FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Leprosy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Leprosy
Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
Classification and external resources
A 24-year-old man infected with leprosy.
ICD-10 A30.
ICD-9 030
OMIM 246300
DiseasesDB 8478
MedlinePlus 001347
eMedicine med/1281  derm/223 neuro/187
MeSH C01.252.410.040.552.386

Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.[1] Leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions are the primary external symptom.[2] Left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. Contrary to popular conception,[citation needed] leprosy does not cause body parts to simply fall off, and it differs from tzaraath, the malady described in the Hebrew scriptures and previously translated into English as leprosy.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (832x1132, 506 KB) 24 years old man from Norway, suffering from leprosy, found in a book from 1886, made by Arents, printed as a helography and re-photographed by myself. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Tzaraath (tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas, tsaraat; Hebrew צרעת) is an affliction mentioned in the Tanach and other Jewish sources, starting in Leviticus 13–Leviticus 14. ... Leprosy is the second album released by Death in 1988. ... Look up chronic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium leprae Hansen, 1874 Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus, is the bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansens disease). ... H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohns disease In medicine (anatomical pathology), a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... Tzaraath (tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas, tsaraat; Hebrew צרעת) is an affliction mentioned in the Tanach and other Jewish sources, starting in Leviticus 13–Leviticus 14. ...


Historically, leprosy has affected humanity since at least 600 BC, and was well-recognized in the civilizations of ancient China, Egypt and India.[4] In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that between two and three million individuals were permanently disabled because of leprosy.[5] Although the forced quarantine or segregation of patients is unnecessary—and can be considered unethical—a few leper colonies still remain around the world, in countries such as India, Japan, Egypt, and Vietnam. The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... WHO redirects here. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... A leper colony is a place to quarantine people with leprosy from the rest of the population. ...


The age-old social stigma associated with the advanced form of leprosy lingers in many areas, and remains a major obstacle to self-reporting and early treatment. Effective treatment for leprosy appeared in the late 1940s with the introduction of dapsone and its derivatives. However, leprosy bacilli resistant to dapsone gradually evolved and became widespread, and it was not until the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) in the early 1980s that the disease could be diagnosed and treated successfully within the community.[citation needed] Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ... Dapsone is an antibiotic medication most commonly used for the treatment of Mycobacterium leprae infections (leprosy). ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Cutaneous leprosy lesions on a patient's thigh.
Cutaneous leprosy lesions on a patient's thigh.

The clinical symptoms of leprosy vary but primarily affect the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes.[6] Patients with this chronic infectious disease are classified as having paucibacillary Hansen's disease (tuberculoid leprosy), multibacillary Hansen's disease (lepromatous leprosy), or borderline leprosy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (3999 × 2670 pixel, file size: 925 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Subject: Hansens disease, leprosy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (3999 × 2670 pixel, file size: 925 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Subject: Hansens disease, leprosy. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ...


Contrary to popular belief, Hansen's bacillus does not cause rotting of the flesh; rather, a long investigation by Paul Brand yielded that insensitivity in the limbs extremities was the reason why unfelt wounds or lesions, however minute, lead to undetected deterioration of the tissues, the lack of pain not triggering an immediate response as in a fully functioning body.[7] Recently, leprosy has also emerged as a problem in HIV patients on antiretroviral drugs.[8] Dr. Paul Brand (1914 - 2003) was a pioneer in developing the tendon transfer technique for use in the hands of those with leprosy. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...


Classification

There is some confusion over classification because the WHO replaced an older, more complicated classification system with a simpler system that identifies two subtypes of leprosy - paucibacillary and multibacillary. The older system included six categories: Indeterminate Leprosy, Borderline Tuberculoid Leprosy, Midborderline Leprosy, Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy, Lepromatous Leprosy, and Tuberculoid Leprosy.


Paucibacillary leprosy encompasses indeterminate, tuberculoid, and borderline tuberculoid leprosy. It is characterized by one or more hypopigmented skin macules and anaesthetic patches, i.e., damaged peripheral nerves that have been attacked by the human host's immune cells. Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color. ... The macule is the simplest dermatological lesion. ...


Multibacillary leprosy includes midborderline, borderline lepromatous, and lepromatous leprosy. It is associated with symmetric skin lesions, nodules, plaques, thickened dermis, and frequent involvement of the nasal mucosa resulting in nasal congestion and epistaxis (nose bleeds) but typically detectable nerve damage is late. Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... A nodule describes an aggregation of similar cells or particles in a number of scientific fields: In medicine it refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... For the plant referred to as nosebleed plant, see Yarrow. ...


