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Encyclopedia > Liberal Judaism
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Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: ?מיהו יהודי) is the name of the religious, social and political debate on the exact definition of which person can be called Jewish. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Mitzvah מצוה is the Hebrew word for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). The word is used in Judaism to refer to (a) the 613 commandments enumerated in the Torah (five books of Moses), or (b) any Jewish law at all. ... 613 mitzvot (or 613 Commandments. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew קַבָּלָה reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah, Kaballah) is an interpretation (exegesis, hermeneutic) key, soul of the Torah (Hebrew Bible), or the religious mystical system of Judaism claiming an insight into divine nature. ... The Jewish world includes a number of distinct communities that might be referred to as Jewish ethnic divisions. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi, AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Sephardi Jews (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews and/or Mizrahi Jews. ... For the organization of the Religious Zionist Movement, please see Mizrachi. ... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... Persian or Iranian Jews (Hebrew: Parsim, Persian: ), are a group of ancient Jewish communities living throughout the former greatest extents of the Persian Empire. ... The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the term Falasha (exiles or strangers), a term that they consider to be pejorative, are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... Bukharan Jews (Bukhoran Jews, Bukharian Jews) is a blanket term for Jews from the Central Asia speaking a dialect of Tajik language. ... The number of Jews in the world is difficult to calculate, especially given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire once hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... History of the Jews in Latin America. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jews by country. ... // By type List of Jewish Fellows of the Royal Society List of Jewish historians List of Jewish members of Academies of Sciences, Humanities or Engineering List of Members of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities List of Jewish Members of the National Academy of Sciences the United States List... Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and the Rabbinical commentary... Conservative Judaism, also known as Masorti Judaism, is a modern denomination of Judaism that arose in United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th Century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a movement of Judaism with a relatively liberal set of beliefs: an individuals personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus, modern culture is accepted, traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well as modern scholarship and critical... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... Timeline of Zionism in the modern era: 1861 - The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt, Germany. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This entry contains a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (partially the Old Testament, it also consists of the book of the prophets, and the five books of Moses) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history... The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a religious movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hasidic Judaism (from the Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious, from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה; ascent) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Child survivors of the Holocaust filmed during the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Red Army. ... This article discusses the history of the modern State of Israel, from its independence proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... It has been suggested that History of Arab-Israeli Conflict be merged into this article or section. ... Related articles: anti-Semitism; history of anti-Semitism; modern anti-Semitism This article deals with various persecutions that the Jewish people have experienced throughout history. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... The new anti-Semitism refers to the contemporary international resurgence of anti-Jewish incidents and attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse [1][2]. The term, which first came into general use in the early 1970s, is sometimes... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th Century Germany. ... Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term for all strands of Judaism which do not view the oral law as binding. ...


Liberal Judaism in the UK

As well as the general sense above, the term 'Liberal Judaism' has a particular significance in the UK.


For historical reasons in the UK, 'Liberal Judaism' exists as a separate identity from the United Kingdom's Movement for Reform Judaism. The Movement for Reform Judaism is associated with communities which are typically somewhat more conservative than most Reform communities in the United States; whereas the spirit of most Liberal communities in the UK is very close to what would be called Reform in the United States. Movement for Reform Judaism (until June 2005, Reform Synagogues of Great Britain) is the main organizational body of the Jewish Reform community in Great Britain. ...


The Liberal movement in the UK was founded in the early part of the 20th century by Lily Montagu, Claude Montefiore and others. It began initially in 1902 with a supplementary prayer meeting, an adjunct to the then Orthodox and Reform synagogues, with the intention that the use of more English in services, men and women sitting freely together, the use of organ music, and a more inclusive form of worship could prove attractive to members of British Jewry who felt uninvolved or out of sympathy with existing very traditionalist patterns of worship. But the sense of sincerity and radicalism of the Liberal movement rapidly gained adherents and established a new identity, leading to the founding of the Liberal Jewish synagogue in 1911, the first of now more than thirty Liberal congregations in the UK. Claude Joseph Goldsmid Montefiore (1858 - 1938) was son of Nathaniel Montefiore, and the great nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore. ...


To quote the LJS website, "Liberal Judaism values tradition, but truth even more. It combines respect for our Jewish heritage with positive acceptance of modern knowledge and due regard for the realities of the world in which we live". And it stresses "the full equality and participation of men and women in every sphere of religious life; an emphasis on ethical conduct above ritual observance; an affirmation of each individual's freedom to act responsibly in accordance with the dictates of the informed religious conscience; a pride in combining our Jewish heritage with full participation in the civic life of this country; and an awareness of our duty not only to the Jewish people and to the State of Israel, but also to the entire human family, each one of whom is created in the Divine image".


