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Encyclopedia > Lesbian
In ancient times the metal copper was associated with the Roman goddess Venus because of its visual appeal. Copper's ancient alchemy symbol became a sign for both the goddess and the planet. It was later also used to represent the female in biology and popular culture. Here, it is doubled and twined in symbolic hues of lilac as a sign for lesbian.
In ancient times the metal copper was associated with the Roman goddess Venus because of its visual appeal. Copper's ancient alchemy symbol became a sign for both the goddess and the planet. It was later also used to represent the female in biology and popular culture. Here, it is doubled and twined in symbolic hues of lilac as a sign for lesbian.

A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women.[1][2] Women who are attracted to both women and men are more often referred to as bisexual. An individual's self-identification might not correspond with her behavior, and may be expressed with either, both, or neither of these words. Lesbian can mean: A lesbian, a female who is aesthetically, sexually, or romantically attracted to other females. ... Image File history File links Lesbian_sign. ... Image File history File links Lesbian_sign. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Lilac is a color that is a pale shade of violet. ... Diverse women. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... An intimate relationship is a interpersonal relationship where there is a great deal of physical or emotional intimacy. ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ...

Contents

History

See also: History of lesbianism
Sappho as depicted through a 2nd century CE Roman copy of an ancient Greek bust.
Sappho as depicted through a 2nd century CE Roman copy of an ancient Greek bust.
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The earliest known written references to same-sex love between women are attributed to Sappho (the eponym of sapphism), who lived on the island of Lesbos in ancient Greece from about 625 to 570 BCE and wrote poems which apparently expressed her sexual attraction to other females. Modern scholarship has suggested a parallel between ancient Greek pederasty and the friendships Sappho formed with her students.[3][4] Lesbian relationships were also common among the Lacedaemonians of ancient Sparta. Plutarch wrote "love was so esteemed among them that girls also became the erotic objects of noble women."[5] // It is speculated that many men in ancient Greece sought homosexual relationships because of the low intellectual status of women, as in classical Athens. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 1,280 pixels, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Museo archeologico di Istanbul, Stanza 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 1,280 pixels, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Museo archeologico di Istanbul, Stanza 6. ... For other uses, see Sappho (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... A transgender woman at New York Citys gay pride parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English)) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ... This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980). ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The sociological construct of a gay community is complex among those that classify themselves as homosexual, ranging from full-embracement to complete and utter rejection of the concept. ... Front line of Gay Pride parade in Paris, France; June 2005 Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ... Gay slang or LGBT slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ... A gay village (also gay ghetto or gayborhood) is an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual people live. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For the novel by William S. Burroughs, see Queer (novel). ... Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning his or her sexual identity or sexual orientation. ... World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to gays, lesbians and bisexuals. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... For other uses, see Sappho (disambiguation). ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Lesbos may refer to: Lesbos Island, a large Greek island in the Aegean Sea Lesbos Prefecture, the Greek prefecture that contains the island Slang word for Lesbians. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... Zephyrus and Hyacinthus Hyacinthus, beloved of Apollo was a patron hero of pederasty in Sparta. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Accounts of lesbian relationships are found in poetry and stories from ancient China. Research by anthropologist Liza Dalby, based mostly on erotic poems exchanged between women, has suggested lesbian relationships were commonplace and socially accepted in Japan during the Heian Period. In medieval Arabia there were reports of relations between harem residents, although these were sometimes suppressed. For example Caliph Musa al-Hadi ordered the beheading of two girls who were surprised during lovemaking.[6] During the twelfth-century Etienne de Fougères derided lesbians in his Livre des manières (about CE 1170), likening them to hens behaving as roosters and reflecting a general tendency among religious and secular authorities in Europe to reject any notion women could be properly sexual without men.[7] Liza Crihfield Dalby is an American anthropologist and novelist specializing in Japanese culture. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi (Arabic: أبو عبد الله موسى بن المهدي الهادي) (d. ...


Lesbian feminism

See also: Lesbian feminism and Feminism

Many lesbians have been involved in women's rights. Late in the 19th century, the term Boston marriage was used to describe romantic unions between women living together, often while contributing to the suffrage movement. Lesbian feminism gained renewed popularity in North America and Western Europe during the "second wave" of the 1970s and early 1980s. By the end of the 1970s lesbian feminism was accepted as a field of study within academic institutions, although mostly as a branch of feminist disciplines. More recently, lesbian feminism has emerged as an expression of dissatisfaction with the 1970s era second wave feminist and gay liberation movements.[8] Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... In the 19th century, Boston marriage was a term used for households where two women lived together, independent of any male support. ... ...


Lesbian feminist texts have examined the influence of institutions such as patriarchy, capitalism and colonialism on gender and sexuality with mixed success, sometimes describing lesbianism as a rational result of alienation and dissatisfaction with these institutions. In her 1980 essay Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence, Adrienne Rich characterized heterosexuality as a violent political institution making way for the "male right of physical, economical, and emotional access" to women. Other key thinkers and activists have included Rita Mae Brown, Audre Lorde, Marilyn Frye, Mary Daly and Sheila Jeffreys. For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence written in 1980, was published in Adrienne Richs 1986 book Blood, Bread, and Poetry. ... Adrienne Rich (born May 16, 1929 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American feminist, poet, teacher, and writer. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Political Institution is a web of relationships lasting over time, and an established structure of power. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Rita Mae Brown (born November 28, 1944) is a prolific American writer and social activist, notable for novels, poetry, and screenwriting. ... Lorde redirects here. ... Marilyn Frye is a philosophy professor and feminist theorist. ... Mary Daly (born October 16, 1928 in Schenectady, New York) is a radical feminist theologian. ... Sheila Jeffreys (born 1948) is a well-known and controversial radical lesbian feminist. ...


Sexuality

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's 1893 painting In Bed
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's 1893 painting In Bed
See also: Lesbian sexual practices

Sexual activity between women is as diverse as sex between heterosexuals or gay men. Some women in same-sex relationships do not identify as lesbian, but as bisexual, queer, or another label. As with any interpersonal activity, sexual expression depends on the context of the relationship. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (991x761, 178 KB) Summary From commons. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (991x761, 178 KB) Summary From commons. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... Lesbian sexual practices are many and sundry. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... For the novel by William S. Burroughs, see Queer (novel). ...


Recent cultural changes in Western and a few other societies have enabled lesbians to express their sexuality more freely, which has resulted in new studies on the nature of female sexuality. Research undertaken by the U.S. Government's National Center for Health Research in 2002 was released in a 2005 report called Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15-44 Years of Age, United States, 2002. The results indicated that among women aged 15-44, 4.4 percent reported having had a sexual experience with another woman during the previous 12 months. When women aged 15–44 years of age were asked, "Have you ever had any sexual experience of any kind with another female?" 11 percent answered "yes". For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


There is a growing body of research and writing on lesbian sexuality, which has brought some debate about the control women have over their sexual lives, the fluidity of woman-to-woman sexuality, the redefinition of female sexual pleasure and the debunking of negative sexual stereotypes. One example of the latter is lesbian bed death, a term invented by sex researcher Pepper Schwartz to describe the supposedly inevitable diminution of sexual passion in long term lesbian relationships; this notion is rejected by many lesbians, who point out that passion tends to diminish in almost any relationship and many lesbian couples report happy and satisfying sex lives. This article is about the concept. ... This article is about homosexual women, not inhabitants of the Greek island of Lesbos A lesbian (lowercase L) is a homosexual woman. ... Pepper Schwartz, Ph. ...


