceded his place and Gladstone resumed office. The 1874 UK general election ended with the Liberals, led by William Gladstone, winning a majority of the votes cast, but Benjamin Disraelis Conservatives winning the majority of seats in the House of Commons, largely because they won a number of uncontested seats. ... A recession is traditionally defined in macroeconomics as a decline in a countrys real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for two or more successive quarters of a year (equivalently, two consecutive quarters of negative real economic growth). ... Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (29 June 1833 - 19 October 1908) was a British politician, previously known (1858-1891) as Marquess of Hartington. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The Midlothian campaign was a series of foreign policy speeches given by William Gladstone. ... The UK general election of 1880 was a general election in the United Kingdom held on the 18 April 1880. ...


Among the consequences of the Third Reform Act was the giving of the vote to the Catholic peasants in Ireland, and the consequent creation of an Irish Parliamentry Party led by Charles Stewart Parnell. In 1885 this party won the balance of power in the House of Commons, and demanded Irish Home Rule (the status of a self-governing Dominion for Ireland) as the price of support for a continued Gladstone ministry. Gladstone personally supported Home Rule, but a strong Liberal Unionist faction led by Joseph Chamberlain, along with the last of the Whigs, Hartington, opposed it. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had... The 1885 UK general election was from the 24th November - 18th December 1885. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | UK political parties | Historical liberal parties ... The Rt. ...


The result was a catastrophic split in the Liberal Party, and heavy defeat in the 1886 election at the hands of Lord Salisbury. There was a final weak Gladstone ministry in 1892, but it also was dependent on Irish support and broke up on the rocks of Irish Home Rule. Gladstone finally retired in 1894, and his ineffectual successor, Lord Rosebery, led the party to another heavy defeat in 1895. The 1886 UK general election took place from July 1-27, 1886. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, KG, PC (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister, also known as Archibald Primrose (1847-1851) and Lord Dalmeny (1851-1868). ... The UK general election of 1895 was held from 13th July - 7th August 1895. ...


The Liberal Zenith

Herbert Henry Asquith
Herbert Henry Asquith

The Liberals languished in opposition for a decade, while the coalition of Salisbury and Chamberlain held power. The 1890s were marred by infighting between between the three principle successors to Gladstone, party leader William Harcourt, former prime minster Lord Rosebery, and Gladstone's personal secretary, John Morley. This intrigue finally led Harcourt and Morley to resign their positions in 1898 as they continued to be at loggerheads with Rosebery over Irish home rule and issues relating to imperialism. Replacing Harcourt as party leader was Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Harcourt's resignation briefly muted the turmoil in the party, but the beginning of the Second Boer War soon nearly broke the party apart, with Rosebery and a circle of supporters including important future Liberal leaders H.H. Asquith, Edward Grey, and Richard Burdon Haldane forming a clique dubbed the "Liberal Imperialists" that supported the government in the prosecution of the war. On the other side, more radical members of the party formed a Pro-Boer faction that denounced the conflict and called for an immediate end to hostilites. Quickly rising to prominence among the Pro-Boers was David Lloyd George, a relatively new MP and master of rhetoric and demagoguery that took advantage of having a national stage to speak out on a controversial issue to begin his rise to stardom in the party. Harcourt and Morley also sided with this group, though with slightly different aims. Campbell-Bannerman tried to keep these forces together at the head of a moderate Liberal rump, but in 1901 he delivered a speech on the government's "methods of barbarism" in South Africa that pulled him further to the left and nearly tore the party in two. The party was saved after Salisbury's retirement in 1902 when his successor, Arthur Balfour, pushed a series of unpopular initiatives such as a new education bill and Joseph Chamberlain called for a new system of protectionist tariffs. Campbell-Bannerman was able to rally the party around the traditional liberal platform of free trade and land reform and lead them to the greatest election victory in their history. This would prove the last time the Liberals won a majority in their own right. smaller version of Image:Herbert_Henry_Asquith. ... smaller version of Image:Herbert_Henry_Asquith. ... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ...


