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Encyclopedia > Lexical category

In grammar, a lexical category (also word class, lexical class, or in traditional grammar part of speech) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all. For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or patterned relations, that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... An open word class, in linguistics, is a word class that accepts the addition of new items, through such processes as compounding, derivation, coining, borrowing, etc. ... A closed word class, in linguistics, is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items. ...


Different languages may have different butt holes, or they might associate different properties to the same one. For example, Spanish uses adjectives almost interchangeably as nouns while English cannot. Japanese has two classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese and Japanese have measure words while European languages have nothing resembling them; many languages don't have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, or adjectives and nouns, etc. Many linguists argue that the formal distinctions between parts of speech must be made within the framework of a specific language or language family, and should not be carried over to other languages or language families. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Measure words, in linguistics, are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate the count of nouns. ...

Contents

Parts of speech

In traditional English grammar, which is patterned after Latin grammar, still taught in schools and used in dictionaries, there are eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and [[interjection](sometimes called an exclamation!)]. Linguists, however, recognize that this list is simplified and artificial.[1] Many traditional parts of speech are defined by semantic criteria instead of morpho-syntactic criteria. For example, "adverb" is to some extent a catch-all class that includes words with many different functions. Numbering eight parts of speech is traditional; it stems from the Greek grammarians. When Romans decided on writing a grammar for their language, they felt compelled to have eight parts of speech, though these were different from the Greek ones, and the same is the case for the English set. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses of dictionary, see dictionary (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... “Adverbs” redirects here. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Morphology is a subdiscipline of linguistics that studies word structure. ...


Common ways of delimiting words by function include:

In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... “Adverbs” redirects here. ... An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker, although most interjections have clear definitions. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Determiners are words which quantify or identify nouns. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... Demonstratives are words that indicate which objects a sentence is referring to. ... Headline text hjvhwhatsgm,Possessive adjectives modify nouns. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... Measure words, in linguistics, are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate the count of nouns. ... In grammar, an adposition is an element that combines syntactically with a phrase and indicates how that phrase should be interpreted in the surrounding context. ... While not a widely accepted linguistic term, the term preverb is used in both Northwest Caucasian and Caddoan linguistics to describe certain elements prefixed to verbs. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In traditional grammar, a contraction is the formation of a new word from two or more individual words. ... Here are examples of how to name numbers in English. ...

English

English frequently does not mark words as belonging to one part of speech or another. Words like neigh, break, outlaw, laser, microwave and telephone might all be either verb forms or nouns. Although -ly is an adverb marker, not all adverbs end in -ly and not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. For instance, tomorrow, slow, fast, crosswise can all be adverbs, while early, friendly, ugly are all adjectives. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word or sentence. ...


In certain circumstances, even words with primarily grammatical functions can be used as verbs or nouns, as in "We must look to the hows and not just the whys" or "Miranda was to-ing and fro-ing and not paying attention".


See also

A syntactic category is either a phrasal category, such as noun phrase or verb phrase, which can be decomposed into smaller syntactic categories, or a lexical category, such as noun or verb, which cannot be further decomposed. ... A grammatical category is a general term. ... Part-of-speech tagging is the process of marking up the words in a text with their corresponding parts of speech. ...

References

  1. ^ Zwicky, Arnold (2006). What part of speech is "the"? Some would label "the" as an adjective because it tells "which one" about the noun that follows it. By doing so, the word "the" is modifying the noun and, thus, it is quite adjectival. Language Log.

Language Log is a popular collaborative language blog maintained by University of Pennsylvania phonetician Mark Liberman. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Linguistics 150, Chapter 3 (3098 words)
In the collocation lexical projection, 'lexical' is a synomyn for 'zero-level.' In this sense, the term stands in opposition to 'intermediate' and 'maximal/phrasal,' as discussed in Chapter 2.
Second, 'lexical' in the collocation 'lexical category' may be opposed to 'silent' or '(phonologically) empty.' In this sense, lexical categories are syntactic categories with phonological content (that is, they are pronounced).
The other lexical categories have at most one complement, and it has been argued that phrase structure is constrained to be binary-branching in general (Kayne 1984).
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