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Encyclopedia > Lettuce
Lettuce
Iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County
Iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. sativa
Binomial name
Lactuca sativa
L.
Lettuce and chicory output in 2005
Lettuce and chicory output in 2005
Lettuce (butterhead)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 10 kcal   60 kJ
Carbohydrates     2.2 g
- Dietary fibre  1.1 g  
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 1.4 g
Water 96 g
Vitamin A equiv.  166 μg  18%
Folate (Vit. B9)  73 μg  18%
Vitamin C  4 mg 7%
Vitamin K  24 μg 23%
Iron  1.2 mg 10%
Vit. K[1]
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a temperate annual or biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable. In many countries, it is typically eaten cold and raw, in salads, hamburgers, tacos, and many other dishes. In some places, including China, lettuce is typically eaten cooked and use of the stem is as important as use of the leaf. Both the English name and the Latin name of the genus are ultimately derived from lac, the Latin word for “milk”,[2] referring to the plant’s milky juice. Mild in flavour, it has been described over the centuries as a cooling counterbalance to other ingredients in a salad.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 881 KB)Photographed and uploaded by User:Geographer Close-up of a iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County between Santa Maria and Lompoc, on July 31, 2005. ... Santa Barbara County is a county located on the Pacific coast of Southern California, in the state of California, just west of Ventura County. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Alseuosmiaceae Argophyllaceae Asteraceae - Daisies Calyceraceae Campanulaceae (incl. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Genera See text Lactuca, commonly known as lettuce, is a genus of flowering plants in the Sunflower family Asteraceae. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of lettuce and chicory output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,005,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of lettuce and chicory output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,005,000 tonnes). ... Species C. endivia - cultivated endive Cichorium pumilum - wild endive Cichorium intybus - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... This article deals with food. ... This article is about the food item. ... For other uses, see Taco (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ...


The lettuce plant has a short stem initially (a rosette growth habit), but when it blooms the stem lengthens and branches, and it produces many flower heads that look like those of dandelions, but smaller. This is called bolting. When grown to eat, lettuce is harvested before it bolts. Lettuce is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera. A rosette of leaves at the base of a dandelion In botany, a rosette is a circular arrangement of the leaves, with all the leaves at a single height. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ...

Contents

Cultivars

There are six commonly recognised Cultivar Groups of lettuce which are ordered here by head formation and leaf structure; there are hundreds of cultivars of lettuce selected for leaf shape and colour, as well as extended field and shelf life, within each of these Cultivar Groups: Under the ICNCP, a Cultivar Group is a gathering of cultivars. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...

  • Butterhead, also called Boston or Bibb, forms loose heads; it has a buttery texture. Butterhead cultivars are most popular in Europe.
  • Chinese lettuce types generally have long, sword-shaped, non-head-forming leaves, with a bitter and robust flavour unlike Western types, appropriate for use in stir-fried dishes and stews. Chinese lettuce cultivars are divided into “stem-use” types (called celtuce in English), and “leaf-use” types such as youmaicai (Chinese: 油麦菜; pinyin: yóumàicài) or shengcai (生菜).
  • Crisphead, also called Iceberg, which form tight, dense heads that resemble cabbage. They are generally the mildest of the lettuces, valued more for their crunchy texture than for flavour. Cultivars of iceberg lettuce are the most familiar lettuces in the USA. The name Iceberg comes from the way the lettuce was transported in the US starting in the 1920s on train-wagons covered in crushed ice, making them look like icebergs.
  • Looseleaf, with tender, delicate, and mildly flavoured leaves. This group comprises oak leaf and lollo rosso lettuces.
  • Romaine, also called Cos, is a head-forming type with elongated leaves.
  • Summer Crisp, also called Batavian, which form moderately dense heads with a crunchy texture; this type is intermediate between iceberg and looseleaf types.

Some lettuces (especially iceberg) have been specifically bred to remove the bitterness from their leaves. These lettuces have a high water content with very little nutrient value.[citation needed] The more bitter lettuces and the ones with pigmented leaves contain antioxidants.[citation needed] Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ... Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chÇŽo (ç‚’) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ... Celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Romaine lettuce Romaine or Cos lettuce (often called simply Romaine or Cos) (Lactuca sativa L. var. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...

Breeding

L. sativa can easily be bred with closely related species in Lactuca such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, and breeding programs for cultivated lettuce have included those species to broaden the available gene pool. Starting in the 1990s, breeding programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. tatarica.[4] Genera See text Lactuca, commonly known as lettuce, is a genus of flowering plants in the Sunflower family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Lactuca serriola Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola) is an annual or biennial plant commonly considered as a weed that is common of orchards, roadsides and crops. ... Binomial name Lactuca virosa L. Lactuca virosa is a legal ethnobotanical in the United States. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ...


Facts and figures

  • Lactucarium (or “Lettuce Opium”) is a mild opiate-like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce. Both the Romans and Egyptians took advantage of this property eating lettuce at the end of a meal to induce sleep.[5]
  • Lettuce is a fat free, low calorie and saturated fat free food. It is a valuable source of vitamin A and folic acid
  • The largest lettuce head weighed 11 kg (25 lb), of the Salad Bowl cultivar, grown by Colin Bowcock of Willaston, England, in 1974.
  • In the United States, 95% of all head lettuce is grown in California and Arizona.
  • The Yazidi consider eating lettuce taboo.

Lactucarium is the milky fluid secreted by several species of wild Lettuce, usually from the base of the stems. ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Willaston could be Willaston, Crewe and Nantwich (Cheshire) Willaston, Ellesmere Port and Neston (Cheshire) Willaston, Flintshire Category: ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ...

History

The lettuce that we see today actually started out as a weed around the Mediterranean basin. Served in dishes for more than 4500 years, lettuce has certainly made its mark in history- as seen from tomb paintings in Egypt to the depiction of many different varieties in ancient Greek relics. Christopher Columbus introduced lettuce to the new world.[6]


Notes

  1. ^ Molly Damon, Nancy Z. Zhang, David B. Haytowitz, Sarah L. Booth (2005). "Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of vegetables". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18: 751–758. Elsevier. doi:doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.07.004. 
  2. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary, 5, London: Cassell Ltd., 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  3. ^ Grigson, Jane (1978). The Vegetable Book. London: Penguin, p. 312-14. ISBN 0-14-046-352-6. 
  4. ^ Wim J. M. Koopman, Eli Guetta, Clemens C. M. van de Wiel, Ben Vosman and Ronald G. van den Berg (1998). Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences 1517–1530.
  5. ^ "Lettuce - Lactuca sativa - Daisy family". Hamilton, Dave (2005).
  6. ^ Lettuce:Food Facts & Trivia. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Jane Grigson (nee McIntyre)(1928 - 1990) was a British cookery writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Gardening/Lettuce
  • "Iceberg and Leaf Lettuce", University of California
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lettuce - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (992 words)
Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant most often grown as a leaf vegetable.
Lettuce is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Lettuces.
With the vast number of lettuce cultivars in existence, it is near impossible to pin-point their exact origins.
Watch Your Garden Grow - Lettuce (1842 words)
Lettuce is a fairly hardy, cool-weather vegetable that thrives when the average daily temperature is between 60 and 70°F. It should be planted in early spring or late summer.
Stem lettuce forms an enlarged seedstalk that is used mainly in stewed, creamed and Chinese dishes.
Lettuce does not withstand hot summer days well and spring planting should be completed at least a month before the really hot days of early summer begin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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