Although he presided over a large majority, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was overshadowed by his ministers, most notably Herbert Henry Asquith at the Exchequer, Edward Grey at the Foreign Office, Richard Burdon Haldane at the War Office and David Lloyd George at the Board of Trade. An ill Campbell-Bannerman retired in 1908 and died later that year. He was succeeded by Asquith, who stepped up the government's radicalism. Lloyd George succeeded Asquith at the Exchequer, and was in turn succeeded at the Board of Trade by Winston Churchill, a recent defector from the Conservatives. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon (April 25, 1862 - September 7, 1933), better known as Sir Edward Grey was a British politician and ornithologist. ... Lord Haldane Richard Burdon Sanderson Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, (July 30, 1856 - August 19, 1928), was an important British Liberal politician, lawyer, and philosopher. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


The Liberals pushed through much legislation, including the regulation of working hours, national insurance and welfare. It was at this time that a political battle over the so-called People's Budget resulted in the passage of an act ending the power of the House of Lords to block legislation. The cost was high, however, as the government needed to call two general elections in 1910 to validate its position and ended up frittering away most of its large majority, being left once again dependent on the Irish Nationalists. The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


As a result Asquith was forced to introduce a new third Home Rule bill in 1912. Since the House of Lords no longer had the power to block the bill, the Unionist's Ulster Volunteer Force led by Sir Edward Carson, launched a campaign of opposition that included the threat of armed resistance in Ulster and the threat of mutiny by army officers in Ireland in 1914 (see Curragh Incident). In their resistance to Home Rule the Ulster Protestants had the full support of the Conservatives, whose leader, Andrew Bonar Law, was of Ulster-Scots descent. The country seemed to be on the brink of civil war when World War I broke out in August 1914. The Third Home Rule Act, more correctly known as the Home Rule Act, 1914 was an Act of the parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which allowed for the creation of a separate home rule parliament in Ireland. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... Edward Carson HMSO image The Right Honourable Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC (February 9, 1854 – October 22, 1935) was a leader of the Irish Unionists, a Barrister and a Judge. ... Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official languages English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Office... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ... The Curragh incident July 20, 1914 is also known as the Curragh Mutiny. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858–30 October 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


The war struck at the heart of everything British Liberals believed in. Several Cabinet ministers resigned, and Asquith, the master of domestic politics, proved a poor war leader. Lloyd George and Churchill, however, were zealous supporters of the war, and gradually forced the old pacifist Liberals out. The poor British performance in the early months of the war forced Asquith to invite the Conservatives into a coalition (on 17th May, 1915). This marked the end of the last all-Liberal government. This coalition fell apart at the end of 1916, when the Conservatives withdrew their support from Asquith and gave it to Lloyd George instead, who became Prime Minister at the head of a coalition government largely made up of Conservatives. Asquith and his followers moved to the opposition benches in Parliament and the Liberal Party was split once again. (Redirected from 17th May) May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Liberal decline

David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George

In the 1918 general election Lloyd George, "the Man who Won the War", led his coalition into another khaki election, and won a sweeping victory over the Asquithian Liberals and the newly-emerging Labour Party. Lloyd George and the Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law wrote a joint letter of support to candidates to indicate they were considered the official Coalition candidates - this "coupon" as it became known was issued against many sitting Liberal MPs, often to devastating effect, though not against Asquith himself. Asquith and most of his colleagues lost their seats. Lloyd George still claimed to be leading a Liberal government, but he was increasingly under the influence of the rejuvenated Conservative party. In 1922 the Conservative backbenchers rebelled against the continuation of the coalition, citing in particular the Chanak Crisis over Turkey and Lloyd George's corrupt sale of honours amongst other grievances, and Lloyd George was forced to resign. The Conservatives came back to power under Bonar Law and then Stanley Baldwin. David Lloyd George This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... David Lloyd George This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1918 held on 14th December 1918, after the Representation of the People Act 1918. ... Khaki election is a term in British political history. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858–30 October 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... The Chanak Affair occurred in 1922, when British troops stationed near Chanak, on the Dardanelles, were threatened with attack by the Turks. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ...