Borderline leprosy is of intermediate severity and is the most common form. Skin lesions resemble tuberculoid leprosy but are more numerous and irregular; large patches may affect a whole limb, and peripheral nerve involvement with weakness and loss of sensation is common. This type is unstable and may become more like lepromatous leprosy or may undergo a reversal reaction, becoming more like the tuberculoid form.


Cause

Main article: Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. As acid-fast bacteria, M. leprae appear red when a Ziehl-Neelsen stain is used.
Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. As acid-fast bacteria, M. leprae appear red when a Ziehl-Neelsen stain is used.

Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of leprosy.[2] An intracellular, acid-fast bacterium, M. leprae is aerobic, gram-positive, and rod-shaped, and is surrounded by the waxy cell membrane coating characteristic of Mycobacterium species.[9] Binomial name Mycobacterium leprae Hansen, 1874 Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus, is the bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansens disease). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 2684 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 2684 pixel, file size: 1. ... A bacillus is a rod-shaped bacterium: an acid-fast bacillus (or AFB) is a rod-shaped bacterium which, when stained with certain compounds, retains that stain despite treatment with an acidic solution. ... The Ziehl-Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two german doctors; Franz Ziehl (1859 to 1926), a bacteriologist and Friedrich Neelsen (1854 to 1894), a pathologist. ... A bacillus is a rod-shaped bacterium: an acid-fast bacillus (or AFB) is a rod-shaped bacterium which, when stained with certain compounds, retains that stain despite treatment with an acidic solution. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text. ...


Due to extensive loss of genes necessary for independent growth, M. leprae is unculturable in the laboratory, a factor which leads to difficulty in definitively identifying the organism under a strict interpretation of Koch's postulates.[10] The use of non-culture-based techniques such as molecular genetics has allowed for alternative establishment of causation. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Kochs postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ...


Pathophysiology

The exact mechanism of transmission of leprosy is not known: prolonged close contact and transmission by nasal droplet have both been proposed, and, while the latter fits the pattern of disease, both remain unproven.[11] The only other animals besides humans known to contract leprosy are the armadillo, chimpanzee, sooty mangabey, and cynomolgus macaque.[12] The bacterium can also be grown in the laboratory by injection into the footpads of mice.[13] There is evidence that not all people who are infected with M. leprae develop leprosy, and genetic factors have long been thought to play a role, due to the observation of clustering of leprosy around certain families, and the failure to understand why certain individuals develop lepromatous leprosy while others develop other types of leprosy.[14] It is estimated that due to genetic factors, only 5 percent of the population is susceptible to leprosy.[15] This is mostly because the body is naturally immune to the bacteria, and those persons who do become infected are experiencing a severe allergic reaction to the disease. However, the role of genetic factors is not entirely clear in determining this clinical expression. In addition, malnutrition and prolonged exposure to infected persons may play a role in development of the overt disease. For other uses, see Armadillo (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Audebert, 1797) The Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), also called Tom Midwood and is an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon, Penis land and Côte dIvoire. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ...


The incubation period for the bacteria can last anywhere from two to ten years.


The most widely held belief is that the disease is transmitted by contact between infected persons and healthy persons.[16] In general, closeness of contact is related to the dose of infection, which in turn is related to the occurrence of disease. Of the various situations that promote close contact, contact within the household is the only one that is easily identified, although the actual incidence among contacts and the relative risk for them appear to vary considerably in different studies. In incidence studies, infection rates for contacts of lepromatous leprosy have varied from 6.2 per 1000 per year in Cebu, Philippines[17] to 55.8 per 1000 per year in a part of Southern India.[18] Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ... For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ...


Two exit routes of M. leprae from the human body often described are the skin and the nasal mucosa, although their relative importance is not clear. It is true that lepromatous cases show large numbers of organisms deep down in the dermis. However, whether they reach the skin surface in sufficient numbers is doubtful. Although there are reports of acid-fast bacilli being found in the desquamating epithelium of the skin, Weddell et al have reported that they could not find any acid-fast bacilli in the epidermis, even after examining a very large number of specimens from patients and contacts.[19] In a recent study, Job et al found fairly large numbers of M. leprae in the superficial keratin layer of the skin of lepromatous leprosy patients, suggesting that the organism could exit along with the sebaceous secretions.[20] The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. ... A bacillus is a rod-shaped bacterium: an acid-fast bacillus (or AFB) is a rod-shaped bacterium which, when stained with certain compounds, retains that stain despite treatment with an acidic solution. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ...