Public policy

Same-sex married couple at San Francisco Pride 2004.
Same-sex married couple at San Francisco Pride 2004.

In Western societies, explicit prohibitions on women's homosexual behavior have been markedly weaker than those on men's homosexual behavior. During the 1990s, dozens of chapters of Lesbian Avengers were formed to press for lesbian visibility and rights. Same-sex marriage has now been legalized in Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Canada, and South Africa but it is still not permitted by many countries. In 2004 Massachusetts became the first state in the US to legalize same-sex marriages.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1096x1092, 200 KB)Lesbian married couple at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1096x1092, 200 KB)Lesbian married couple at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... Same-sex marriage is a term for a legally, socially and/or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. ... Drag queens on a float at San Francisco Pride 2005 Dykes on Bikes start the parade. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence The Lesbian Avengers is an activist group for queer women who want to promote lesbian issues and perspectives. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ...


In the United Kingdom, lesbianism has never been illegal. In contrast, sexual activity between males was not made legal in England and Wales until 1967. It is said that lesbianism was left out of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885 because Queen Victoria did not believe sex between women was possible, but this story may be apocryphal.[10] A 1921 proposal, put forward by Frederick Macquisten MP to criminalize lesbianism was rejected by the House of Lords; during the debate, Lord Birkenhead, the then Lord Chancellor argued that 999 women out of a thousand had "never even heard a whisper of these practices."[11] In 1928, the lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness was banned for obscenity in a highly publicized trial, not for any explicit sexual content but because it made an argument for acceptance.[12] Meanwhile other, less political novels with lesbian themes continued to circulate freely.[13] The Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes was the latest in a twenty-five year series of legislation in the United Kingdom beginnning with the Offences against the Person Act... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Time magazine, 20 August 1923 Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, GCSI, PC (12 July 1872–30 September 1930) was a British Conservative statesman and lawyer of the early 20th century. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ... The Well of Loneliness is a 1928 lesbian novel by the English author Radclyffe Hall. ... Obscenity in Latin obscenus, meaning foul, repulsive, detestable, (possibly derived from ob caenum, literally from filth). The term is most often used in a legal context to describe expressions (words, images, actions) that offend the prevalent sexual morality of the time. ...


Jewish religious teachings condemn male homosexual behavior but say little about lesbian behavior. However, the approach in the modern State of Israel, with its largely secular Jewish majority, does not outlaw or persecute gay sexual orientation; marriage between gay couples is not sanctioned but common law status and official adoption of a gay person's child by his or her partner have been approved in precedent court rulings (after numerous high court appeals). There is also an annual Gay parade, usually held in Tel-Aviv; in 2006, the "World Pride" parade was scheduled to be held in Jerusalem. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Hebrew Arabic تَلْ أَبِيبْ يَافَا Name Meaning Spring Hill Founded in 1909 Government City District Tel Aviv Population 384,600[1] Metropolitan Area: 3,150,800 (2006) Jurisdiction 51,788 dunams (51. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Western-style homosexuality is rarely tolerated elsewhere in the Muslim world, with the exception of Turkey where there are no laws or discriminative policies against lesbianism. It is punishable by imprisonment, lashings, or death in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Though the law against lesbianism in Iran has reportedly been revoked or eased, prohibition of male homosexuality remains. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ...


Reproduction and parenting rights

Sexual orientation
Part of sexology
Distinctions

Asexuality
Bisexuality
Heterosexuality
Homosexuality
Pansexuality
Paraphiliac
Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... This article is about the sexual orientation in humans. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pansexuality (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality[1]) is a sexual orientation characterized by the potential for aesthetic attraction, romantic love and/or sexual desire for people regardless of their gender identity or biological sex. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Labels

Gay
Lesbian
Queer
Questioning
GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... For the novel by William S. Burroughs, see Queer (novel). ... Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning their gender identity, sexual identity or sexual orientation. ...

Methods

Kinsey scale
Klein Grid
The Kinsey scale attempts to measure sexual orientation, from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual). ... The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid attempts to further measure sexual orientation by expanding upon the earlier Kinsey scale which only considers from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual). ...

Study

Biology
Demographics
Medicine Sexuality researchers are often interested in homosexuality because there is evidence from twin studies that there is a biological involvement in its determination. ... // Measuring the prevalence of various sexual orientations is difficult because there is a lack of reliable data. ... This is the main article for the Category:Sexual orientation and medicine and Category:LGBT physicians. ...

Animal

Homosexuality in animals
The Bonobo displays the highest rate of homosexual activity in any animal, being a fully bisexual species. ...

See also

Intersex
Transgender
Transsexual
Intersexuality is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female. ... A transgender woman at New York Citys gay pride parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English)) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ...

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See also: Parenting by same-sex couples

Many lesbian couples seek to have children through adoption, but this is not legal in every country. Parenting by same-sex couples refers to the raising of children by gay, lesbian, or same-sex bisexual couples. ... Adoption by same-sex couples refers to the adoption of children by gay or lesbian couples. ...


In some countries access to assisted birth technologies by lesbians has been the subject of debate. In Australia the High Court rejected a ban on access to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments for lesbian and single women.[14][15] Immediately after this High Court decision, Prime Minister John Howard amended legislation in order to prevent access to IVF for these groups, effectively overruling the High Court decision and enforcing the Roman Catholic position, which raised indignation from the gay and lesbian community as well as groups representing the rights of single women. High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


Parthenogenesis

See also: Lesbian utopia

Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plant and insect species but not in mammals. However, scientists have created mice pups from two female mice. There is a possibility that with further research the same or similar procedure could allow two human females to be the genetic parents of the same child.[16] Additionally, parthenogenesis and cloning opens the prospect for any single individual, male or female to eventually be able to reproduce themselves. Lesbian sign Lesbian utopia refers to a conceptual community made up entirely of biological females who are not dependent on men for anything. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Culture

Throughout history hundreds of lesbians have been well-known figures in the arts and culture. This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Before the influence of European sexology emerged at the turn of the Twentieth Century, in cultural terms female homosexuality remained almost invisible as compared to male homosexuality, which was subject to the law and thus more regulated and reported by the press. However with the publication of works by sexologists like Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Havelock Ellis, Edward Carpenter, and Magnus Hirschfeld, the concept of active female homosexuality became better known. Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... -1... Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (August 4, 1840–December 22, 1902), German psychiatrist, wrote Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), a famous study of sexual perversity, and remains well-known for his coinage of the term sadism. ... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ... Edward Carpenter in 1875. ... Magnus Hirschfeld in 1933 Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German-Jewish physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ...