At the 1922 and 1923 elections the Liberals won barely a third of the vote and only a quarter of the seats in the House of Commons, as many radical voters abandoned the divided Liberals and went over to Labour. In 1922 Labour became the official opposition. A reunion of the two warring factions took place in 1923 when the new Conservative Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin committed his party to protective tariffs, causing the Liberals to reunite in support of free trade. The party gained ground in the 1923 general election but ominously made most of its gains from Conservatives whilst losing ground to Labour - a sign of the party's direction for many years to come. The party remained the third largest in the House of Commons, but the Conservatives had lost their majority. There was much speculation and fear about the prospect of a Labour government, and comparatively little about a Liberal government, even though it could have plausibly presented an experienced team of ministers compared to Labour's almost complete lack of experience, as well as offering a middle ground that could get support from both Conservatives and Labour in crucial Commons divisions. But instead of trying to force the opportunity to form a Liberal government, Asquith decided instead to allow Labour the chance of office in the belief that they would prove incompetent and this would set the stage for a revival of Liberal fortunes at Labour's expenses. It was a fatal error. The UK general election of 1922 was held on 15th November 1922. ... The UK general election of 1923 was held on 5th December 1923. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ... The UK general election of 1923 was held on 5th December 1923. ...


Labour was determined to destroy the Liberals and become the sole party of the left. Ramsay MacDonald was forced into a snap election in 1924, and although his government was defeated, he achieved his objective of virtually wiping the Liberals out as many more radical voters now moved to Labour whilst moderate middle-class Liberal voters concerned about socialism moved to the Conservatives. The Liberals were reduced to a mere forty seats in Parliament, only seven of which had been won against candidates from both parties and none of these formed a coherent area of Liberal survival. The party seemed finished and during this period some Liberals, such as Churchill, went over to the Conservatives, while others went over to Labour. (Several Labour ministers of later generations, such as Michael Foot and Tony Benn, were the sons of Liberal MPs.) James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The 1924 UK general election was held on 29th October 1924. ... Michael Foot For other people named Michael Foot, see Michael Foot (disambiguation). ... Tony Benn about to join March 2005 anti-war demo in London Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born April 3, 1925), known as Tony Benn, formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British politician on the left of the Labour Party. ...


Asquith died in 1928 and the enigmatic figure of Lloyd George returned to the leadership and began a drive to produce coherent policies on many key issues of the day. In the 1929 general election he made a final bid to return the Liberals to the political mainstream, with an ambitious programme of state stimulation of the economy called We Can Conquer Unemployment!, largely written for him by the Liberal economist John Maynard Keynes. The Liberals gained ground, but once again it was at the Conservatives' expense whilst also losing seats to Labour. Indeed the urban areas of the country suffering heavily from unemployment, which might have been expected to respond the most to the radical economic policies of the Liberals instead gave the party its worst results. By contrast most of the party's seats were won either due to the absence of a candidate from one of the other parties or in rural areas on the "Celtic fringe", where local evidence suggests that economic ideas were at best peripheral to the electorate's concerns. The Liberals now found themselves with 59 members holding the balance of power in a Parliament where Labour was the largest party but lacked an overall majority. Lloyd George offered a degree of support to the Labour government in the hope of winning concessions, including a degree of electoral reform to introduce the alternative vote, but this support was to prove bitterly divisive as the Liberals increasingly divided between those seeking to gain what Liberal goals they could achieve, those who preferred a Conservative government to a Labour one and vice-versa. The 1929 UK general election was held on 30th May 1929, and resulted in a hung parliament. ... John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced canes, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic Nations refers to areas of Europe that have been inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... When the single transferable vote voting system is applied to a single-winner election it is sometimes called instant-runoff voting (IRV), as it is much like holding a series of runoff elections in which the lowest polling candidate is eliminated in each round until someone receives majority vote. ...


The splits over the National Government

In 1931 MacDonald's government fell apart under the Great Depression, and the Liberals agreed to join his National Government, dominated by the Conservatives. Lloyd George himself was ill and did not actually join. Soon, however, the Liberals faced another divisive crisis when a National Government was proposed to fight the 1931 general election with a mandate for tariffs. From the outside, Lloyd George called for the party to abandon the government completely in defence of free trade, but only a few MPs and candidates followed. Another group under Sir John Simon then emerged, who were prepared to continue their support for the government and take the Liberal places in the Cabinet if there were resignations. The third group under Sir Herbert Samuel pressed for the parties in government to fight the election on separate platforms. In doing so the bulk of Liberals remained supporting the government, but two distinct Liberal groups had emerged within this bulk - the National Liberals led by Simon, also known as "Simonites", and the "Samuelites" or "official Liberals," led by Samuel who remained as the official party. Both groups secured about 35 MPs but proceeded to diverge even further after the election, with the National Liberals remaining supporters of the government throughout its life. There were to be a succession of discussions about them rejoining the Liberals, but these usually foundered on the issues of free trade and continued support for the National Government. In 1946 the Liberal and National Liberal party organisations in London did merge. This article deals with the effects of the Great Depression of the 1930s on the United Kingdom. ... The UK general election on Tuesday 27 October 1931 was the last in the United Kingdom not held on a Thursday. ... John Simon could refer to: John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, Several of his descendants who have held the title of Viscount Simon, John Simon, the author and literary, film and drama critic; or John Simon, record producer for Columbia Records. ... Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel (1870-1963) was a British politician and diplomat. ... National Liberal Party was a name used by two groups of politicians, who had formerly been associated with the Liberal Party. ...


