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Encyclopedia > Ley line

Ley lines are hypothetical alignments of a number of places of geographical interest, such as ancient monuments and megaliths. Their existence was suggested in 1921 by the amateur archaeologist Alfred Watkins, whose book The Old Straight Track brought the alignments to the attention of the wider public. Takashi Miike ) (born August 24, 1960) is a highly prolific and controversial Japanese filmmaker. ... The year 1999 in film involved some significant events. ... Ley Lines is a 1999 film directed by Takashi Miike, and is the third film in his Triad Society trilogy (also known as the Black Society Trilogy), following 1995s Shinjuku Triad Society and 1997s Rainy Dog. ... Map of the Earth Geography (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γραφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... The Taj Mahal, commissioned by the Muslim Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his wife, Arjumand Banu Begum. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Alfred Watkins (1855 – April 15, 1935) is noted as being a scholar of ley lines. ... The Old Straight Track is a book by Alfred Watkins and is the first book to describe ley lines in the United Kingdom. ...


The existence of alignments between sites is easily demonstrated. However, the causes of these alignments are disputed. There are several major areas of interpretation:

Contents

  • Archaeological: A new area of archaeological study, archaeogeodesy, examines geodesy as practiced in prehistoric time, and as evidenced by archaeological remains. One major aspect of modern geodesy is surveying. As interpreted by geodesy, the so-called ley lines can be the product of ancient surveying, property markings, or commonly travelled pathways. Numerous societies, ancient and modern, employ straight lines between points of use; archaeologists have documented these traditions. Modern surveying also results in placement of constructs in lines on the landscape. It is reasonable to expect human constructs and activity areas to reflect human use of lines.
  • Cultural: Many cultures use straight lines across the landscape. In South America, such lines often are directed towards mountain peaks; the Nazca lines are a famous example of lengthy lines made by ancient cultures. Straight lines connect ancient pyramids in Mexico; today, modern roads built on the ancient roads deviate around the huge pyramids. The Chaco culture of Northwestern New Mexico cut stairs into sandstone cliffs to facilitate keeping roads straight.
  • New Age: The ley lines and their intersection points resonate a special psychic or magical energy, often including elements such as geomancy, dowsing or UFOs, stating that, for instance, UFO's travel along ley lines (in the way that one might observe that cars use roads and highways). These points on lines have electrical or magnetic forces associated with them.
  • Skeptical: Skeptics of the actuality of ley lines often classify them as pseudoscience. Such skeptics tend to doubt that ley lines were planned or made by ancient cultures, and argue that apparent ley lines can be readily explained without resorting to extraordinary or pseudoscientific ideas.

Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nazca Lines are a series of geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches 53 miles or more than 80 kilometers between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana in Peru. ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... There are things that have the name Chaco: South America: Gran Chaco, a region in South America Chaco Province, Argentina in the northeastern part of the country Chaco, a region in Paraguay Chaco Department, historical in Paraguay and proposed in Bolivia Gran Chaco Province, Bolivia (in Tarija Department) Chaco War... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Psychic (sÄ«kÄ­k); from the Greek psychikos - of the soul, mental - and referring in part to the human mind or psyche (ex. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... Geomancy (from Old French geomancie <Late Latin geōmantia <Late Greek geōmanteia< geo, earth + manteia, divination) from the eponymous ilm al-raml (the science of sand), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. ... A dowser, from an 18th century French book about superstitions. ... “UFO” redirects here. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the psychological term. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...