As female homosexuality became more visible it was described as a medical condition. In Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), Sigmund Freud referred to female homosexuality as inversion or inverts and characterised female inverts as possessing male characteristics. Freud drew on the "third sex" ideas popularized by Magnus Hirschfeld and others. While Freud admitted he had not personally studied any such "aberrant" patients he placed a strong emphasis on psychological rather than biological causes. Freud's writings did not become well-known in English-speaking countries until the late 1920s. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


This combination of sexology and psychoanalysis eventually had a lasting impact on the general tone of most lesbian cultural productions. A notable example is the 1928 novel The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall, in which these sexologists are mentioned along with the term invert, which later fell out of favour in common usage. Freud's interpretation of lesbian behavior has since been rejected by most psychiatrists and scholars, although recent biological research has provided findings that may bolster a Hirschfeld-ian "third sex" interpretation of same-sex attraction. Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... The Well of Loneliness is a 1928 lesbian novel by the English author Radclyffe Hall. ... Image:Radclyffe-hall-190x274. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system...


Since the 1980s lesbians have been increasingly visible in mainstream cultural fields such as music (Melissa Etheridge, K.D. Lang and the Indigo Girls), television (Ellen DeGeneres, Rosie O'Donnell, and Portia de Rossi), sports (Martina Navrátilová, Amélie Mauresmo, Lisa Raymond and Billie Jean King) and in comic books (Alison Bechdel and Diane DiMassa). More recently lesbian eroticism has flowered in fine art photography and the writing of authors such as Pat Califia, Jeanette Winterson and Sarah Waters and Stella Duffy. There is an increasing body of lesbian films such as Desert Hearts, Go Fish, Loving Annabelle, Watermelon Woman, Oranges Are Not The Only Fruit, Everything Relative, and Better than Chocolate (see List of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films). Classic novels such as those by Jane Rule, Vin Packer, Ann Aldrich, and Ann Bannon have been reprinted. Moreover, prominent and controversial academic writers such as Camille Paglia and Germaine Greer also identify with lesbianism. Melissa Lou Etheridge (born May 29, 1961, in Leavenworth, Kansas) is an Academy Award-winning and two-time Grammy Award-winning American rock musician and singer. ... Kathryn Dawn Lang, OC (born November 2, 1961), best known by the stage name k. ... Indigo Girls are an American folk rock duo, consisting of Amy Ray and Emily Saliers. ... Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26, 1958) is an American stand-up comedian, actress, and currently the Emmy Award-winning host of the syndicated talk show The Ellen DeGeneres Show. ... Rosie ODonnell (born March 21, 1962 in Bayside, Queens, New York) is an 11-time Emmy Award-winning American talk show host, television personality, comedienne, film, television, and stage actress. ... Portia de Rossi, born Amanda Lee Rogers on January 31, 1973, is an Australian actress who is best known for her roles as lawyer Nelle Porter on the television series Ally McBeal and as Lindsay Bluth Fünke on the television series Arrested Development. ... Martina Navrátilová (b. ... Amélie Simone Mauresmo ( in French) (born on 5 July 1979) is a French professional tennis player. ... Lisa Raymond (born August 10, 1973 in Norristown, Pennsylvania) is a professional female tennis player from the United States. ... Billie Jean Moffitt King (born November 22, 1943 in Long Beach, California) is a retired tennis player from the United States. ... Alison Bechdel (born September 10, 1960) is an American cartoonist. ... Diane DiMassa (born 1959) is an American feminist author and cartoonist. ... Fine art photography, sometimes simply called art photography, refers to high-quality archival photographic prints of pictures that are created to fulfill the creative vision of an individual professional. ... Patrick Califia (born 1954 near Corpus Christi, Texas) is a writer about womens sexuality and of erotic fiction. ... Jeanette Winterson OBE (born August 27, 1959) is a British novelist. ... Sarah Waters is a British novelist. ... Desert Hearts is a 1985 lesbian-themed romantic drama film loosely based on the Jane Rule novel Desert of the Heart. ... Loving Annabelle is a 2006 film directed by Katherine Brooks. ... Oranges Are Not The Only Fruit was a critically acclaimed BBC television 1989 mini-series, directed by Beeban Kidron. ... Better Than Chocolate is a 1999 Canadian romance/comedy movie shot in Vancouver directed by Anne Wheeler. ... This is a list of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films. ... Jane Vance Rule, C.M., O.B.C. (March 28, 1931-November 27, 2007) was a Canadian writer of lesbian-themed novels and non-fiction. ... Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947 in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, author and teacher. ... Germaine Greer (born January 29, 1939) is an Australian-born writer, broadcaster and retired academic, widely regarded as one of the most significant feminist voices of the 20th century. ...


Media depictions

Lesbians often attract media attention, particularly in relation to feminism, love and sexual relationships, marriage and parenting. Some writers have asserted this trend can lead to exploitive and unjustified plot devices.[17] Feminists redirects here. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Fiction

See also: Category:Lesbian writers, Category:Lesbian novels, Lesbian fiction, and Lesbian literature

During the twentieth century lesbians such as Gertrude Stein and Barbara Hammer were noted in the US avant-garde art movements, along with figures such as Leontine Sagan in German pre-war cinema. Since the 1890s the underground classic The Songs of Bilitis has been influential on lesbian culture. This book provided a name for the first campaigning and cultural organization in the United States, the Daughters of Bilitis. Lesbian fiction is a subgenre of fiction that involves primary one or more primary female homosexual character(s) and lesbian themes. ... Lesbian literature includes works by lesbian authors, as well as lesbian-themed works by heterosexual authors. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Barbara Hammer is a lesbian filmmaker in the genre of experimental films. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... A scene from Mädchen in Uniform (Germany, 1931), the first openly lesbian feature film. ... The Songs of Bilitis (Les Chansons de Bilitis; Paris, 1894) is a collection of poetry by Pierre Louÿs (1870-1925). ... The Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) was formed in San Francisco, California in 1955 by Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon along with six other women. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s lesbian pulp fiction was published in the US and UK, often under "coded" titles such as Odd Girl Out, The Evil Friendship by Vin Packer and the The Beebo Brinker Chronicles by Ann Bannon. British school stories also provided a haven for "coded" and sometimes outright lesbian fiction. Odd Girl Out is a lesbian pulp fiction novel written in 1957 by Ann Bannon (pseudonym of Ann Weldy). ... M. E. Kerr (pen name of Marijane Meaker, born May 27, 1927), is an American author, primarily of young adult fiction. ... Ann Bannon (pseudonym of Ann Weldy) wrote a series of six lesbian pulp fiction books from 1957 to 1962 known as The Beebo Brinker Chronicles. ... Lesbian fiction is a subgenre of fiction that involves primary one or more primary female homosexual character(s) and lesbian themes. ...