The official Liberals found themselves a tiny minority within a government committed to protectionism. Slowly they found this issue to be one they could not support. In early 1932 it was agreed to suspend the principle of collective responsibility to allow the Liberals to oppose the introduction of tariffs. Later in 1932 the Liberals resigned their ministerial posts over the introduction of the Ottawa Agreement on Imperial Preference. However they remained sitting on the government benches supporting it in Parliament, though in the country local Liberal activists bitterly opposed the government. Finally in late 1933 the Liberals crossed the floor of the House of Commons and went into complete opposition. By this point their number of MPs was severely depleted. In the 1935 general election, just 17 Liberal MPs were elected, along with Lloyd George and three followers as "independent Liberals". Immediately after the election the two groups reunited, though Lloyd George declined to play much of a formal role in his old party. Over the next ten years there would be further defections as MPs deserted to either the National Liberals or Labour. Yet there were a few recruits, such as Clement Davies, who had deserted to the National Liberals in 1931 but now returned to the party during the Second World War and who would lead it after the war in. Collective responsibility is a principle of British Cabinet Government in which the members of the Cabinet must support all Governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Stanley Baldwin Clement Attlee The UK general election held on 14th November 1935 resulted in a large, though reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin. ... The Independent Liberal Party was a small group led by the former party leader, David Lloyd George, who refused to work with either those Liberals who entered the National Government, or the offical Liberal Party, which sat in Opposition. ... Clement Edward Davies (February 19, 1884–March 23, 1962) was a UK politician and leader of the Liberal Party between 1945 and 1956. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Near extinction

Samuel had lost his seat in the 1935 election and the leadership of the party fell to Sir Archibald Sinclair. With many traditional domestic Liberal policies now regarded as irrelevant, he focused the part on opposition to both the rise of Fascism in Europe and the appeasement foreign policy of the British government, arguing that intervention was needed, in contrast to the Labour calls for pacifism. Despite the party's weaknesses, Sinclair gained a high profile as he sought to recall the Midlothian Campaign and once more revitalise the Liberals as the party of a strong foreign policy. Stanley Baldwin Clement Attlee The UK general election held on 14th November 1935 resulted in a large, though reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin. ... Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso KT CMG PC (October 22, 1890 – June 15, 1970), known as Sir Archibald Sinclair from 1912 until 1952, was a Scottish politician and leader of the British Liberal Party. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... The Midlothian campaign was a series of foreign policy speeches given by William Gladstone. ...


In 1940 they joined Churchill's wartime coalition government, with Sinclair serving as Secretary of State for Air, the last British Liberal to hold Cabinet rank office. However it was a sign of the party's lack of importance that they were not included in the War Cabinet. At the 1945 general election, however, Sinclair and many of his colleagues lost their seats to both Conservatives and Labour. By 1951 there were only six MPs, all but one of them were aided by the Conservatives not putting up a candidate. In 1957 this total fell to five when one of their MPs died and the subsequent by-election was lost to the Labour Party, who fielded the former Liberal Deputy Leader Lady Megan Lloyd George as their candidate. The Liberal Party seemed close to extinction. During this low period, it was often joked that Liberal MP's could hold meetings in the back of one taxi. The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... A War Cabinet is committee formed by a government in time of war. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... The Lady Megan Arvon Lloyd George (22 April 1902 to 14 May 1966) was a British politician, the first female Member of Parliament for a Welsh constituency, and Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party. ...