The importance of the nasal mucosa was recognized as early as 1898 by Schäffer, particularly that of the ulcerated mucosa. [21] The quantity of bacilli from nasal mucosal lesions in lepromatous leprosy was demonstrated by Shepard as large, with counts ranging from 10,000 to 10,000,000.[22] Pedley reported that the majority of lepromatous patients showed leprosy bacilli in their nasal secretions as collected through blowing the nose.[23] Davey and Rees indicated that nasal secretions from lepromatous patients could yield as much as 10 million viable organisms per day.[24]


The entry route of M. leprae into the human body is also not definitely known. The two seriously considered are the skin and the upper respiratory tract. While older research dealt with the skin route, recent research has increasingly favored the respiratory route. Rees and McDougall succeeded in the experimental transmission of leprosy through aerosols containing M. leprae in immune-suppressed mice, suggesting a similar possibility in humans.[25] Successful results have also been reported on experiments with nude mice when M. leprae were introduced into the nasal cavity by topical application. [26] In summary, entry through the respiratory route appears the most probable route, although other routes, particularly broken skin, cannot be ruled out. The CDC notes the following assertion about the transmission of the disease: "Although the mode of transmission of Hansen's disease remains uncertain, most investigators think that M. leprae is usually spread from person to person in respiratory droplets."[27] A nude mouse is a genetic mutant that has a deteriorated or removed thymus gland, resulting in an inhibited immune system due to a greatly reduced number of T cells. ...


In leprosy both the reference points for measuring the incubation period and the times of infection and onset of disease are difficult to define; the former because of the lack of adequate immunological tools and the latter because of the disease's slow onset. Even so, several investigators have attempted to measure the incubation period for leprosy. The minimum incubation period reported is as short as a few weeks and this is based on the very occasional occurrence of leprosy among young infants. [28] The maximum incubation period reported is as long as 30 years, or over, as observed among war veterans known to have been exposed for short periods in endemic areas but otherwise living in non-endemic areas. It is generally agreed that the average incubation period is between 3 to 5 years. Incubation period, also called the latent period or latency period, is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, or chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ...


Treatment

MDT patient packs and blisters
MDT patient packs and blisters

Until the development of dapsone, rifampin, and clofazimine in the 1940s, there was no effective cure for leprosy. However, dapsone is only weakly bactericidal against M. leprae and it was considered necessary for patients to take the drug indefinitely. Moreover, when dapsone was used alone, the M. leprae population quickly evolved antibiotic resistance; by the 1960s, the world's only known anti-leprosy drug became virtually useless. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 195 × 110 pixelsFull resolution (195 × 110 pixel, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Multidrug therapy (MDT) for the treatment of leprosy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 195 × 110 pixelsFull resolution (195 × 110 pixel, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Multidrug therapy (MDT) for the treatment of leprosy. ... Dapsone is an antibiotic medication most commonly used for the treatment of Mycobacterium leprae infections (leprosy). ... Rifampicin (INN) or rifampin (USAN) is an antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Clofazimine is a fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. ... Microphotograph of Mycobacterium leprae taken from a skin lesion. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


The search for more effective anti-leprosy drugs than dapsone led to the use of clofazimine and rifampicin in the 1960s and 1970s.[29] Later, Indian scientist Shantaram Yawalkar and his colleagues formulated a combined therapy using rifampicin and dapsone, intended to mitigate bacterial resistance.[30] Multidrug therapy (MDT) and combining all three drugs was first recommended by a WHO Expert Committee in 1981. These three anti-leprosy drugs are still used in the standard MDT regimens. None of them are used alone because of the risk of developing resistance.


Because this treatment is quite expensive, it was not quickly adopted in most endemic countries. In 1985 leprosy was still considered a public health problem in 122 countries. The 44th World Health Assembly (WHA), held in Geneva in 1991 passed a resolution to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem by the year 2000 — defined as reducing the global prevalence of the disease to less than 1 case per 100,000. At the Assembly, the World Health Organization (WHO) was given the mandate to develop an elimination strategy by its member states, based on increasing the geographical coverage of MDT and patients’ accessibility to the treatment. In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...


