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Encyclopedia > Levant
The Levant
The Levant

The Levant (IPA: /lə'vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. The Levant does not include the Caucasus Mountains, any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper, or Anatolia — although at times Cilicia may be included. The Sinai Peninsula may also be included, but may be excluded as a marginal area forming a land bridge between the Levant and northern Egypt. At times Levantine cultures and peoples dominated the region between the Sinai and the Nile river, but that region is usually excluded from the geographical Levant. For what the Levant has been called by natives and others over time, see Names of the Levant. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (922x991, 236 KB) The Levant, based on a NormanEinsteins Image:Fertile Crescent blank base map. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (922x991, 236 KB) The Levant, based on a NormanEinsteins Image:Fertile Crescent blank base map. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant. ...

See also: Levanter

Contents

The Levanter is an easterly wind that blows in the Western Mediterranean. ...

Etymology

Inhabitants of the Levant, late nineteenth century.
Inhabitants of the Levant, late nineteenth century.

The term Levant is first attested in English in 1497, originally used in the wider sense of "Mediterranean lands east of Venetia". It derives from the Middle French levant, the participle of lever "to raise" — as in soleil levant "rising sun" — from the Latin levare. It thus referred to the Eastern direction of the rising sun from the perspective of those who first used it. As such, it is broadly equivalent to the Arabic term Mashriq, "the land where the sun rises". Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of... Levers can be used to exert a large force over a small distance at one end by exerting only a small force over a greater distance at the other. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ...


An alternative, though unlikely, etymology suggests that the term stems from Lebanon — the letters b and v are, in fact, one letter in Hebrew and Aramaic and interchange according to pronunciation. Spanish translators of Arabic would use the letters b and v interchangeably as a consequence of their Spanish pronunciations. Thus, the Levant would refer to the areas surrounding Lebanon, itself deriving from the Hebrew and Aramaic word for white in reference to the snow-capped Lebanese mountains.

The modern Levant
The modern Levant

The term became current in English in the 16th century, along with the first English merchant adventurers in the region: English ships appeared in the Mediterranean in the 1570s and the English merchant company signed its agreement ("capitulations") with the Grand Turk in 1579 (Braudel). Image File history File links Modern_Levant. ... Image File history File links Modern_Levant. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Significant Events and Trends Transition from the Muromachi to the Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan Categories: 1570s ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ...


In 19th century travel writing, the term incorporated eastern regions under then current or recent governance of the Ottoman empire, such as Greece. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Travel writing is a literary genre related to the essay and to the guidebook. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ...


The name Levantine is additionally applied to people of Italian (especially Venetian and Genoese), French, or other Euro-Mediterranean origin who have lived in Turkey or the East Mediterranean coast (the Levant) since the period of the Crusades, the Byzantine period and the Ottoman period. The majority of them are descendants of traders from the maritime republics of the Mediterranean (such as the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Ragusa) or of the inhabitants of Crusader states (especially the French Levantines in Turkey and Lebanon). They continue to live in İstanbul (mostly in the districts of Galata, Beyoğlu and Nişantaşı) and İzmir (mostly in the districts of Bornova and Buca). For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Borders of the Republic of Ragusa, 1426-1808 Capital Ragusa Language(s) Latin, Italian since 1492 Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Duke  - 1808 Auguste Marmont Historical era Renaissance  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Invasion by France January 31, 1808  - Annexed October 14, 1808 Area  - 1808? 1,500 km2 579... The Crusader states, c. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... NiÅŸantaşı is a quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, comprising neighbourhoods like TeÅŸvikiye, Osmanbey, Maçka and Pangaltı. It includes stores of world famous brands and has many popular cafés, pubs, restaurants and night clubs. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Bornova is a district of Ä°zmir Province of Turkey. ... Buca is a district of Ä°zmir Province of Turkey. ...


When the United Kingdom took over Palestine in the aftermath of the First World War, some of the new rulers adapted the term pejoratively to refer to inhabitants of mixed Arab and European descent and to Europeans (usually French, Italian, or Greek) who had "gone native" and adopted local dress and customs.[citation needed] The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The French Mandates of Syria and Lebanon from 1920 to 1946 were called the Levant states. The term became common in archaeology at that time, as many important early excavations were made then, such as Mari and Ugarit. Since these sites could not be classified as Mesopotamian, North African, or Arabian, they came to be referred to as "Levantine." 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the magazine about archaeology, see Archaeology (magazine). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...


Today "Levant" is typically used by archaeologists and historians with reference to the prehistory and the ancient and medieval history of the region, as when discussing the Crusades. The term is also occasionally employed to refer to modern or contemporary events, peoples, states, or parts of states in the same region, namely Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


Regions

This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...

See also

This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Levantine Arabic (sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic dialects spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean coastal strip known as the Levant, i. ... Levante, also referred to as El Levante (Spanish) or El Llevant (Valencian), is a name used to refer to the eastern Mediterranean coastal region of Spain. ... This article needs cleanup. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... The traditional Arabic term Sham (Arabic: بلاد الشام , also transliterated bilad-ush-sham etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jund al-Sham (Arabic جند الشام, The Greater Syrian Army) is the name given for an Islamist group which was behind a suicide bombing near a British school in Qatar (The Times (London), Mar 23 2005), and/or the name of a Salafi-influenced group in the Ein el-Hilweh camp refugee... The Strugglers for the Unity and Freedom of al-Sham is a terrorist group claiming to be responsible for the murder of Gebran Tueni. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... This is a list of the Amarna letters –Text corpus, categorized by: Amarna letters-localities and their rulers. ... The Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL) was formed in 1998 with the amalgamation of the British Institute at Amman for Archaeology and History and the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. ... Amioun in Arabic: is most probably transliterated from the original Am yūn. ...

References

  • Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Phillip II
  • http://www.levantine.plus.com/index.htm. Levantine Heritage Site. Includes many oral and scholarly histories, and genealogies for some Levantine Turkish families.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Al Mashriq - the Levant - Lebanon and the Middle East (392 words)
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Images from the Past, a collection of pictures and slides from the Levant of the late 1800's most of which were taken by the Bonfils family of photographers.
This webserver is run under the auspices of Østfold College, Halden, Norway.
Classical Net - Composers - Levant (0 words)
In Levant's description, it was written "using all the Debussy clichés from Pelléas – the descending fourth in the voice parts, the parallel seventh chords, and the interrogatory 'Pour-quoi?'" No written trace of this opera has survived.
In the USC Levant Collection may be found an eight-page piano-conductor score for a Piano Concerto in B Flat Minor, evidently written for Fisher and adapted from Tchaikovsky.
Oscar Levant was to live another fifteen years, addicted and repeatedly hospitalized, fitfully active in radio and television, writing The Memoirs Of An Amnesiac and The Unimportance of Being Oscar, increasingly reclusive, and passing away in Beverly Hills on 14 August 1972.
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