The British scholar Daniel Langton's study of the spiritual founder of the Liberal Synagogue, Claude Montefiore, has caused recent debate. In his account of the origins of the movement, Langton claims that the aspirations of Montefiore have not been realised: Montefiore's passionate anti-Zionism was soon marginalised and his declared aim to amalgamate "the best of Judaism and Christianity" led him to propound an unpopular view of Jesus and Paul of Tarsus as religious authorities of real interest to modern Jews. This did not go undisputed, and met with strong criticism in the Jewish Chronicle from the Liberal Jewish Synagogue, which sees itself as continuing on foursquare Montefiore's insistence on the best of modern scholarship, inclusiveness, intellectual honesty, and an overriding ethics-led view of what it means to be Jewish. LJS rabbis have also been notably prepared to criticise Israeli policy and some Israeli/Zionist attitudes, whenever they have felt them to be falling short of the particular ethical standards to be expected of Jews. Daniel Langton is a lecturer in Religions & Theology at the University of Manchester, UK. His major academic interests include the history of Jewish-Christian relations in general, modern Jewish thought, Holocaust Theology, and Anglo-Jewish history. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ being a title meaning Anointed One or Messiah. Christian viewpoints on Jesus (known as Christology) are both diverse and complex. ... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... The Jewish Telegraph is a Jewish Newspaper in Britain. ...


The distinction in the UK between the terms "Reform" and "Liberal" arose because in the early 1900s in the UK, 'Reform Judaism' meant the West London Synagogue, which was not connected with German or American Reform, and in modern terms strongly conservative. Since the 1930s, Reform Judaism in the UK has become much more like Reform in the United States; while Orthodoxy has grown steadily more and more rigid. Liberalism and Reform have therefore increasingly become twin halves of Progressive Judaism in the UK. Since 1964 both have together co-sponsored the training of rabbis at Leo Baeck College in London; and rabbis move freely from Reform to Liberal congregations and vice-versa. In recent years there has also been a move towards more tradition in Liberal services than a generation earlier - eg more use of Hebrew, more wearing of tallit and kippot, more enjoyment of Purim and other traditional minor festivals. But Liberal Judaism is still in some ways distinctly more 'liberal' than Reform, for example more readily recognising as Jewish without conversion the child of Jewish father and a non-Jewish mother [1]; or in Liberal Judaism's readiness to celebrate homosexual partnerships in synagogue with more of the traditional symbolism associated with Jewish weddings [2]. The West London Synagogue of British Jews was established on the 15 April 1840, and is the oldest reform synagogue in Great Britain. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew טַלֵּית) or tallet (Sephardi Hebrew טַלֵּית), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism. ... A kippah (Hebrew: כִּפָּה, also kipah, kipa, kippa, plural kippot; Yiddish: יאַרמלקע, yarmlke, yarmulke, yarmulka, yarmelke, less commonly called kapel) is a thin, usually slightly-rounded cloth cap worn by observant Jews (usually men, but not always; see below). ... Purim (פּוּרִים Lots, Standard Hebrew Purim, Tiberian Hebrew Pûrîm: plural of פּוּר pûr Lot, from Akkadian pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from the plot of the evil Haman to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ... Judaism is the Jewish religion, but Jews, religious or not, also form an ethnic group or nation. ...


Organisations

The official umbrella organisation of Liberal Judaism in the UK was founded as the Jewish Religious Union in 1902, was renamed the Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues in 1944, and officially renamed itself Liberal Judaism in 2003. 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues was founded in 1902 as the Jewish Religious Union (JRU). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


LJY-Netzer is the youth movement of Liberal Judaism and a progressive Zionist Youth movement.


Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Liberal Judaism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (615 words)
The distinction in the UK between the terms "Reform" and "Liberal" arose because in the early 1900s in the UK, 'Reform Judaism' meant the West London Synagogue, which was not connected with German or American Reform, and in modern terms strongly conservative.
But Liberal Judaism is still in some ways distinctly more 'liberal' than Reform, for example more readily recognising as Jewish without conversion the child of Jewish father and a non-Jewish mother [1]; or in Liberal Judaism's readiness to celebrate homosexual partnerships in synagogue with more of the traditional symbolism associated with Jewish weddings [2].
The official umbrella organisation of Liberal Judaism in the UK was founded as the Jewish Religious Union in 1902, was renamed the Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues in 1944, and officially renamed itself Liberal Judaism in 2003.
Liberal Judaism - definition of Liberal Judaism in Encyclopedia (265 words)
Liberal Judaism is a British term for what is otherwise known as Reform Judaism.
The more liberal Reform Judaism faction seceded, and renamed their movement as "Liberal Judaism".
Liberal Judaism feels that a Jew should be able to choose which parts of the Jewish law works for them as an individual.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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