Alfred Watkins and The Old Straight Track

The concept of ley lines was first proposed by Alfred Watkins. On June 30, 1921, Watkins visited Blackwardine in Herefordshire, and went riding near some hills in the vicinity of Bredwardine when he noted many of the footpaths therein seemed to connect one hilltop to another in a straight line. He was studying a map when he noticed places in alignment. "The whole thing came to me in a flash," he would later explain to his son. Some people have portrayed this "flash" as being some sort of mystical experience. [citation needed] is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Blackwardine, Herefordshire, England is at grid reference SO 5300 5600 and in the parish of Humber. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, some time before Watkins, William Henry Black gave a talk titled Boundaries and Landmarks to the British Archaeological Association in Hereford in September 1870. Here he speculated that "Monuments exist marking grand geometrical lines which cover the whole of Western Europe." It is possible that Watkins' experience stemmed from some half-recollected memories of an account of that presentation. The British Archaelogical Association was founded in 1843. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Watkins believed that in ancient times, when Britain had been far more densely forested, the country had been crisscrossed by a network of straight-line travel routes, with prominent features of the landscape being used as navigation points. This observation was made public at a meeting of the Woolhope Club of Hereford in September 1921. His work referred back to G. H. Piper's paper presented to the Woolhope Club in 1882 which noted that This article is about a community of trees. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... , Hereford (pronounced or ) Welsh: (pronounced Henforth) is a city and civil parish in the West Midlands of England, close to the border with Wales and on the River Wye. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

"A line drawn from the Skirrid-fawr mountain northwards to Arthur's Stone would pass over the camp and southern most point of Hatterill Hill, Oldcastle, Longtown Castle, and Urishay and Snodhill castles." The ancient surveyors who supposedly made the lines were given the name "dodmen."

Watkins published his ideas in the books Early British Trackways and The Old Straight Track. Nevertheless, they were generally received with skepticism in the archaeological community. The archaeologist O. G. S. Crawford refused to accept advertisements for the latter book in the journal Antiquity, and most archaeologists since then have continued to be unaccepting of Watkins' ideas. Skirrid Fawr is the most easterly of the Black Mountains in Wales, U.K. It is 1601 feet high and lies just outside Abergavenny, near the English border. ... Cefn Bryn is a 5 mile long Old Red Sandstone ridge in the heart of the Gower Peninsula in Wales. ... Longtown Castle is an ancient ruin, originally a Norman Motte and Bailey castle built to provide defence along the Welsh border. ... Urishay constitutes the remains of a castle located about 2. ... Dodmen are the human-shaped geoglyphs of Britain, designed in the likeness of their creators. ... The Old Straight Track is a book by Alfred Watkins and is the first book to describe ley lines in the United Kingdom. ... Osbert Guy Stanhope Crawford (28 October 1886–November 28, 1957) was an English archaeologist and a pioneer in the use of aerial photographs for deepening archaeological understanding of the landscape. ...


In 2004, John Bruno Hare wrote, "Watkins never attributed any supernatural significance to leys; he believed that they were simply pathways that had been used for trade or ceremonial purposes, very ancient in origin, possibly dating back to the Neolithic, certainly pre-Roman. His obsession with leys was a natural outgrowth of his interest in landscape photography and love of the British countryside. He was an intensely rational person with an active intellect, and I think he would be a bit disappointed with some of the fringe aspects of ley lines today."[1] Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


Despite the largely negative reception to his ideas, some experts have made observations similar to Watkins': Megalithic researcher Alexander Thom offered a detailed analysis of megalithic alignments, proposing a standardization of measure by those who built megaliths. However, Thom avoided using the term "ley line" in his discussion of megaliths. The discovery by Europeans of the Nazca lines, man-made lines on desert pavement in southern Peru, prompted study of their astronomical alignments. Professor Alexander Thom (1894 - 1985) was a Scottish engineer most famous for his theory of the Megalithic yard. ... The Nazca Lines are a series of geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches 53 miles or more than 80 kilometers between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana in Peru. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


The New Age approach: magical and holy lines

Watkins' theories have been adapted by later writers. Some of his ideas were taken up by the occultist Dion Fortune who featured them in her 1936 novel The Goat-footed God. Since then, ley lines have become the subject of a few magical and mystical theories. For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Violet Mary Firth Evans, born Violet Mary Firth (December 6, 1890[1] - 1946) and better known as Dion Fortune, was a British occultist and author[2]. Her pseudonym was inspired by her family motto Deo, non fortuna (Latin for God, not fate)[3]. // She was born at Bryn-y-Bia... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Two British dowsers, Captain Robert Boothby and Reginald Smith of the British Museum, have linked the appearance of ley lines with underground streams and magnetic currents. Underwood conducted various investigations and claimed that crossings of 'negative' water lines and positive aquastats explain why certain sites were chosen as holy. He found so many of these 'double lines' on sacred sites that he named them 'holy lines.' A dowser, from an 18th century French book about superstitions. ... Blue plaque in Eaton Square, London Robert John Graham Boothby, 1st Baron Boothby, KBE (also known as Bob Boothby) (12 February 1900 – 16 July 1986) was a Conservative politician. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