Liberal revival

Through the 1950s and into the 1960s the Liberals survived only because a handful of constituencies in rural Scotland and Wales clung to their Liberal traditions, whilst in two English towns, Bolton and Huddersfield local Liberals and Conservatives agreed to each contest only one of the town's two seats. Jo Grimond, for example, who became Liberal leader in 1956, was MP for the remote Orkney and Shetland islands. Under his leadership a Liberal revival began, marked by the famous Orpington by-election of March 1962 which was won by Eric Lubbock, in which the Liberals won a seat in the London suburbs for the first time since 1935. The Liberals became the first of the major British political parties to advocate British membership of the European Economic Community. Grimond also sought an intellectual revival of the party, seeking to position it as a non-socialist radical alternative to the Conservative government of the day. In particular he appealed to the young post-war university students and recent graduates, appealing to younger voters in a way that many of his recent predecessors did not, asserting a new strand of Liberalism for the post war world. Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... This article is about the country. ... Statistics Population: 139,403 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SD715095 Administration Metropolitan borough: Bolton Metropolitan county: Greater Manchester Region: North West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Greater Manchester Historic county: Lancashire Services Police force: Greater Manchester Ambulance: North West Post office and telephone Post... Huddersfield is a large town in England near the confluence of the River Colne and the River Holme. ... Joseph Jo Grimond, Baron Grimond (July 29, 1913 - October 24, 1993) was a British politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1956 to 1967 and again briefly in 1976. ... Orkney and Shetland is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Orpington by-election of 1962 is often described as the start of the Liberal Party revival in the United Kingdom. ... Eric Reginald Lubbock, 4th Baron Avebury (born 29 September 1928) is a Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The postwar middle-class suburban generation began to find the Liberals' policies attractive again, and under Grimond and his successor, Jeremy Thorpe, the Liberals regained the status of a serious third force in British politics, polling up to 20% of the vote but unable to break the duopoly of Labour and Conservative and win more than fourteen seats in the Commons. An additional problem was competition in the Liberal heartlands in Scotland and Wales from the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru who both grew as electoral forces from the 1960s onwards. John Jeremy Thorpe (born April 29, 1929) is a British politician, who was leader of the Liberal Party from 1967 to 1976. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Plaid Cymru (pronounced IPA: ) – The Party of Wales, is the principal nationalist political party in Wales. ...


Liverpool remained a Liberal stronghold, with the party taking the plurality of seats on the elections to the new Liverpool Metropolitan Borough Council in 1973. In the February 1974 general election the Conservative government of Edward Heath won a plurality of votes cast, but the Labour Party gained a plurality of seats due to the Ulster Unionist MPs refusing to support the Conservatives after the Northern Ireland Sunningdale Agreement. The Liberals now held the balance of power in the Commons. Conservatives offered Thorpe the Home Office if he would join a coalition government with Heath. Thorpe was personally in favour, but the party insisted on a clear government commitment to introducing proportional representation and a change of Prime Minister. The former was unacceptable to Heath's Cabinet and the latter to Heath personally, so the talks collapsed. Instead a minority Labour government was formed under Harold Wilson but with no formal support from Thorpe. In the October 1974 general election the Liberals slipped back slightly and the Labour government won a wafer-thin majority. Liverpool skyline. ... The first elections to the new local authorities established by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales took place in 1973. ... The UK general election of February 1974 was held on February 28, 1974. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... The UK general election of October 1974 took place on October 10, 1974. ...


Thorpe was subsequently forced to resign in a sordid sex scandal. The party's new leader, David Steel negotiated the Lib-Lab pact with the new Prime Minister, Jim Callaghan, whereby the Liberals would support the government in crucial votes in exchange for some influence over policy. This pact lasted from 1977-1978 but proved relatively fruitless as the Liberals' key demand of proportional representation was anathema to most Labour MPs whilst the contacts between Liberal spokespersons and Labour ministers often proved detrimental, such as between finance spokesperson John Pardoe and Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey who did not get on at all. David Martin Scott Steel, Baron Steel of Aikwood KT PC KBE (born March 31, 1938) is a British and Scottish politician and a Liberal Democrat member of the UK House of Lords. ... Lib-Lab Pact has been the term used to describe a working arrangement between the UKs political parties of the Liberals (later Liberal Democrats) and the Labour Party. ... James Callaghan is also a former MP for Heywood & Middleton. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... John Pardoe (born July 27, 1934) is a retired British politician and businessman. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, CH, MBE, PC (born 30 August 1917), is a British Labour politician, regarded by some (especially in the Labour Party) as the best Prime Minister we never had.[1] Denis Healey was born in Mottingham in Kent but in 1917 moved to Keighley, then in...


