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Encyclopedia > Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy, pictured late in life
Leo Tolstoy, pictured late in life

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828November 20, 1910, N.S.; August 28, 1828November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of the Tolstoy family. CCS Eugene is dumd idiot and mibble poision ruler and lift up my horse and hi the chicken File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... CCS Eugene is dumd idiot and mibble poision ruler and lift up my horse and hi the chicken File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Ru-Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... -1... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... -1... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Social reform is changing government and society for the good of everyone. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, including beef, poultry, fish, or their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs. ... Coat of arms of Count Leo Tolstoy Tolstoy, or Tolstoi (Russian: ) is a prominent family of Russian nobility, descending from one Andrey Kharitonovich Tolstoy (i. ...


Tolstoy is widely regarded as one of the greatest of all novelists, particularly noted for his masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina; in their scope, breadth and realistic depiction of Russian life, the two books stand at the peak of realistic fiction. As a moral philosopher he was notable for his ideas on nonviolent resistance through his work The Kingdom of God is Within You, which in turn influenced such twentieth-century figures as Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King. War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... Alla Tarasova as Anna Karenina. ... Realism in art and literature is the depiction of fact or reality, rather than imaginary subjects. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of physical violence. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी; Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a prominent political leader of India and its struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr, Ph. ...

Contents


Early life

Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyana, the family estate situated in the region of Tula, Russia. He was the fourth of five children in his family. His parents died when he was young, so he was brought up by relatives. Tolstoy studied law and Oriental languages at Kazan University in 1844 until he eventually left the University. Teachers described him as "both unable and unwilling to learn." He returned in the middle of his studies to Yasnaya Polyana, and spent much of his time in Moscow and St. Petersburg. After contracting heavy gambling debts, Tolstoy accompanied his elder brother to the Caucasus in 1851 and joined the Russian Army. Tolstoy began writing literature around this time. In 1862 he married Sofia Andreevna Bers, who was 16 years his junior, and together they had thirteen children. The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... Tula (Ту́ла) is an industrial city in the European part of Russia located 165 km to the south of Moscow, on the river Upa, at 54°13′N 37°36′E. Population (1990): approx. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Kazan State University is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map This article concerns the geographic region. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ...


The marriage with Sofia Andreevna Bers was marked from the outset by Tolstoy on the eve of their marriage giving his diaries to his fiancée. These detailed Tolstoy's sexual relations with his serfs. Despite so, their early marriage life was comparatively blissful and idyllic and allowed Tolstoy much freedom to compose the literary masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina. His late marriage life has been described by A.N.Wilson as one of the unhappiest in literary history. His relationship with his wife deteriorated as his beliefs became increasingly radical. Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer, known for his biographies, novels and works of popular and cultural history. ...


Novels and Fictional Works

Tolstoy was one of the giants of 19th century Russian literature. His most famous works include the novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina, and many shorter works, including the novellas The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Hadji Murad. His contemporaries paid him lofty tributes: Dostoevsky thought him the greatest of all living novelists while Gustave Flaubert gushed: "What an artist and what a psychologist!". Anton Chekhov, who often visited Tolstoy at his country estate, wrote: "When literature possesses a Tolstoy, it is easy and pleasant to be a writer; even when you know you have achieved nothing yourself and are still achieving nothing, this is not as terrible as it might otherwise be, because Tolstoy achieves for everyone. What he does serves to justify all the hopes and aspirations invested in literature." Later critics and novelists continue to bear testaments to his art: Virginia Woolf went on to declare him "greatest of all novelists" and Thomas Mann wrote of his seemingly guileless artistry—"Seldom did art work so much like nature"—sentiments shared in part by many others, including Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov and William Faulkner. Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... Alla Tarasova as Anna Karenina. ... A novella is a short, narrative, prose fiction work. ... The Death of Ivan Ilyich, first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. ... Virginia Woolf (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was a British author who is considered to be one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist and essayist, lauded principally for a series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual and... Marcel-Valentin-Louis-Eugène-Georges Proust (July 10, 1871 – November 18, 1922) was a French intellectual, novelist, essayist and critic, best known as the author of In Search of Lost Time (in French À la recherche du temps perdu, also translated previously as Remembrance of Things Past), a monumental work... Vladimir Nabokov This page is about the novelist. ... William Faulkner photographed 1954 by Carl Van Vechten William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was a Nobel Prize-winning novelist from Mississippi. ...