Two German Nazi researchers Wilhelm Teudt and Josef Heinsch have also claimed that ancient Teutonic peoples contributed to the construction of a network of astronomical lines, called “Holy lines” (Heilige Linien), which could be mapped onto the geographical layout of ancient or sacred sites. Teudt located the Teutoburger Wald district in Lower Saxony, centered around the dramatic rock formation called Die Externsteine as the centre of Germany. Nazism often employed ideation of superiority and associated Aryan descent with ancient higher cultures, often without regard for archaeological or historic fact. See Nazi mysticism. National Socialism redirects here. ... Wilhelm Teudt (1860–1942) was a völkisch lay archaeologist searching for an ancient Germanic civilization. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: &#945;&#963;&#964;&#961;&#959;&#957;&#959;&#956;&#943;&#945; = &#940;&#963;&#964;&#961;&#959;&#957; + &#957;&#972;&#956;&#959;&#962;) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... View over the Teutoburg Forest The Teutoburg Forest (German: Teutoburger Wald) is a range of low, forested mountains in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia, which is believed to be the environ of a decisive battle in AD 9. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Externsteine, Germany The Externsteine are a distinctive rock formation located in the Teutoburger Wald region of northwestern Germany, not far from the city of Detmold at Horn-Bad Meinberg. ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ...


By the 1960s, the ideas of a landscape crossed with straight lines had become conflated with ideas from various geomantic traditions; mapping ley lines, according to New Age geomancers, can foster "harmony with the Earth" or reveal pre-historic trade routes. John Michell's writing can be seen as an example of this. He has referred to the whole face of China being heavily landscaped in accordance with the laws of Feng Shui. Michell has claimed that Neolithic peoples recognised that the harmony of society depended on the harmony of the earth force. And so in China, ancient Greece, Ireland and Scotland men built their temples where the forces of the earth were most powerful. Rosslyn chapel is located on the Roseline which the Knight Templers had the mystical knowledge to tune into the earth energies, they were great navigators who understood the magnetic energy grid, and adopted the compassrose as one of their great allegoric symbols. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Geomancy (from Old French geomancie <Late Latin geōmantia <Late Greek geōmanteia< geo, earth + manteia, divination) from the eponymous ilm al-raml (the science of sand), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Landscape architecture is the art, planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of the land and the design of large-scale man-made constructs. ... F&#275;ng Shu&#464; (&#39080;&#27700; &#8211; literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the country. ...


Others feel that ley lines are actually lines that carry gaia’s consciousness around the globe and dynamically interact with people it encounters on its path in a give or take[2]. They feel that this is the reason that sacred sites, places of worship have historically been aligned on ley lines. This is not to say that ley lines attract only the spiritual: Far from it, consciousness as the Bhagavad Gita teaches us can run from the divine to the demonic (See Chapter 16) and ley lines do. Ley lines attract and connect like-minded people—thoughts, actions and deeds—in a dynamic exchange of consciousness. Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Bhagavad G&#299;ta &#2349;&#2327;&#2357;&#2342;&#2381;&#2327;&#2368;&#2340;&#2366;, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23&#8211;40. ...


A skeptical approach: chance alignments

Some skeptics have suggested that ley lines do not exist, and are a product of human fancy. Watkins' discovery happened at a time when Ordnance Survey maps were being marketed for the leisure market, making them reasonably easy and cheap to obtain; this may have been a contributing factor to the popularity of ley line theories. Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ...

80 4-point alignments of 137 random points
80 4-point alignments of 137 random points

One suggestion is that, given the high density of historic and prehistoric sites in Britain and other parts of Europe, finding straight lines that "connect" sites (usually selected to make them "fit") is trivial, and may be easily ascribed to coincidence. The diagram to the right shows an example of lines that pass very near to a set of random points: for all practical purposes, they can be regarded as nearly "exact" alignments. Naturally, it is debated whether all ley lines can be accounted for in this way, or whether there are more such lines than would be expected by chance. (For a mathematical treatment of this topic, see alignments of random points.) Image File history File links Ley_lines. ... Image File history File links Ley_lines. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection. ... 80 4-point near-alignments of 137 random points Statistics shows that if you put a large number of random points on a bounded flat surface you can find many alignments of random points. ...


