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Encyclopedia > Liège (city)

Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich) is a major city located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. It is situated in the valley of the Meuse River near Belgium's eastern borders with the Netherlands and Germany, at the point where the Meuse meets the Vesdre. Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... The Meuse(Maas) at Maastricht Length 925 km Elevation of the source 409 m Average discharge 230 m³/s Area watershed 36 000 km² Origin France Mouth Hollands Diep Basin countries France - Belgium - Netherlands The Meuse (Dutch Maas) is a large European river rising in France, flowing through Belgium and... Vesdre (-French, in German:Weser) is a river in eastern Belgium (province of Liège), tributary to the river Ourthe. ...

View of Liège from the Citadel
Contents

View of Liège from the Citadel, 29 March 2005 Image by ChrisO File links The following pages link to this file: Liège (city) Categories: GFDL images ... View of Liège from the Citadel, 29 March 2005 Image by ChrisO File links The following pages link to this file: Liège (city) Categories: GFDL images ...

Demographics

As of January 1, 2004, Liège had a total population of 185,488 (90,431 males and 95,057 females) and about 600,000 inhabitants in the area. The total area is 69.39 km² which gives a population density of 2,673.05 inhabitants per km². January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


The city is the principal cultural centre of Wallonia and its inhabitants are predominately French-speakers. The city is home to a major university, founded in 1817. The large Italian community (the Italian name of the town is Liegi) and smaller populations of recent immigrants add to the city's cultural mix. National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Economy

Enlarge
Liège, the sunday "Batte" market.

Liège is one of the steel-making centers of Belgium, the area around Charleroi being the other. It once boasted numerous blast furnaces and mills. Although now a mere shadow of its former self, steel production and manufacturing of steel goods remains a vital part of its economy. Other major industries include the manufacture of weapons, textiles, paper, and chemicals. The city possesses one of the largest river ports in Europe. Download high resolution version (442x650, 96 KB)Liège, the sunday Batte market. ... Download high resolution version (442x650, 96 KB)Liège, the sunday Batte market. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... For other uses, see Charleroi (disambiguation). ... A blast furnace is a type of furnace for smelting whereby the combustion material and ore are supplied with air from the bottom of the chamber such that the chemical reaction does not take place only at the surface. ...


The city is an important transportation hub, linked by road and railway to Maastricht in the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Antwerp, and Aachen in Germany. A high-speed Thalys railway link to Leuven was completed in 2003, cutting travelling times to Brussels to one hour and to Paris to 2.5 hours. The Albert Canal and Liège-Maastricht Canal also pass through Liège. Maastricht, also spelled Maestricht, or Mestreech in local language, is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. ... Antwerp (Dutch: Antwerpen, French: Anvers, Spanish: Amberes) is a city and a municipality in the province of Antwerp (and its capital), in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen (French Aix-la-Chapelle) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46′ N 6°6′ E. Population: 256,605 (2003). ... Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... Leuven in 2004 Leuven (Louvain in French, Löwen in German) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, of which it is the capital. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the de facto capital of the European Union, as two of its three main institutions have their headquarters... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The Albert Canal is a Belgium canal, connecting the Meuse with the Scheldt. ...


History

Liège is one of the oldest cities in Belgium, settled in Roman times and first recorded in writing in 558. It was a major intellectual and ecclesiastical centre during the Middle Ages and was renowned for its many churches (the oldest of which, St Martin's, dates from 682). The city, and the surrounding province, was ruled by a prince-bishop. Although nominally subject to the King of France, in practice it possessed a large degree of independence. Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... Events May 7 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Events Leo II elected pope. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ...


The strategic position of Liège has made it a frequent target of armies and insurgencies over the centuries. It was fortified early on with a castle on the steep hill that overlooks the city's western side. In 1345, the citizens of Liège rebelled against Prince-Bishop Engelbert de la Marck, their ruler at the time, and defeated him in battle near the city. After a rebellion against rule from Burgundy, King Louis XI of France and Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy captured and largely destroyed the city in 1468, after a bitter siege which was ended with a successful surprise attack. Liège was technically part of the Holy Roman Empire but after 1477, the city came under the rule of the Hapsburgs and, after 1555, under Spanish sovereignty, although its immediate rule remained in the hands of its prince-bishops.-1... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic tribes, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), was a King of France (1461 - 1483). ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ... Events Births Charles I of Savoy February 29 - Pope Paul III Juan del Encina, Spanish poet, dramatist and composer Deaths February 3 - Johannes Gutenberg, publisher Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg, Albanias national hero Gennadius II, Patriarch of Constantinople Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanc Categories: 1468 ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ...