When the Labour government fell in 1979, the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher won a victory which served to push the Liberals back into the margins. In 1981 defectors from the moderate wing of the Labour Party, led by former Cabinet ministers Roy Jenkins, David Owen and Shirley Williams, founded the Social Democratic Party. The two parties fought the 1983 and 1987 general elections jointly as the SDP-Liberal Alliance. During 1982 and 1983, at the depths of Labour's fortunes under Michael Foot, there was much talk of the Alliance becoming the dominant party of the left and even of Jenkins becoming Prime Minister. In fact, while the Alliance won over 20% of the vote each time, it never made the hoped-for breakthrough in parliament. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born 13 October 1925), is a former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Margaret Thatcher James Callaghan David Steel BBC Election 1979 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on May 3, 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM, PC (November 11, 1920 – January 5, 2003) was a British politician and a prominent Labour Member of Parliament in the 1960s and 1970s, and founding member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP). ... The Right Honourable David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen, CH, PC (born July 2, 1938) is a British politician and one of the founders of the British Social Democratic Party (SDP). ... The Baroness Williams of Crosby Shirley Williams, Baroness Williams of Crosby, PC (born July 27, 1930), is a British politician. ... The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a political party of the United Kingdom that existed nationwide between 1981 and 1988. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... The SDP-Liberal Alliance was an electoral alliance of the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Party in the UK that ran from 1981 to 1988, when the bulk of the two parties merged to form the Social and Liberal Democrats, later referred to as simply the Liberal Democrats. ... Michael Foot For other people named Michael Foot, see Michael Foot (disambiguation). ...


Merger with SDP

(see article at Liberal Democrats (UK) for details of the successor party) The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1988 the two parties merged to create (after a number of name changes) the Liberal Democrats. Over two-thirds of the members, and all the serving MPs, of the Liberal Party joined this party, led first jointly by Steel and the SDP leader Robert Maclennan, and later by Paddy Ashdown (1988-99), Charles Kennedy (1999-2006) and Sir Menzies Campbell (since 2006). The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... Robert Adam Ross Maclennan, Baron Maclennan of Rogart, PC (born June 26, 1936), educated at Balliol College, Oxford and Trinity College, Cambridge, is a British Liberal Democrat politician. ... Jeremy John Durham Ashdown, Baron Ashdown of Norton-sub-Hamdon GCMG KBE PC (born 27 February 1941), commonly known as Paddy Ashdown, is a British politician native of British India. ... Rt. ... The Right Honourable Sir Walter Menzies Campbell (born May 22, 1941) is a Scottish barrister and the Liberal Democrat member of Parliament for North East Fife. ...


With the fading away of the ex-Labour element after 1992, this party is seen by many as a continuation of the old Liberal Party under a new name, and some of its MPs and many of its rank-and-file continue to refer to themselves simply as Liberals. Ashdown, Kennedy (who himself was SDP rather than Liberal before the merger) and Campbell have all described themselves as Liberals, and Campbell was a Liberal party member since the Jo Grimond era.


Though the merger process was traumatic and the new party suffered a few years of extremely poor poll results, it gradually found much greater electoral success than the Liberal Party had done in the post-war era. In the 2005 General Election, the Liberal Democrats elected 62 MPs to the House of Commons, a far cry from the days when the Liberals had just 5 MPs and Liberalism as a political force had seemed near to extinction.


As was the case with the Liberal Party for most of the 20th century, the Liberal Democrats face constant questioning about which of the other two parties they are closest to, in particular about which they would support in the event of a hung parliament. The party is keen to maintain its independent identity however, and argues that the need for a modern Liberal force in British poilitics has never been greater.


The post 1988 Liberal Party

A group of Liberal opponents of the merger, including Michael Meadowcroft formerly Liberal MP for Leeds West and Dr Paul Wiggin who served on Peterborough City Council as a Liberal, continued under the old name of "the Liberal Party"; this was legally a new organisation (the headquarters, records, assets and debts of the old party were inherited by the Liberal Democrats), but its constitution asserts it to be the same Liberal party. The Liberal Party is a minor United Kingdom political party. ... Michael James Meadowcroft (born March 6, 1942) is a politician and political affairs consultant in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Party is a minor United Kingdom political party. ...