Regarding the trade-route theories, skeptics point out that straight lines do not make ideal roads in all circumstances, particularly where they ignore topography and require users to march up and down hills or mountains, or to cross rivers at points where there is no portage or bridge. For the Gentoo Linux package manager, see Portage (software). ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ...


Are alignments and ley lines the same thing?

The existence of the observed alignments is not controversial. Both believers in magical and ancient theories of ley lines and skeptics of these theories agree that these alignments exist between megaliths and ancient sites.


Most skeptics believe that their null hypothesis of ley-line-like alignments as due to random chance is consistent with the evidence. They believe that this consistency removes the need to explain the alignments in any other way. Some Chaos Magicians have views consistent with that approach, claiming it to be in accord with their generative view of chance. Still, others believe that further theories are needed to explain the observed evidence. See hypothesis testing, falsifiability and Occam's razor for more on these topics. In statistics, a null hypothesis is a hypothesis set up to be nullified or refuted in order to support an alternative hypothesis. ... The chaos star (called a chaosphere, or black hole sun,[citations needed] by some practitioners) is the most popular symbol of chaos magic. ... One may be faced with the problem of making a definite decision with respect to an uncertain hypothesis which is known only through its observable consequences. ... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ... For the House episode, see Occams Razor (House episode) Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ...


In discussing the arguments for and against the chance presence of ley alignments it is useful to define the term "alignment" precisely enough to reason about it. One precise definition that expresses the generally accepted meaning of Watkins' ley lines defines an alignment as:

a set of points, chosen from a given set of landmark points, all of which lie within at least an arc of 1/4 degree.

Watkins remarked that if this is accepted as the degree of error, then:

"if only three accidentally placed points are on the sheet, the chance of a three point alignment is 1 in 720."
"But this chance by accidental coincidence increases so rapidly in geometric progression with each point added that if ten mark-points are distributed haphazard on a sheet of paper, there is an average probability that there will be one three-point alignment, while if only two more points are added to make twelve points, there is a probability of two three-point alignments."
"It is clear that a three-point alignment must not be accepted as proof of a ley by itself, as a fair number of other eligible points are usually present."
"A ley should not be taken as proved with less than four good mark-points. Three good points with several others of less value like cross roads and coinciding tracks may be sufficient."
The Leyhunter's Manual (page 88), 1927

One should also bear in mind that lines and points on a map cover wide areas on the ground. With 1:63360 (1-inch-to-the-mile) maps a 1/100-inch (1/4 mm) wide line represents a path over 50 feet (15 m) across. And in travelling across a sheet, an angle of 1/4 degree encompasses something like an additional 600 feet (200 m). Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Controversy

The demonstration of the plausibility of the current evidence under the null hypothesis is not a formal disproof of ley line claims. However, it does make skeptics likely to consider ley line theories as unsupported by the current evidence.


Most skeptics would be willing to reconsider the hypothesis of ley lines if there were non-anecdotal evidence of physical, geomagnetic or archeological features that actually lie along the lines. Skeptics believe that no such convincing evidence has been presented.


There is a broad range of beliefs about and theories of ley lines, many of which are not falsifiable, and which are thus not generally amenable to the scientific method. Some people find ley lines compatible with a scientific approach, but much of the literature is written by people who are indifferent to or actively oppose such an approach. Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


Scientific investigation

According to claims by investigators of ley line theories, some points along the lines possess higher magnetic energy than the average geomagnetic intensity. These claims have been published in "Places of Power" (Paul Devereux; Blandford Press, 1990) and "Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Olmec Primacy?" (John B. Carlson; Science, 1975). In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... Paul Devereux is an author, researcher, lecturer, broadcaster, artist and photographer based in the Cotswolds, England. ...