During the 1970s the second wave of feminist era lesbian novels became more politically oriented. Works often carried the explicit ideological messages of separatist feminism and the trend carried over to other lesbian arts. Rita Mae Brown's debut novel Rubyfruit Jungle was a milestone of this period. By the early 1990s lesbian culture was being influenced by a younger generation who had not taken part in the "Feminist Sex Wars" and this strongly informed post-feminist queer theory along with the new queer culture. Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Rita Mae Brown (born November 28, 1944) is a prolific American writer and social activist, notable for novels, poetry, and screenwriting. ... Rubyfruit Jungle is the first novel (1973) by Rita Mae Brown, remarkable for its explicit lesbianism. ... The Feminist Sex Wars, Lesbian Sex Wars, or simply the Sex Wars or Porn Wars, refers to the acrimonious debates within the feminist movement and lesbian community in the late 1970s through the 1980s around the issues of pornography, sex work, sadomasochism, gender identity, sex roles, and other sexual issues. ... ... For the novel by William S. Burroughs, see Queer (novel). ...


In 1972 the Berkeley, California lesbian journal Libera published a paper entitled Heterosexuality in Women: its Causes and Cure. Written in deadpan, academic prose, closely paralleling previous psychiatry-journal articles on homosexuality among women, this paper inverted prevailing assumptions about what is normal and deviant or pathological and was widely read by lesbian feminists. Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ...


Art

See also Lesbianism in erotica

Paintings showing two or more females together seldom displayed much in the way of potential sexual activity between them. When it came to nudity, most women subjects were depicted as dancers or bathers, usually stated as goddesses. Jupiter and Callisto (1744) by François Boucher. ...


Two that do stand out include Gustave Courbet's The Sleepers which openly depicts two women asleep after love-making (indicated by the broken pearl necklace); and Dominique Ingres' Turkish Bath in which, in the foreground, one woman can be seen with an arm round another and pinching her breast. Both these painting ended up in the collection of erotica collector and diplomat Khalil Bey [18]. Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Download high resolution version (1024x679, 116 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... J.A.D. Ingres Bain turc 1862 Source: http://www. ...


Cinema

See also: Category:Lesbian-related films and List of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films
Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival Poster on Image Museum of Hsinchu Culture Bureau ("新竹市文化局影像博物館")

The first lesbian-themed feature film was Mädchen in Uniform (1931), based on a novel by Christa Winsloe and directed by Leontine Sagan, tracing the story of a schoolgirl called Manuela von Meinhardis and her passionate love for a teacher, Fräulein von Nordeck zur Nidden. It was written and mostly directed by women. The impact of the film in Germany's lesbian clubs was overshadowed, however, by the cult following for The Blue Angel (1930). This is a list of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 334 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,032 × 1,852 pixels, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival Poster Poster on Image Museum of Hsinchu Culture Bureau (新竹市文化局影像博物館). http://alff2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 334 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,032 × 1,852 pixels, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival Poster Poster on Image Museum of Hsinchu Culture Bureau (新竹市文化局影像博物館). http://alff2005. ... Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival (ALFF) was firstly held in Taiwan August 5 to August 10, 2005, and then it would have a tour to Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Beijing. ... A scene from Mädchen in Uniform (Germany, 1931), the first openly lesbian feature film. ... Christa Winsloe (1888-1944) was a 20th century Hungarian novelist, playwright and sculptor. ... Leontine Sagan (born Leontine Schlesinger, 1889 in Vienna, Austria , died 1974 in South Africa) was a German actress. ... Der Blaue Engel (English: The Blue Angel) is a film directed by Josef von Sternberg in 1930, and is one of the most famous films made by Marlene Dietrich. ...


Until the early 1990s, any notion of lesbian love in a film almost always required audiences to infer the relationships. The lesbian aesthetic of Queen Christina (1933) with Greta Garbo has been widely noted, even though the film is not about lesbians. Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca (1940), based on the novel by Daphne du Maurier, referred more or less overtly to lesbianism, but the two characters involved were not presented positively: Mrs. Danvers was portrayed as obsessed, neurotic and murderous, while the never-seen Rebecca was described as having been selfish, spiteful and doomed to die. All About Eve (1950) was originally written with the title character as a lesbian but this was very subtle in the final version, with the hint and message apparent to alert viewers. This highly fictionalized feature film, based on the life of Queen Christina of Sweden, starred Greta Garbo and John Gilbert and was released in December 1933. ... Rebecca is an Academy Award–winning 1940 psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock as his first American project. ... Dame Daphne du Maurier DBE (13 May 1907–19 April 1989) was a famous British novelist best known for her short story The Birds and her classic novel Rebecca, published in 1938. ... For other uses, see All About Eve (disambiguation). ...


Playwright Lillian Hellman's first play, The Children's Hour (1934) was produced on Broadway. Set in a private girls' boarding school, the headmistress and a teacher are the targets of a malicious whispering campaign of insinuation by a disgruntled schoolgirl. They soon face public accusations of having a lesbian relationship.[19] The play was nominated for a Pulitzer prize, banned in Boston, London, and Chicago[20] and had a record-breaking run of 691 consecutive performances in New York.[21] A 1961 screen adaptation starred Audrey Hepburn and Shirley MacLaine. The play's deep and pervasively dark themes and lesbian undertones have been widely noted.[22] Lillian Florence Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was a successful American playwright, linked throughout her life with many left-wing causes. ... The Childrens Hour is a 1934 stage play written by Lillian Hellman. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... This article is about the state. ... The Childrens Hour is a 1961 film based on the play of the same name written by Lillian Hellman. ... Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929 - 20 January 1993) was an Academy Award and Tony Award winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Shirley MacLaine (born April 24, 1934) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actress, well-known not only for her acting, but for her devotion to her belief in reincarnation and aliens. ...