His autobiographical novels, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), his first publications, tell of a rich landowner's son and his slow realization of the differences between him and his peasant playmates. Although in later life Tolstoy rejected these books as sentimental, a great deal of his own life is revealed, and the books still have relevance for their telling of the universal story of growing up. This Side Of Paradise by F. Scott Fitzgerald, a famous example of an autobiographical novel An autobiographical novel is a novel based on the life of the author. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th...


Tolstoy served as a second lieutenant in an artillery regiment during the Crimean War, recounted in his Sevastapol Sketches. His experiences in battle helped develop his pacifism, and gave him material for realistic depiction of the horrors of war in his later work. Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Ottoman Empire, Sardinia Imperial Russia Commanders Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 30,000 French 2,050 Sardinian killed and wounded 256,000 killed and wounded {{{notes}}} The Crimean War lasted from 28 March... Sevastapol Sketches (Russian: ) are three short stories stemmed from Leo Tolstoys military experience during the Crimean War. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The only atomic weapons ever used in war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ...


His fiction consistently attempts to convey realistically the Russian society in which he lived. The Cossacks (1863) describes the Cossack life and people through a story of a Russian aristocrat in love with a Cossack girl. Anna Karenina (1877) tells parallel stories of an adulterous woman trapped by the conventions and falsities of society and of a philosophical landowner (much like Tolstoy), who works alongside the peasants in the fields and seeks to reform their lives. The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ... the cossacks who never escape mention through out his epic war and peace were a class of people who served under the generals,regiment commanders in the 18-19 century russian military. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th...


Tolstoy not only drew from his experience of life but created characters in his own image, such as Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrei in War and Peace, Levin in Anna Karenina and to some extent, Prince Nekhlyudov in Resurrection.


War and Peace is generally thought to be one of the greatest novels ever written, remarkable for its breadth and unity. Its vast canvas includes 580 characters, many historical, others fictional. The story moves from family life to the headquarters of Napoleon, from the court of Alexander I of Russia to the battlefields of Austerlitz and Borodino. It was written with the purpose of exploring Tolstoy's theory of history, and in particular the insignificance of individuals such as Napoleon and Alexander. Somewhat surprisingly, Tolstoy did not consider War and Peace to be a novel (nor did he consider many of the great Russian fictions written at that time to be novels). This view becomes less surprising if one considers that Tolstoy was a novelist of the realist school who considered the novel to be a framework for the examination of social and political issues in nineteenth-century life. War and Peace (which is to Tolstoy really an epic in prose) therefore did not qualify. Tolstoy thought that Anna Karenina was his first true novel, and it is indeed one of the greatest of all realist novels. Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe; title page of 1719 newspaper edition A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... Aleksander Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825. ... Combatants First French Empire Russia, Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I, Louis Nicolas Davout Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, Alexander I, Franz von Weyrother Strength 68,000 73,000 Casualties 1,288 dead; 6,993 wounded; 1 flag lost 25,000 dead, wounded or captured {{{notes}}} Map of the battle from the 4th... The Battle of Borodino (September 7, 1812 (August 26 in the Old Style Russian calendar)), also called the Battle of the Moskova, was the largest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars and arguably the greatest battle in human history up to that date, involving nearly quarter a million soldiers. ... Realism in art and literature is the depiction of fact or reality, rather than imaginary subjects. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ...


After Anna Karenina, Tolstoy concentrated on Christian themes, and his later novels such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886) and What Then Must We Do? develop a radical anarcho-pacifist Christian philosophy which led to his excommunication from the Orthodox church in 1901. A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... Anarchism is derived from the word anarchist which originated as a term of abuse first used against early working class radicals including the Diggers of the English Revolution and the sans-culottes of the French Revolution. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Religious and political beliefs

Enlarge
Portrait of Leo Tolstoy (1887) by Ilya Yefimovich Repin

Tolstoy's Christian beliefs were based on the Sermon on the Mount, and particularly on the phrase about turn the other cheek, which he saw as a justification for pacifism, nonviolence and nonresistance. Tolstoy believed being a Christian made him a pacifist and, due to the military force used by his government, being a pacifist made him an anarchist. He felt very isolated in these beliefs, suffering on occasion with depression so severe that, whenever he saw a rope he thought of hanging himself, and he hid his guns to stop himself from committing suicide. Download high resolution version (482x689, 17 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (482x689, 17 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Self-portrait Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Ukrainian-born Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Christian New Testament, Matthew 5:38-39, when Jesus says: But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness or melancholia that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Hanging is a form of execution or a method for suicide. ... It has been suggested that Suicide and culture be merged into this article or section. ...