Ley lines in fiction

  • In a number of sword and sorcery universes use ley lines as channels of subtle magical power, the intersections of which are sites of higher than usual magic energy. Examples of this can be seen in the Warcraft series of video games and the Magic: The Gathering card game series.
  • Alan Garner lists Watkins's The Old Straight Track in the appendix to The Moon of Gomrath, sequel to The Weirdstone of Brisingamen, as the principle inspiration for the Old Straight Track which is one of the core motifs of his book.
  • Pinvin Careless and his Lines of Force, a play by Peter Terson, has as its central character an old man who wanders the country visiting sites on ley lines.
  • In Stephen King's "Dark Tower" series, a version of ley lines known as "Beams" serve as spokes of a wheel that centers on the Dark Tower, the hub that connects all universes. These "Beams" are mystical lines of great power that physically alter the surrounding landscape.
  • In the Palladium Books universe of role-playing games, ley lines have been depicted by the authors as being normally unseen lines of magical energy. In games (such as Palladium Fantasy, Rifts and most recently Chaos Earth), these lines contain abundant amounts of Potential Psychic Energy (P.P.E.), from which magic and/or psychic-oriented characters can draw power to enhance their own. In addition, at points where two or more ley lines intersect, an interdimensional portal (or rift) may open at the nexus. If a person steps through an open rift, he is essentially crossing through a tear in the space-time continuum. This can result in his ending up at another rift, typically one connected to one of the lines that composed the first rift, miles away from where he started, if not in another dimension entirely. An important fact in the Rifts universe is that when a person dies, all the P.P.E. in their body is doubled, then absorbed by the Ley Lines. In Rifts and Chaos Earth, then entire world is plunged into an apocalypse when a nuclear exchange overloads the Ley Lines, which burn off the excess energy by triggering earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters, causing a cascade effect that wipes out human civilization.
  • In the anime Outlaw Star, the Galactic Leyline is an ancient artifact said to be able to manipulate causality (via leylines) to generate supernatural effects.
  • Ley lines appeared in Hellblazer No.15, in which the character Mercury explains to John Constantine that they are walking over a ley line, which will give them a "positive charge".
  • In the Doctor Strange graphic novel, Into Shambhala, Strange must disrupt the sickened ley lines and restore the flow of arcane energy through the planet.
  • Robert Holdstock's novel Mythago Wood takes place in a small tract of primal forest (Ryhope Wood) that grows at a major intersection in the ley matrix. It won the World Fantasy Award for best novel.
  • Newly discovered "ley lines" outside the fictional village of Crybbe set old evils against New Age in Phil Richman's Curfew (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993).
  • Ley lines are mentioned in Umberto Eco's Foucault's Pendulum in the context of telluric currents and ancient sacred sites functioning as transmitters or receivers of this energy. This is developed further to include modern structures such as the Eiffel Tower. The use of this energy network is linked to the overarching "conspiracy" or "The Plan" that threatens the main characters.
  • Ley lines are also used in the game Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, where a mad recluse and the Knights Templar try to gain power by standing at a convergance of ley lines at the moment of peak power in the lines. The energy would surge through the Earth into an individual standing at that location.
  • Ley lines are mentioned in the introduction of the game Watchmaker.
  • In British comedian Bill Bailey's stand up routine "Part Troll" he suggests that Little Chefs were originally built on leylines and then the roads came and connected them up.
  • In the sprite comic 8-Bit Theater, references are made to leylines, powerful lines of magical energy that span the earth, forming nexus where they intersect. The character Black Mage is said to be such a nexus.
  • Paragon City in City of Heroes is said to be placed on a convergence of ley lines, explaining the number of paranormal events and fact that there are so many heroes and villains.
  • In So Weird, Bricriu (inhabiting Jack) tells Fi that "they" are aware of her "sniffing around the ley lines."
  • In Richard Purtill's mythological fantasy Enchantment at Delphi, certain characters enhance their potential power by traveling along a ley line extending from Apollo's temple.
  • In Harry Turtledove's Darkness Series, ley lines are used as routes for magical transports analogous to trains and steamships.
  • In Wild Arms 3, ley lines are the life force of a planet and are compared to the bloodstream in humans. Temples are built over places that have a strong ley line concentration; the human analogy would compare these spots to internal organs.
  • The ley lines that traverse London feature heavily in the work of Iain Sinclair.
  • In the Hellboy comics and movie, the East Bromwich church on Tarmagant Island where Hellboy himself is summoned is said to be erected over the intersection of several ley lines. It also refers to a very stinky boy.