Mainstream films with openly lesbian content, sympathetic lesbian characters and lesbian leads began appearing during the 1990s. By 2000 some films portrayed characters exploring issues beyond their sexual orientation, reflecting a wider sense that lesbianism has to do with more than sexual desire. Notable mainstream theatrical releases included Bound (1996), Chasing Amy (1997), Kissing Jessica Stein (2001), Mulholland Drive, Monster, D.E.B.S (2004), Rent (2005, based on the Jonathan Larson musical), My Summer of Love (2004), Loving Annabelle (2006) and Imagine Me & You (2005). There have also been many non-English language lesbian films, such as Fire (India, 1996), Fucking Åmål (Sweden, 1998), Aimée & Jaguar (Germany, 1999), Blue (Japan, 2002), Blue Gate Crossing (Taiwan, 2004) and Love My Life (Japan, 2006). Bound is a 1996 neo-noir film about a woman who longs to escape her relationship with a Mafioso; when she meets the alluring drifter hired to renovate the next-door apartment, the two women begin an affair and hatch a scheme to make off with $2 million of Mafia... Chasing Amy is a 1997 romantic comedy-drama written and directed by Kevin Smith about two comic book artists: Holden McNeil (Ben Affleck), a heterosexual male, and Alyssa Jones (Joey Lauren Adams), a lesbian-identified woman. ... Kissing Jessica Stein (2001) is a U.S. independent romantic comedy starring and written by Jennifer Westfeldt and Heather Juergensen, and directed by Charles Herman-Wurmfeld. ... For the street in Los Angeles, see Mulholland Drive. ... Monster is a 2003 film about the life of female serial killer Aileen Wuornos, a former prostitute who was executed in 2002 for killing seven men in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... D.E.B.S. is a 2004 action/Romance/comedy film, also known as Fox Force Five, written and directed by Angela Robinson. ... Rent can refer to: Renting, a system of payment for the temporary use of something owned by someone else. ... My Summer of Love (2004) is a British film written and directed by Pawel Pawlikowski. ... Loving Annabelle is a 2006 film directed by Katherine Brooks. ... Imagine Me & You is a 2005 British film written and directed by Ol Parker. ... Fire is a 1996 drama film directed by Deepa Mehta and starring Shabana Azmi and Nandita Das. ... Fucking Ã…mÃ¥l is a Swedish film that was distributed in most English speaking countries as Show Me Love (and in other countries under similarly toned-down titles such as Raus Aus Ã…mÃ¥l, Descubriendo el Amor, Amigas de Colégio etc. ... Aimée & Jaguar is a 1999 German war and drama film set during World War II. It was written and directed by Max Färberböck, based upon Erica Fischers book, chronicling the actual lives of Lilly Wust and Felice Schragenheim during that time period. ... Blue (2001) is a Japanese movie directed by Hiroshi Ando. ... Blue Gate Crossing is a Taiwanese movie (2002) by writer-director Yee Chin-yen. ... LOVE MY LIFE ) is a Japanese romance movie between girls based on comic by Ebine Yamaji . ...


Mainstream broadcast media

See also: Category:Lesbian actors

The 1980s television series L.A. Law included a lesbian relationship which stirred much more controversy than lesbian TV characters would a decade later. The 1989 BBC mini series Oranges Are Not The Only Fruit was based on lesbian writer Jeanette Winterson's novel of the same title. Russian pop-duo t.A.T.u were popular in Europe during the early 2000s, gaining wide attention and TV airplay for their pop videos because they were marketed as lesbians even though they weren't. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Oranges Are Not The Only Fruit was a critically acclaimed BBC television 1989 mini-series, directed by Beeban Kidron. ... Jeanette Winterson OBE (born August 27, 1959) is a British novelist. ... This article is about the Russian singing duet. ... A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. ...


Many SciFi series have featured lesbian characters. An episode of Babylon 5 featured an implied lesbian relationship between characters Talia Winters and Commander Susan Ivanova. Star Trek: Deep Space 9 featured several episodes with elements of lesbianism and made it clear that in Star Trek's 24th century such relationships are accepted without a second thought. Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Andrea Thompson as Talia Winters in Babylon 5 Talia Winters is a character appearing on the science fiction television show Babylon 5 during its first and second seasons. ... Claudia Christian as Susan Ivanova in Babylon 5 Susan Ivanova, played by Claudia Christian, is a fictional character in the universe of the science-fiction television series Babylon 5. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ...


Actress and comedian Ellen DeGeneres came out publicly as a lesbian in 1997 and her character on the sitcom Ellen did likewise soon after during its fourth season. This was the first American sitcom with a lesbian lead character. The coming-out episode won an Emmy Award, but the series was cancelled after one more season. In 2000, the ABC Daytime drama series All My Children character Bianca Montgomery (Eden Riegel) was revealed to be lesbian. While many praised the character's prominent storyline, others criticized the almost perpetual trauma and Bianca's lack of a successful long-running relationship with another woman. In 2004's popular television show on Showtime, The L Word is focused on a group of lesbian friends living in L.A., and Ellen DeGeneres had a popular daytime talk show. In 2005, an episode of The Simpsons ("There's Something About Marrying") depicted Marge's sister Patty coming out as a lesbian. Also that year on Law & Order the final appearance of assistant district attorney Serena Southerlyn included the revelation she was a lesbian, although some viewers claimed there had been hints of this in previous episodes. Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26, 1958) is an American stand-up comedian, actress, and currently the Emmy Award-winning host of the syndicated talk show The Ellen DeGeneres Show. ... Ellen (originally titled These Friends of Mine for the first season) was a U.S. television sitcom which ran on the ABC network from March of 1994 to July of 1998. ... An Emmy Award. ... ABC Daytime (ABCD) is a programming block on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). ... All My Children (AMC) is a popular American soap opera that has been broadcast Monday through Friday on the ABC TV network since January 5, 1970. ... Information Occupation Runs Cambias Enterprises Family See Family and relationships. ... Eden Riegel, in a still from All My Children. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26, 1958) is an American stand-up comedian, actress, and currently the Emmy Award-winning host of the syndicated talk show The Ellen DeGeneres Show. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Theres Something About Marrying is the tenth episode of the sixteenth season of The Simpsons. ... Marjorie Marge Simpson (née Bouvier) is a fictional character featured in the animated television series The Simpsons and is voiced by Julie Kavner. ... This article or section should be merged with Selma Bouvier Patty Bouvier (voiced by Julie Kavner), a fictional character on The Simpsons, is one of Marges two cynical chain-smoking sisters (the other is Selma). ... This article is about the original television series. ... District attorney can refer to two kinds of American public officials: United States Attorney of one of the district courts of the federal government of the United States, who serves under the Attorney General A district attorney (city) who serves as the chief counselor for a municipality. ... Serena Southerlyn was a fictional character (played by Elisabeth Röhm) on the long-running NBC drama series Law & Order. ...


Other notable lesbian characters and appearances in the mainstream media have included:

This article is about the TV series. ... This article is about the TV series based on the novel of the same name. ... Nip/Tuck is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American television medical drama series created by Ryan Murphy for FX Networks. ... Willow Rosenberg (born either in 1980 or very early 1981 in Sunnydale, California) is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon for the television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... Tara Maclay (born October 16, 1980 and died May 7, 2002 in Sunnydale, California)[1] is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon for the cult television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... Kennedy (surname unknown) is a fictional character in the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... Queer as Folk was an American television series produced by Showtime, which was based on the British series of the same name created by Russell T. Davies. ... Nurse Maia Jeffries is a fictional character in the New Zealand TV drama Shortland Street. ... Jay Copeland is a fictional character in the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street. ... Shortland Street is New Zealands longest-running soap opera airing each weeknight on TVNZs TV2. ... This article is about an Australian soap opera. ... Amanda Donohoe (born June 29, 1962) is an English actress. ... L.A. Law (1986 - 1994) was one of the most popular television shows of the 1980s and 1990s. ... Dr. Kerry Weaver, portrayed by Laura Innes, was a fictional character on the NBC television series ER; she first appeared as a recurring character actor in season 2, and became a regular cast member in season 3. ... ER is an Emmy-winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. ... Bad Girls is a British drama series showed on ITV1. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Degrassi: The Next Generation is a Canadian television series, which follows the lives of a group of high school students. ... For the Hong Kong film, see The Golden Girls (1995 film). ... Alice Pieszecki is a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... Information Gender Female Occupation Professional Tennis Player Family Iwin Fairbanks (Father) Sharon Fairbanks (Mother) Howard Fairbanks(Brother) Portrayed by Erin Daniels Created by Ilene Chaiken Dana Fairbanks was a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... Bette Porter is a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... Information Gender Female Occupation Hairdresser Family Gabriel McCutcheon (Father) Shay McCutcheon (Brother) Portrayed by Katherine Moennig Created by Ilene Chaiken Shane McCutcheon is a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... Tina Kennard is a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... Jodi Lerner, in the television series The L Word, is a deaf sculptor who worked in the art department. ... Helena Peabody is a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... Bette Porters boss who comes out in the fourth season. ... Jennifer Jenny Schecter is a fictional character on the Showtime television network series The L Word, shown nationally in the United States. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Anna Louise Friel (born 12 July 1976) is an English actress from Rochdale, in Greater Manchester. ... Nicola Stephenson (born July 5, 1971 in Oldham, Lancashire) is an English actress. ... For other uses, see Brookside (disambiguation). ... Spencer Carlin is a fictional character on the TV series South of Nowhere. ... Information Gender Female Age 17 Occupation student Family Mother - Christine Davies Father - Raife Davies(deceased) Sister - Kyla Woods Spouse(s) Ex-Boyfriend - Aiden Dennison Girlfriend - Spencer Carlin Portrayed by Mandy Musgrave Ashley Davies is a fictional character on the television series South of Nowhere. ... South of Nowhere is an American television series created by Thomas W. Lynch. ... For friendship, see friendship. ... Sharon Vonne Stone (born March 10, 1958) is an American actress, producer, and former fashion model. ... Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26, 1958) is an American stand-up comedian, actress, and currently the Emmy Award-winning host of the syndicated talk show The Ellen DeGeneres Show. ... If These Walls Could Talk 2 is an Emmy Award-winning 2000 television movie in the United States, broadcast on HBO. It follows three lesbian stories in three different time periods. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ... The O.C. ( stands for Orange County) is an American television drama/soap opera program broadcast on the Fox Network. ... This article or section should be merged with Selma Bouvier Patty Bouvier (voiced by Julie Kavner), a fictional character on The Simpsons, is one of Marges two cynical chain-smoking sisters (the other is Selma). ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Naomi Julien was a fictional character in the popular BBC soap opera EastEnders. ... Della Alexander was a fictional character in the BBC soap opera EastEnders. ... Binnie Roberts was a fictional character in the BBC soap opera EastEnders. ... EastEnders is a popular BBC television soap opera, first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC1 on 19 February 1985[4] and continuing to date. ... Hex is a British television programme developed by Shine Limited and aired on the Sky One satellite channel. ... Once and Again is an American television series that aired on ABC from 1999 to 2002. ... Jasmine Thomas is a fictional character in the soap opera Emmerdale. ... Deborah Debbie Dingle (previously Jones) is a fictional character in the ITV1 soap opera Emmerdale. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... For the 1994 debut album by The Cardigans, see Emmerdale (album). ... Maggie Sawyer is a fictional police officer who appears in stories published by DC Comics, and has been a supporting character in both Superman and Batman comics. ... Superman: The Animated Series is the unofficial title given to Warner Bros. ... Jackie Harris redirects here. ... For the 1967 UK television series, starring Patrick McGoohan, see The Prisoner. ... Serena Southerlyn was a fictional character (played by Elisabeth Röhm) on the long-running NBC drama series Law & Order. ... Law and Order may refer to: Law and order (politics), a term common in political debate and discussion, generally indicating support of a strict criminal justice system Law and Order Offensive Party, a minor German political party In entertainment: Law & Order franchise, a number of related NBC television shows created... Christina Ricci (born February 12, 1980) is a [[Golden Globe and Emmy Award-nominated American actress. ... Charlize Theron (born August 7, 1975) is a South African-American actress and former fashion model. ... Monster is a 2003 film about the life of female serial killer Aileen Wuornos, a former prostitute who was executed in 2002 for killing seven men in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... For the television show, see Xena: Warrior Princess. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Xena. ... Penelope Cruz Penélope Cruz Sánchez, nicknamed simply Pe, (born April 28, 1974) is a Spanish actress. ... Charlize Theron (born August 7, 1975) is a South African-American actress and former fashion model. ... Head in the Clouds is a 2004 film directed by John Duigan. ... Piper Lisa Perabo (born October 31, 1976) is an American movie actress. ... Jessica Paré (born December 5, 1982, in Montréal, Québec, Canada) is an actress who has mostly appeared in independent films and is making headway in Hollywood, in both movies and TV series. ... Spoiler warning: Lost and Delirious is a Canadian drama film directed by Léa Pool that was released in 2001. ... My Babys Daddy is a 2004 comedy film, directed by Cheryl Dunye. ... The Kill Point is a television series that follows a group of U.S. Marines recently returned from serving in Iraq as they come together to pull off a major bank heist of a Three Rivers Bank branch in Pittsburgh. ...

Comics

For more details on this topic, see LGBT comic book characters.

For much of the 20th century, gay relationships were discouraged from being shown in comics which were seen mainly as directed towards children. Artists had to drop subtle hints while not stating directly a character's orientation. An example was in the 1938-39 edition of Milton Caniff's Terry and the Pirates: one of the main villains, Sanjak, has been interpreted by some as a lesbian with designs on the hero's girlfriend, though this is not openly stated [23] [24]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Milton Arthur Paul Caniff (February 28, 1907-May 3, 1988) was an American cartoonist most famous for Terry and the Pirates. ... Promotional painting for a proposed Terry and the Pirates motion picture by famed movie poster artist, Drew Struzan. ...


A more direct example came out some twenty years later in Jean-Claude Forest's Barbarella in which the very-straight heroine encounters the gay Dark Queen of Sogo, with whom she has a twisted sometimes-enemy, sometimes-ally relationship [25]. Jean-Claude Forest, born September 11, 1930 in Le Perreux-sur-Marne and died December 30, 1998 in Paris was a French author of comics. ... Barbarellas comic book cover. ...


Until 1989 the Comics Code Authority, which imposed de facto censorship on comics sold through newsstands in the United States, forbade any suggestion of homosexuality.[26] Overt lesbian themes were first found in underground and alternative titles which did not carry the Authority's seal of approval. The first comic with an openly lesbian character was "Sandy Comes Out" by Trina Robbins, published in the anthology Wimmen's Comix #1 in 1972.[27] The seal of the Comics Code Authority, which appears on the covers of approved comic books. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The term underground comics or comix describes the self-published or small press comic books that sprang up in the US in the late 1960s. ... For the publisher Alternative Comics, see Alternative Comics (publisher). ... Trina Robbins (born 1938) is an American comics artist and writer. ... Wimmens Comix, later titled Wimmins Comix, was an influential all-female underground comics anthology published from 1970 to 1992. ...