The city changed hands repeatedly from the 18th century onwards. The Duke of Marlborough captured it from the French in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. 90 years later, a revolutionary French army retook the city and imposed a harsh and strongly anticlerical regime, destroying the great cathedral of Saint Lambert in 1794. France lost the city in 1815 when the Congress of Vienna awarded it to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Dutch rule lasted only until 1830, when the Belgian Revolution led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic and neutral Belgium which incorporated Liège. After this, Liège developed rapidly into a major industrial city which became one of continental Europe's first large-scale steelmaking centres. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (May 26, 1650 – June 16, 1722), in full The Most Noble Captain-General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Marlborough, Baron Churchill of Sandridge, Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, KG, PC (in addition... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Saint Lambert (c. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from October 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas). ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic and neutral Belgium in 1839. ...


Liège's fortifications were redesigned by Henry Alexis Brialmont in the 1880s and a chain of twelve forts was constructed around the city to provide defence in depth. This presented a major obstacle to Germany's army in 1914, whose Schlieffen Plan relied on being able to quickly pass through the Meuse valley and the Ardennes en route to France. The German invasion on August 5, 1914 soon reached Liège, which was defended by 30,000 troops under General Gérart Leman. The forts initially held off an attacking force of about 100,000 men but were pulverised into submission by a five-day bombardment by the Germans' 42cm Big Bertha howitzers. The Belgian resistance was shorter than had been intended, but the twelve days of delay caused by the siege nonetheless contributed to the eventual failure of the German invasion of France. The city was subsequently occupied by the Germans until the end of the war. Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Defense in depth is the proposition that multiple layers of security are better than a single protection mechanism. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Schlieffen Plan, the German General Staffs overall strategic blueprint for victory on the Western Front against France in the years up to 1914, takes its name from its author, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen. ... The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country (its highest point is under 700 m), primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région) and Germany, where this range is known as... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Big Bertha Big Bertha (German: Dicke Bertha; literal translation Fat Bertha) is the name of the L/14 model of heavy mortar-like howitzers built and used by Germany during World War I. The name Big Bertha is often mistakenly applied to the Long Max and Paris Gun railway guns. ... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ...


The Germans returned in 1940, this time taking the forts in only three days. Most Jews were saved, with the help of the sympathising population. Many Jewish children and refugees were hidden in the numerous monasteries. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The German occupants were expelled by the United States Army in May 1944 but Liège was subsequently subjected to intense aerial bombardment, with more than 1,500 V1 and V2 missiles landing in the city between its liberation and the end of the war. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... German test launch. ...


After the war, Liège suffered from the collapse of its steel industry, which produced high levels of unemployment and stoked social tension. In January 1961, disgruntled workers went on a rampage and severely damaged the central railway station Guillemins.


Liège showed strong signs of economic recovery in recent years with the opening up of borders within the European Union, surging steel prices, and improved administration. Several new shopping centres were built, and numerous repairs executed. Its surviving historic sights attract many tourists. Presently, a grand new railway station is under construction.


Famous inhabitants

Alger of Liège (1055-1131), known also as Alger of Cluny and Algerus Magister, a learned French priest who lived in the first half of the 12th century. ... André Ernest Modeste Grétry (February 8, 1741 – September 24, 1813), a Belgian-born French composer, was born at Liège, his father being a poor musician. ... César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck ( December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890) was a composer and organist. ... Zénobe Théophile Gramme (April 4, 1826 - January 20, 1901) was a Belgian electrical engineer. ... Eugène Ysaÿe Eugène Ysaÿe (July 16, 1858 – May 12, 1931) was a Belgian violinist and composer. ... Georges Joseph Christian Simenon (February 13, 1903 - September 4, 1989) was a Belgian writer, who wrote in French. ... Jean-Pierre Dardenne (born April 21, 1951 in Engis, Liège, Belgium) is a filmmaker. ... Luc Dardenne is a belgian filmmaker. ...

See also

The Bishopric of Liège or Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Belgium. ... Liège-Bastogne-Liège, often called La Doyenne (the oldest woman), is one of the five Monuments of the European professional road cycling calendar, and the oldest. ... Royal Standard de Liège, usually referred to as Standard Liège is a Belgian football club from the town of Liège. ...

External link

  • Official website of the city (http://www.liege.be)
  • A few pictures free of rights (http://liege.eu.org/photos/index.html)
  • University of Liège (http://www.ulg.ac.be/foreign/)

 
 

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