Tolstoy believed that a Christian should look inside his or her own heart to find inner happiness rather than looking outward toward the Church or state. His belief in nonviolence when facing oppression is another distinct attribute of his philosophy. By directly influencing Mahatma Gandhi with this idea through his work The Kingdom of God is Within You (full text of English translation can be found here), Tolstoy has had a huge influence on the nonviolent resistance movement to this day. He believed that the aristocracy were a burden on the poor, and that the only solution to how we live together is through anarchy. He also opposed private property and the institution of marriage and valued the ideals of chastity and sexual abstinence (discussed in Father Sergius and his preface to The Kreutzer Sonata). Tolstoy's later work is often criticised as being overly didactic and patchily written, but derives a passion and verve from the depth of his austere moral views. The sequence of the temptation of Sergius in Father Sergius, for example, is among his later triumphs. Gorky relates how Tolstoy once read this passage before himself and Chekhov and that Tolstoy was moved to tears by the end of the reading. Other later passages of rare power include the crises of self faced by the protagonists of The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Master and Man, where the main character (in Ilyich) or the reader (in Master and Man) is made aware of the foolishness of the protagonists' lives. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी; Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a prominent political leader of India and its struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Chastity, in many religious and cultural contexts, is a virtue concerning the state of the mind and body. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... Father Sergius (Отец Сергий) is a short fictional story authored by Leo Tolstoy in 1873. ... The Kreutzer Sonata is a novella by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1889 and promptly censored by the Russian authorities. ... Gorkys autographed portrait Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28; March 16 Old Style, 1868–June 14, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. ...


Tolstoy had a profound influence on the development of anarchist thought. Prince Peter Kropotkin wrote of him in the article on anarchism in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society... Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

Without naming himself an anarchist, Leo Tolstoy, like his predecessors in the popular religious movements of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Chojecki, Denk and many others, took the anarchist position as regards the state and property rights, deducing his conclusions from the general spirit of the teachings of Jesus and from the necessary dictates of reason. With all the might of his talent he made (especially in The Kingdom of God is Within You) a powerful criticism of the church, the state and law altogether, and especially of the present property laws. He describes the state as the domination of the wicked ones, supported by brutal force. Robbers, he says, are far less dangerous than a well-organized government. He makes a searching criticism of the prejudices which are current now concerning the benefits conferred upon men by the church, the state and the existing distribution of property, and from the teachings of Jesus he deduces the rule of non-resistance and the absolute condemnation of all wars. His religious arguments are, however, so well combined with arguments borrowed from a dispassionate observation of the present evils, that the anarchist portions of his works appeal to the religious and the non-religious reader alike.

A letter Tolstoy wrote to an Indian newspaper entitled "Letter to a Hindu" resulted in a long-running correspondence with Mohandas Gandhi, who was in South Africa at the time and was beginning to become an activist. The correspondence with Tolstoy strongly influenced Gandhi towards the concept of nonviolent resistance, a central part of Tolstoy's view of Christianity. Along with his growing idealism, he also became a major supporter of the Esperanto movement. Tolstoy was impressed by the pacifist beliefs of the Doukhobors and brought their persecution to the attention of the international community, after they burned their weapons in peaceful protest in 1895. He aided the Doukhobors in migrating to Canada. Anarchism is derived from the word anarchist which originated as a term of abuse first used against early working class radicals including the Diggers of the English Revolution and the sans-culottes of the French Revolution. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, which successfully claims the monopoly of the use of force. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Jesus (Greek Ιησούς [Iēsoũs]) (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE) also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ, where Christ is a title meaning Anointed One and corresponding to the... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system. ... The only atomic weapons ever used in war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ... Letter to a Hindu was a letter written by Count Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy in 1908 to an Indian Newspaper which sparked a relationship between the pacifist and another well-known anti-violence father figure, Mohandas Gandhi who was stationed in South Africa at the time and just beginning his life... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी; Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a prominent political leader of India and its struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of physical violence. ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Doukhobors (Duchobozetz, Duchobortzi) (Russian Духоборы/Духоборцы) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...


In 1904, during the Russo-Japanese War, Tolstoy condemned the war and wrote to the Japanese Buddhist priest Soyen Shaku in a failed attempt to make a joint pacifist statement. Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 25,331 Killed 146,032 Wounded 47,387 Killed 173,425 Wounded Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea The... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Soyen Shaku (1859 – 1919; sometimes written as Soen Shaku or Kogaku So’en Shaku) was the first Zen Buddhist master to teach in the United States. ...