The WHO Study Group's report on the Chemotherapy of Leprosy in 1993 recommended two types of standard MDT regimen be adopted.[31] The first was a 24-month treatment for multibacillary (MB or lepromatous) cases using rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. The second was a six-month treatment for paucibacillary (PB or tuberculoid) cases, using rifampicin and dapsone. At the First International Conference on the Elimination of Leprosy as a Public Health Problem, held in Hanoi the next year, the global strategy was endorsed and funds provided to WHO for the procurement and supply of MDT to all endemic countries.

MDT anti-leprosy drugs: standard regimens
MDT anti-leprosy drugs: standard regimens

Between 1995 and 1999, WHO, with the aid of the Nippon Foundation (Chairman Yohei Sasakawa, World Health Organization Goodwill Ambassador for Leprosy Elimination), supplied all endemic countries with free MDT in blister packs, channelled through Ministries of Health. This free provision was extended in 2000 with a donation by the MDT manufacturer Novartis, which will run until at least the end of 2010. At the national level, non-government organisations (NGOs) affiliated to the national programme will continue to be provided with an appropriate free supply of this WHO supplied MDT by the government. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nippon Foundation headquarters in Akasaka, Tokyo The Nippon Foundation ) is a private charity organization with headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. ... The term non-governmental organization (NGO) is used in a variety of ways all over the world and, depending on the context in which it is used, can refer to many different types of organizations. ...


MDT remains highly effective and patients are no longer infectious after the first monthly dose.[4] It is safe and easy to use under field conditions due to its presentation in calendar blister packs.[4] Relapse rates remain low, and there is no known resistance to the combined drugs.[4] The Seventh WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy, [32] reporting in 1997, concluded that the MB duration of treatment—then standing at 24 months—could safely be shortened to 12 months "without significantly compromising its efficacy." A relapse (etymologically, who falls again) occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Persistent obstacles to the elimination of the disease include improving detection, educating patients and the population about its cause, and fighting social taboos about a disease for which patients have historically been considered "unclean" or "cursed by God" as outcasts. Where taboos are strong, patients may be forced to hide their condition (and avoid seeking treatment) to avoid discrimination. The lack of awareness about Hansen's disease can lead people to falsely believe that the disease is highly contagious and incurable.


The ALERT hospital and research facility in Ethiopia provides training to medical personnel from around the world in the treatment of leprosy, as well as treating many local patients. Surgical techniques, such as for the restoration of control of movement of thumbs, have been developed there. Alert is the northernmost permanent settlement in the world. ...


Prevention

A single dose of rifampicin is able to reduce the rate of leprosy in contacts by 57% to 75%.[33][34] Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ...


BCG is able to offer a variable amount of protection against leprosy as well as against tuberculosis.[35][36] BCG can stand for: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (a vaccine for tuberculosis) Boston Consulting Group This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Epidemiology

World distribution of leprosy, 2003.
World distribution of leprosy, 2003.

Worldwide, two to three million people are estimated to be permanently disabled because of Hansen's disease.[5] India has the greatest number of cases, with Brazil second and Myanmar third. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png) world distribution of leprosy in 2003 keywords: lepra, leprosy source:http://de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png) world distribution of leprosy in 2003 keywords: lepra, leprosy source:http://de. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule...


In 1999, the world incidence of Hansen's disease was estimated to be 640,000; in 2000, 738,284 cases were identified. In 1999, 108 cases occurred in the United States. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) listed 91 countries in which Hansen's disease is endemic. India, Myanmar and Nepal contained 70% of cases. In 2002, 763,917 new cases were detected worldwide, and in that year the WHO listed Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Nepal as having 90% of Hansen's disease cases. Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ... WHO redirects here. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule...


According to recent figures from the WHO, new cases detected worldwide have decreased by approximately 107,000 cases (or 21%) from 2003 to 2004. This decreasing trend has been consistent for the past three years. In addition, the global registered prevalence of HD was 286,063 cases; 407,791 new cases were detected during 2004.