Ley lines are mentioned in the Ursula LeGuin novel, An Acceptable Time, which describes them as lines connecting places of ancient power, and facilitating travel through the dimension of time This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... Warcraft: Orcs & Humans is a real-time strategy computer game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment in 1994. ... Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ... Alan Garner (born Congleton October 17, 1934) is an English writer whose work is firmly rooted in his local Cheshire. ... The Old Straight Track is a book by Alfred Watkins and is the first book to describe ley lines in the United Kingdom. ... The Moon of Gomrath is the sequel to The Weirdstone of Brisingamen by Alan Garner. ... The Weirdstone of Brisingamen is a fantasy story by the author Alan Garner, first published in 1960. ... Peter Terson, born Peter Patterson, February 24th, 1932 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, is a British playwright whose plays have been produced for stage, television and radio. ... Palladium Books (sometimes called Palladium Games) is a role-playing game publisher founded by Kevin Siembieda and Erick Wujcik, best known for their popular, genre-crossing Rifts gaming series (1990-present). ... The Palladium Fantasy Role-Playing Game is a game produced by Palladium Books. ... Rifts is a multi-genre role-playing game created by Kevin Siembieda in 1990 and published continuously by Palladium Books since then. ... Originally intended to be an parallel dimension to Rifts where the massive deaths were cause a minute after midnight when the released PPE was as magnified. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... Serialized in Ultra Jump Original run 1997 – No. ... Hellblazer is a contemporary horror comic book series published by the Vertigo imprint of DC Comics. ... John Constantine (born May 10, 1953 in Liverpool, England) is the fictional protagonist of the comic series Hellblazer. ... This article is about the Marvel comics superhero. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Robert Holdstock is an English fantasy author and was born in Kent in 1948 - he became a full-time writer in 1975 after studying Medical Zoology as a student. ... Spoiler warning: Mythago Wood was originally published in the UK in 1984 and was written by the award winning author Robert Holdstock. ... First awarded in 1975, the World Fantasy Awards are handed out annually at the World Fantasy Convention (WFC) to recognize outstanding achievement in the field of fantasy. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government or by the childs parents for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Foucaults Pendulum (original title: Il pendolo di Foucault) is a novel by Italian novelist and philosopher Umberto Eco. ... A telluric current is a extremely low frequency electrical current that occurs naturally over large underground areas at or near the surface of the Earth. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... Bill Bailey is also the name commonly used to refer to a popular song with the full title of Wont You Come Home Bill Bailey. Mark Bill Bailey (born 24 February 1964, Bath, Somerset) is an English comedian, actor, and musician known for appearing on Never Mind the Buzzcocks... Little Chef is a chain of roadside restaurants in the United Kingdom, founded in 1958 and owned by the UK private equity group RCapital. ... 8-Bit Theater (also spelled 8-Bit Theatre) is a popular[1] sprite comic created and launched by Brian Clevinger in March 2001 that won the Web Cartoonists Choice Awards for best fantasy comic in 2002[2]. In its feature on gaming webcomics, 1UP.com described 8-Bit Theater... Collectively known as the Warriors of Light (or simply the Light Warriors), Black Mage, Fighter, Thief and Red Mage are the main characters of 8-Bit Theater. ... City of Heroes (CoH) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCsoft. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Wild Arms 3, known in Japan as Wild Arms Advanced 3rd ), is a Western Steampunk console role-playing game developed by Media. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the Australian politician, see Ian Sinclair Iain Sinclair is a British writer and film maker. ... Hellboy is a fictional Dark Horse Comics character created by Mike Mignola. ... Hellboy is a fictional Dark Horse Comics character created by Mike Mignola. ...