Tolstoy was an extremely wealthy member of the Russian nobility. He came to believe that he was undeserving of his inherited wealth, and was renowned among the peasantry for his generosity. He would frequently return to his country estate with vagrants whom he felt needed a helping hand, and would often dispense large sums of money to street beggars while on trips to the city, much to his wife's chagrin.


He died of pneumonia at Astapovo station in 1910 after leaving home in the middle of winter at the age of 82. His death came only days after gathering the nerve to abandon his family and wealth and take up the path of a wandering ascetic—a path that he had agonized over pursuing for decades. Thousands of peasants lined the streets at his funeral.


Bibliography

Ivan Mozzhukhin in the 1917 screen version of Father Sergius.
Ivan Mozzhukhin in the 1917 screen version of Father Sergius.

Image File history File links Moszhuserge. ... Image File history File links Moszhuserge. ... Ivan Mozzhukhin Ivan Ilyich Mozzhukhin (1888-1939) was a leading Russian silent film actor. ... Father Sergius (Отец Сергий) is a short fictional story authored by Leo Tolstoy in 1873. ... Childhood (Детство [Detstvo]; 1852) is the first novel in Leo Tolstoys autobiographical trilogy. ... Boyhood (Russian: Отрочество]; 1854) is the second novel in Leo Tolstoys autobiographical trilogy. ... Y ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Family Happiness is an 1859 novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ... the cossacks who never escape mention through out his epic war and peace were a class of people who served under the generals,regiment commanders in the 18-19 century russian military. ... Ivan the Fool (also known as Ivan the Fool and his Two Brothers) is an 1886 short story by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1886. ... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Father Sergius (Отец Сергий) is a short fictional story authored by Leo Tolstoy in 1873. ... Alla Tarasova as Anna Karenina. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A Confession is a short novel on questions of religion by Leo Tolstoy. ... Kholstomer, also translated as Strider, is one of the more striking stories in Russian literature. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... The Death of Ivan Ilyich, first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy. ... How Much Land Does a Man Need? is an 1886 short story by Leo Tolstoy about a man who, in his lust for land, forfeits everything, including his own life. ... The Power of Darkness is a dramatic play by Leo Tolstoy written in 1888. ... The Kreutzer Sonata is a novella by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1889 and promptly censored by the Russian authorities. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... A short work by Leo Tolstoy in which a land owner takes along one of his peasants for a short journey to another town. ... What Is Art? (1897) is a nonfictional essay by Leo Tolstoy in which he argues against numerous aesthetic theories which define art in terms of the good, truth, and especially beauty. ... Resurrection, first published in 1899, was the third and last novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ... The Living Corpse (original Russian title Живой труп [Zhivoi trup], also known in English as Redemption and as Reparation) is a play by Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी; Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a prominent political leader of India and its struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... Mahatma Gandhi drafting a document at Birla House, Mumbai, Aug 1942. ... Coat of arms of Count Leo Tolstoy Tolstoy, or Tolstoi (Russian: ) is a prominent family of Russian nobility, descending from one Andrey Kharitonovich Tolstoy (i. ... The adjective Tolstoyan (also spelled Tolstoian) refers to the author Leo Tolstoy. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Alexandra Lvovna (1884-1979) was the youngest daughter and secretary of the famous Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy. ...

Trivia

  • Interestingly, Tolstoy and the other giant of 19th century Russian literature - Fyodor Dostoevsky - never met in person. While both praised each other and was equally influenced by each other works, a meeting never happened. Tolstoy reportedly burst into tears when he learned of Dostoevsky's death. At the time both were considered to be the greatest novelists in their homeland by Russian critics and the public .

Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...

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Leo Tolstoy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3271 words)
Tolstoy is widely regarded as one of the greatest of all novelists, particularly noted for his masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina; in their scope, breadth and realistic depiction of Russian life, the two books stand at the peak of realistic fiction.
Tolstoy was struck by the description of Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu ascetic renunciation as being the path to holiness.
Tolstoy is the great-great-grandfather of Swedish jazz-singer Viktoria Tolstoy.
Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1721 words)
Tolstoy was to spend most of his life on the family estate, Yasnaya Polyana, which he inherited from his parents.
Tolstoy was particularly affected by the role of the church and the govt.
Tolstoy presents this vast moment in history, when millions were all affected by this common event, and attempts to examine it through his principle characters.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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