Gay Comix (1980) included stories by and about lesbians and by 1985 the influential alternative title Love and Rockets had revealed a relationship between two major characters, Maggie and Hopey.[28] Love and Rockets (often abbreviated L&R) is a black and white comic book series by Gilbert Hernandez and Jaime Hernandez, sometimes cited jointly as Los Bros Hernandez. ...


Meanwhile mainstream publishers were more reticent. A relationship between the female Marvel comics characters Mystique and Destiny was only implied at first, then cryptically confirmed in 1990 through the use of the archaic word leman, meaning a lover or sweetheart.[29] Only in 2001 was Destiny referred to in plain language as Mystique's lover.[30] Previously, WildStorm had openly depicted homosexual relationships between the members of The Authority, such as Jenny Sparks and Swift [31]. This article is about the comic book company. ... Mystique (Raven Darkholme) is a Marvel Comics character associated with the X-Men franchise. ... Destiny (Irene Adler) was a Marvel Comics character, known as an adversary of the X-Men. ... WildStorm Productions, or simply WildStorm or Wildstorm, is a publishing imprint and studio of American comic book publisher DC Comics. ... The Authority is a superhero comic book published by DC Comics under the Wildstorm imprint. ... Jenny Sparks, also known as The Spirit of the 20th century, is a fictional character in the Wildstorm comic book universe created by Warren Ellis during his 1997 revamp of the dwindling Stormwatch series. ... Swift is a comic book superheroine from the Wildstorm universe. ...


In 2006 DC Comics could still draw widespread media attention by announcing a new, lesbian incarnation of the well-known character Batwoman[32] even while openly lesbian characters such as Gotham City police officer Renee Montoya already existed in DC Comics.[33] DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Batwoman (originally referred to as the Bat-Woman) is a fictional character, a female counterpart to DC Comics popular superhero Batman. ... This article is about the fictional place. ... Renee Montoya is a fictional character in DC Comics. ...


Some writers and others (notably Chris Rock on Saturday Night Live) have commented that the Peanuts character Peppermint Patty is a lesbian (Peppermint Patties is a sometimes pejorative slang word for lesbians), although such an inference was never supported by the comic strip's content. Christopher Julius Rock III[5] (born February 7, 1965)[6][7] is an Emmy Award winning American comedian, actor, screenwriter, television producer, film producer and director. ... This article is about the American television series. ... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... This article is about the character from Peanuts. ...


In 2006, the graphic memoir Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic by Alison Bechdel, was lauded by many media as among the best books of the year. Bechdel is the author of Dykes to Watch Out For, one of the best-known and longest-running LGBT comic strips. Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Fun Home (subtitled A Family Tragicomic) is a graphic memoir by Alison Bechdel, author of the comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For. ... Alison Bechdel (born September 10, 1960) is an American cartoonist. ... Several characters in Dykes To Watch Out For. ...


In manga and anime, lesbian content is called shoujo-ai (literally: girl-love) whereas lesbian sex is called yuri, which may have a derogatory meaning. A main theme of the Japanese graphic novel Yokohama Kaidashi Kikō is the developing romance between characters Alpha and Kokone. This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... Animé redirects here. ... Utena and Anthy from Revolutionary Girl Utena, a popular shōjo-ai couple. ... Utena Tenjou and Anthy Himemiya from Revolutionary Girl Utena, a popular yuri couple. ... Serialized in Afternoon Original run June 1994 – February 2006 No. ...


Anime

Main article: Yuri (term)

The third season of the anime series Sailor Moon, Sailor Moon S, features a lesbian relationship between the two heroines Sailor Uranus and Sailor Neptune.[34] However, the season was heavily censored when dubbed and shown on TV in the United States. Many of the scenes which would suggest this particular relationship were cut away and the two characters were depicted as cousins (this led to further controversy as many fans noticed the editing).[35] In many of the mangaka group Clamp's series such as Miyuki-chan in Wonderland or Card Captor Sakura, some characters are clearly lesbians, with fan speculation about others. In Miyuki-chan in wonderland, for example, Miyuki is constantly trying to escape the attention of scantily-clad female admirers;[36] while Tomoyo in CCS is famous for her ostensibly innocent but rather suspect obsession with playing "dress-up" with the lead character, Sakura.[37] Utena Tenjou and Anthy Himemiya from Revolutionary Girl Utena, a popular yuri couple. ... Animé redirects here. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Sailor Moon (arc). ... This article is about the third story arc of Sailor Moon. ... Haruka Tenoh Haruka Tenoh (天王 はるか Tenō Haruka) is a Sailor Senshi, one of the central characters of the anime and manga Sailor Moon. ... Michiru Kaioh Michiru Kaioh (海王 みちる Kaiō Michiru) is a character in the Japanese manga and anime metaseries known as Sailor Moon. ... Mangaka ) is the Japanese word for a comic artist. ... Clamp (or CLAMP) is an all-female Japanese mangaka group. ... Serialized in Newtype Magazine Original run 1995 (first release) – 2001 (re-release) No. ... Cardcaptor Sakura the movie DVD cover Cardcaptor Sakura (カードキャプターさくら kādo kyaputā sakura), also known as Card Captor Sakura (with the space) and often abbreviated to CCS, is a manga series from the well-known all-women artist...


Video games

For more details on this topic, see LGBT characters in video games.

SaGa Frontier (a PlayStation title produced by Squaresoft) has a lesbian character named Asellus. Another character named Gina is a young girl who tailors Asellus' outfits, often discusses her deep attraction to Asellus and becomes her bride in one of the game's many endings. However, much related dialogue and some content has been edited out of the English language version.[38] The Playstation title Fear Effect 2: Retro Helix (a prequel to Fear Effect) reveals that Hana Tsu Vachel, a main character in both games, had a sexual relationship with a female character named Rain Qin. Strawberry Panic! is a mild Japanese lesbian game for Playstation 2 featuring romance amongst a group of female students living in a common all-girls' boarding house atop Astrea Hill. Tristia of the Deep-Blue Sea, Neosphere of the Deep-Blue Sky, Red Thread and Ayakashi Ninden Kunoichiban, Fatal Frame II, Kashimashi are widely known in Japan. In the history of computer and video games, homosexuality and transgenderism have been depicted in much the same way that Hollywood movies used sexuality and gender. ... SaGa Frontier ) is a Sony PlayStation console role-playing game by Square, released in Japan on July 11, 1997 and in North America on March 25, 1998. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... Square Co. ... Asellus is a character from the game SaGa Frontier. ... Fear Effect is an action game for the PlayStation. ... Serialized in Dengeki Gs Magazine Original run September 30, 2005 – No. ... Tristia of the Deep-Blue Sea ) is a PS2 and PC game by Kogado Studio. ... The Red Thread The Red Thread is an indie rock act from Oakland, California. ... Ayakashi Ninden Kunoichiban ) is the most mi nor lesbian game with Playstation. ... Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly, also known as Zero ~akai chō~ lit. ... Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl ), sometimes romanized as Kasimasi, is a Japanese romance series written by Japanese author Satoru Akahori and illustrated by Yukimaru Katsura centering around the lives of a group of friends and the relationships they share through life-altering changes. ...