See also

This is a list of ley lines that have been reported by supporters of ley line theories. ... Earth radiation is a theoretical geophysical phenomenon described primarily by the German authors Manfred Curry and Ernst Hartmann. ... Geomancy (from Old French geomancie <Late Latin geōmantia <Late Greek geōmanteia< geo, earth + manteia, divination) from the eponymous ilm al-raml (the science of sand), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ... A Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... A geoglyph is a drawing on the ground, or a large motif, (generally greater than 4 metres) or design produced on the ground, either by arranging clasts (stones, stone fragments, gravel or earth) to create a positive geoglyph (stone arrangement/alignment, petroform, earth mound) or by removing patinated clasts to... The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... Cursus was a name given by early British archaeologists such as William Stukeley to the large parallel lengths of banks with external ditches which they thought were early athletics tracks. ... Glastonbury is a small town in Somerset, England, situated at a dry spot on the Somerset Levels, 50km (31 miles) south of Bristol. ... A telluric current is a extremely low frequency electrical current that occurs naturally over large underground areas at or near the surface of the Earth. ... Songlines - the British based world music magazine featuring the greatest artists in the current music scene on the web at [Songlines http://www. ... Psychogeography was defined in 1955 by Guy Debord as the the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment, consciously organized or not, on the emotions and behavior of individuals. ... The term Earth Mysteries describes a multi-disciplined (holistic) approach to the study of ancient sites and landscapes (including archaeology, archaeoastronomy, and ley lines), unusual natural objects, bizarre events and phenomena, anomalous archaeological artifacts known as anachronisms (e. ... The Bible Code is a best-selling controversial book by Michael Drosnin, first published in 1997. ... F&#275;ng Shu&#464; (&#39080;&#27700; &#8211; literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ...

Further reading

  • Alfred Watkins, Early British Trackways (1922)
  • Alfred Watkins, The Old Straight Track: Its Mounds, Beacons, Moats, Sites and Mark Stones (1925); reprinted as ISBN 0-349-13707-2
  • Alfred Watkins, The Ley Hunter's Manual (1927)
  • Tony Wedd, Skyways and Landmarks (1961)
  • Williamson, T. and Bellamy, L., Ley Lines in Question. (1983)
  • Tom Graves, Needles of Stone (1978) -- mixes ley lines and acupuncture; online edition at [3]
  • Paul Broadhurst & Hamish Miller The Sun And The Serpent (1989, 1990 (paperback), 1991, 1994, 2003 (paperback))
  • David R. Cowan, Chris Arnold, & David Hatcher Childress, "Ley Lines and Earth Energies: An Extraordinary Journey into the Earth's Natural Energy System"
  • Bruce L. Cathie, "The Energy Grid"
  • Lucy R Lippard: Overlay: Contemporary Art and the Art of Prehistory. New York 1983 ISBN 0-394-54812-8
  • John Michell, A Little History of Astro-archeology, rev. ed. 1989, Thames & Hudson, New York.

Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Old Straight Track is a book by Alfred Watkins and is the first book to describe ley lines in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Data sources:

  • The Megalithic Map (which does not take a position on this issue, but does illustrate the distribution of major megaliths in the UK)
  • Megalithia, a similar website with grid references for over 1,400 sites
  • GENUKI Parish Database, including grid references for over 14,000 UK churches and register offices
  • The Gazetteer of British Place Names with over 50,000 entries

  Results from FactBites:
 
EARTH MYSTERIES: Ley Lines (675 words)
A ley may be identified simply by an aligned placing of marker sites, or it might be visible on the ground for all or part of its length by the remnants of an old straight track.
Ley Lines were 're-discovered' on 30 June 1921 by Alfred Watkins (1855-1935), a locally well-known and respected Herefordshire businessman, who while looking at a map for features of interest noticed a straight line that passed over hill tops through various points of interest, all of which were ancient.
He went on to associate ley lines with the Greek god Hermes (the Roman Mercury, the Norse Woden) who was the god of communication and of boundaries, the winged messenger, and the guide to travellers on unknown paths.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Ley Lines (2212 words)
Ley Lines were 're-discovered' on 30 June 1921 by Alfred Watkins (1855-1935), a locally well-known and respected Herefordshire businessman, who while looking at a map for features of interest noticed a straight line that passed over hill tops through various points of interest, all of which were ancient.
First, lines were delineated by cleared hilltop notches (ley), then woodland through which the ley line passed was cleared (lay), and then the fields which domesticated the landscape were cleared (lee) with the names ley, lay, and lee applying to each stage of ley landscape development.
Ley lines were also used in the game Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, where a mad recluse and the Knights Templar try to gain power by standing at a convergance of ley lines, at the moment their power peaked and would surge through the Earth, into the person being there at that precise time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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