Liberal leaders 1859-1988

Liberal Leaders in the House of Lords, 1859-1916

Liberal Leaders in the House of Commons, 1859-1916 Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville (May 11, 1815 - March 31, 1891) was an English statesman. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792–28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a British Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville (May 11, 1815 - March 31, 1891) was an English statesman. ... John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley (1826-1902), English statesman, was born on 7 January 1826, being the eldest son of the Hon. ... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (May 7, 1847 - May 21, 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister. ... John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley (1826-1902), English statesman, was born on 7 January 1826, being the eldest son of the Hon. ... George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (24 October 1827 - 9 July 1909) was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until his death forty-eight years later. ... Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe (12 January 1858 - 20 June 1945) was an English statesman and writer. ...

Leaders of the Liberal Party, 1916-1988 The Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid 19th century. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (29 June 1833 - 19 October 1908) was a British politician, previously known (1858-1891) as Marquess of Hartington. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Sir William Harcourt Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon Harcourt (October 14, 1827 - October 1, 1904) was a British Liberal statesman. ... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ...

The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... Sir Donald Maclean (January 9, 1864 – June 15, 1932), was a Liberal politician in the United Kingdom. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel (1870-1963) was a British politician and diplomat. ... Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso KT CMG PC (October 22, 1890 – June 15, 1970), known as Sir Archibald Sinclair from 1912 until 1952, was a Scottish politician and leader of the British Liberal Party. ... Clement Edward Davies (February 19, 1884–March 23, 1962) was a UK politician and leader of the Liberal Party between 1945 and 1956. ... Joseph Jo Grimond, Baron Grimond (July 29, 1913 - October 24, 1993) was a British politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1956 to 1967 and again briefly in 1976. ... John Jeremy Thorpe (born April 29, 1929) is a British politician, who was leader of the Liberal Party from 1967 to 1976. ... Joseph Jo Grimond, Baron Grimond (July 29, 1913 - October 24, 1993) was a British politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1956 to 1967 and again briefly in 1976. ... David Martin Scott Steel, Baron Steel of Aikwood KT PC KBE (born March 31, 1938) is a British and Scottish politician and a Liberal Democrat member of the UK House of Lords. ...

See also

This is a list of Liberal Party MPs. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This is an (partial) overview of individuals that contributed to the development of liberal theory on a worldwide scale and therefore are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political current in specific regions and countries. ... This is an overview of parties that adhere more or less (explicitly) to the ideas of political liberalism and is therefore a list of liberal parties around the world. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Party was formally eatablished in 1859 and comtinued to exist until it merged with the Social Democratic Party in 1988 to create the Liberal Democrats. ... Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland take place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ...

References

  • Chris Cook, A Short History of the Liberal Party, 1900-2001 (6th edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002. ISBN 0-333-91838-X.
  • Jonathan Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain. Yale, 1993.ISBN 0-300-06718-6.

External links

  • Liberal Democrat History Group
  • Catalogue of the papers of the Liberal Party - mostly dating from after 1945 - at the London School of Economics (LSE Archives)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liberal Party (UK) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4086 words)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the 1920s, and a third party of varying strength and importance up to 1988, when it merged with the Social Democratic Party (the SDP) to form a new party which would become known as the Liberal Democrats.
In 1841 the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short, because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue, and a faction known as the Peelites (but not Peel himself, who died soon after), defected to the Liberal side.
By contrast most of the party's seats were won either due to the absence of a candidate from one of the other parties or in rural areas on the "Celtic fringe", where local evidence suggests that economic ideas were at best peripheral to the electorate's concerns.
Encyclopedia4U - The Liberal Party (UK) - Encyclopedia Article (793 words)
The Liberal Party grew out of the 18th and early 19th century Whig Party, which was augmented in the 1850s by "Peelite" defectors from the Tories and "Radicals" representing the new manufacturing interests.
Liberals, in ever-dwindling numbers, continued to be elected, though their ranks were once more split between "National Liberals" in coalition with the Conservatives, and those who stayed out of the government.
A group of Liberal opponents of the merger continued under the old name of "the Liberal Party"; this was legally a new organisation (the headquarters, records, assets and debts of the old party were inherited by the Liberal Democrats), though its constitution asserts it to be the same party as that which had previously existed.
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