See also

LGBT Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the Black Triangle as a badge or symbol: for other uses see the disambiguation page Black triangle. ... Femme redirects here. ... A drag king performance troupe NYC Drag King Alliance Switch NPlay photo:Jenny Norris Drag kings are mostly female-bodied or -identified performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of their performance. ... Faux queen Holy McGrail (right) during a performance at San Franciscos Trannyshack Star Search night. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Lesbian literature includes works by lesbian authors, as well as lesbian-themed works by heterosexual authors. ... Lesbian separatism refers to a range of extreme positions within the feminist and gay liberation movements. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gay science fiction. ... Nancy Gardens Annie on My Mind was one of the early young adult novels featuring love between two girls, but new books about lesbian and bisexual teenagers have since been published, including the above books by Sara Ryan, Julie Anne Peters, and Judy MacLean. ... The slang term lesbian until graduation (LUG) is occasionally applied to college women who choose to experiment with lesbian sex or with adopting a temporary homosexual or bisexual identity, but ultimately adopt a strictly heterosexual identity. ... Jupiter and Callisto (1744) by François Boucher. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... This is a list of organizations of or related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people, or campaigning for the rights of LGBT people, or of allies of LGBT people. ... This is a list of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films. ... A soft butch — also known as a chapstick lesbian — is a woman who exhibits some stereotypical butch lesbian traits without fitting the masculine stereotype associated with butch lesbians. ... The terminology of homosexuality has been a contentious issue since the emergence of homosexual social movements in the mid-19th century. ... The Ladder. ... For other uses, see Tomboy (disambiguation). ... Tribadism Tribadism or tribbing is a form of mutual masturbation, sometimes called frottage, in which a woman rubs her vulva against her partners body for sexual stimulation. ... In North American lesbian popular culture, the term U-Haul (named after the brand of rental move yourself trucks and equipment) is gay slang for a relationship that progresses very quickly, for example moving in together after only a short period of time -- a pattern stereotypically attributed to relationships between...

References

  1. ^ AskOxford.com, lesbian
  2. ^ AskOxford.com, homosexual
  3. ^ http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1999/1999-05-01.html
  4. ^ Ellen Greene (ed.), Reading Sappho: Contemporary Approaches. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. ISBN 0-520-20195-7
  5. ^ "Lycurgus" 18.4)
  6. ^ The History of al-Tabari, Vol. XXX, p.72-73, Albany: SUNY Press, Albany 1989).
  7. ^ Lindahl, Carl; John MacNamara, John Lindow (2000). Medieval Folklore: A Guide to Myths, Legends, Tales, Beliefs, and Customs. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514772-3. , p. 243
  8. ^ Lesbianism and Feminism, retrieved on May 28th 2007.
  9. ^ http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/boston_marriages.html
  10. ^ Castle, Terry (1993). The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 11, 66. ISBN 0-231-07652-5. 
  11. ^ Doan, Laura (2001). Fashioning Sapphism: The Origins of a Modern English Lesbian Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 56-60. ISBN 0-231-11007-3. 
  12. ^ Biron, Sir Chartres (1928). "Judgment". Doan, Laura; Prosser, Jay (2001). Palatable Poison: Critical Perspectives on The Well of Loneliness. New York: Columbia University Press, 39-49. ISBN 0-231-11875-9. 
  13. ^ Foster, Jeanette H. (1956). Sex Variant Women in Literature: A Historical and Quantitative Survey. New York: Vantage Press, 287. 
  14. ^ Marston, Greg & McDonald, Catherine (2006), Analysing Social Policy: A Governmental Approach, Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 190-1, ISBN 1845425073
  15. ^ "Re McBain (2002) HCA 16; 209 CLR 372; 188 ALR 1; 76 ALJR 694", Australasian Legal Information Institute, 18 April 2002, <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2002/16.html>. Retrieved on 2007-11-24
  16. ^ About.com:Lesbian Life Parthenogenesis: Do We Need Men Anymore? Creating Children Without Men or Sperm
  17. ^ http://www.afterellen.com/archive/ellen/TV/102004/smallville.html
  18. ^ The Art of the Nude by Deirdre Robson, published by Siena
  19. ^ http://www.enotes.com/feminism-literature/hellman-lillian
  20. ^ About.com, banned play
  21. ^ Playersring.org, Children's Hour
  22. ^ http://gayleft1970s.org/issues/gay.left_issue.05.pdf
  23. ^ Exhibit honors cartoonist by By Andrew Welsh-Huggins of the Associated Press, published on October 29 2007, http://www.ohio.com/entertainment/exhibits/10857081.html
  24. ^ Coming Out in the Comic Strips by David Applegate http://cagle.msnbc.com/hogan/features/out/out.asp
  25. ^ Barbarella by Jean-Claude Forest, published in 1962
  26. ^ Nyberg, Amy Kiste (1998). Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 143, 175-176. ISBN 0-878-05975-X. 
  27. ^ Bernstein, Robin (July 31, 1994). "Where Women Rule: The World of Lesbian Cartoons". The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review 1 (3): 20. 
  28. ^ Jaime Hernandez, "Locas", reprinted in Hernandez, Los Bros (1988). House of Raging Women. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books, 74-81. ISBN 0-930193-69-5. 
  29. ^ Uncanny X-Men #265 (Early August, 1990).
  30. ^ X-Men Forever #5 (May, 2001).
  31. ^ Jenny Sparks: The Secret History of the Authority, mini-series published in 2000
  32. ^ Ferber, Lawrence. "Queering the Comics", The Advocate, July 18, 2006, pp. 51. 
  33. ^ Mangels, Andy. "Outed in Batman's Backyard", The Advocate, May 27, 2003, pp. 62. 
  34. ^ Johnson, Dany. "Q & A Rocking the Boat", Akadot, 2001-04-21. Retrieved on 2007-02-21. 
  35. ^ "Kissing cousins may bring controversy — Cartoon Network juggles controversial topics", The Daily Athenaeum Interactive, 2000-06-28. Retrieved on 2007-02-21. 
  36. ^ "Miyuki-chan in Wonderland", Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  37. ^ Beveridge, Chris. "AnimeOnDvd.com >> Disc Reviews >> Card Captor Sakura Vol. #01", AnimeOnDvd.com, 2002-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  38. ^ http://polish.imdb.com/title/tt0207072/alternateversions

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Jaime (sometimes spelled Xaime) Hernandez (born 1959) is the co-creator of the black & white independent comic Love and Rockets (along with his brothers Gilbert and Mario). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Media depictions

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