Hansen's disease is tracked by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Its prevalence in the United States is believed to be rising and underreported.[37] Although the number of cases worldwide continues to fall, pockets of high prevalence continue in certain areas such as Brazil, South Asia (India, Nepal), some parts of Africa (Tanzania, Madagascar, Mozambique) and the western Pacific. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Risk groups

At highest risk are those living in endemic areas with poor conditions such as inadequate bedding, contaminated water and insufficient diet, or other diseases (such as HIV) that compromise immune function. Recent research suggests that there is a defect in cell-mediated immunity that causes susceptibility to the disease. Less than ten percent of the world's population is actually capable of acquiring the disease[citation needed]. The region of DNA responsible for this variability is also involved in Parkinson's disease, giving rise to current speculation that the two disorders may be linked in some way at the biochemical level. In addition, men are twice as likely to contract leprosy as women. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ...


Disease burden

Although annual incidence—the number of new leprosy cases occurring each year—is important as a measure of transmission, it is difficult to measure in leprosy due to its long incubation period, delays in diagnosis after onset of the disease and the lack of laboratory tools to detect leprosy in its very early stages. Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ...


Instead, the registered prevalence is used. Registered prevalence is a useful proxy indicator of the disease burden as it reflects the number of active leprosy cases diagnosed with the disease and retrieving treatment with MDT at a given point in time. The prevalence rate is defined as the number of cases registered for MDT treatment among the population in which the cases have occurred, again at a given point in time.[38] In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...


New case detection is another indicator of the disease that is usually reported by countries on an annual basis. It includes cases diagnosed with onset of disease in the year in question (true incidence) and a large proportion of cases with onset in previous years (termed a backlog prevalence of undetected cases). The new case detection rate (NCDR) is defined by the number of newly detected cases, previously untreated, during a year divided by the population in which the cases have occurred.


Endemic countries also report the number of new cases with established disabilities at the time of detection, as an indicator of the backlog prevalence. However, determination of the time of onset of the disease is generally unreliable, is very labour-intensive and is seldom done in recording these statistics.


Global situation

Table 1: Prevalence at beginning of 2006, and trends in new case detection 2001-2005, excluding Europe
Region Registered Prevalence

(rate/10,000 pop.)

New Case Detection during the year
Start of 2006 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Africa 40,830 (0.56) 39,612 48,248 47,006 46,918 42,814
Americas 32,904 (0.39) 42,830 39,939 52,435 52,662 41,780
South-East Asia 133,422 (0.81) 668,658 520,632 405,147 298,603 201,635
Eastern Mediterranean 4,024 (0.09) 4,758 4,665 3,940 3,392 3,133
Western Pacific 8,646 (0.05) 7,404 7,154 6,190 6,216 7,137
Totals NA 763,262 620,638 514,718 407,791 296,499
Table 2: Prevalence and Detection, countries still to reach elimination
Countries Registered Prevalence

(rate/10,000 pop.) World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Pacific redirects here. ...

New Case Detection

(rate/100,000 pop.)

Start of 2004 Start of 2005 Start of 2006 During 2003 During 2004 During 2005
Flag of Brazil Brazil 79,908 (4.6) 30,693 (1.7) 27,313 (1.5) 49,206 (28.6) 49,384 (26.9) 38,410 (20.6)
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique 6,810 (3.4) 4,692 (2.4) 4,889 (2.5) 5,907 (29.4) 4,266 (22.0) 5,371 (27.1)
Flag of Nepal Nepal 7,549 (3.1) 4,699 (1.8) 4,921 (1.8) 8,046 (32.9) 6,958 (26.2) 6,150 (22.7)
Flag of Tanzania Tanzania 5,420 (1.6) 4,777 (1.3) 4,190 (1.1) 5,279 (15.4) 5,190 (13.8) 4,237 (11.1)
Totals NA NA NA NA NA NA

As reported to WHO by 115 countries and territories in 2006, and published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record the global registered prevalence of leprosy at the beginning of the year was 219,826 cases. [39] New case detection during the previous year (2005 - the last year for which full country information is available) was 296,499. The reason for the annual detection being higher than the prevalence at the end of the year can be explained by the fact that a proportion of new cases complete their treatment within the year and therefore no longer remain on the registers. The global detection of new cases continues to show a sharp decline, falling by 110,000 cases (27%) during 2005 compared with the previous year. Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...


Table 1 shows that global annual detection has been declining since 2001. The African region reported an 8.7% decline in the number of new cases compared with 2004. The comparable figure for the Americas was 20.1%, for South-East Asia 32% and for the Eastern Mediterranean it was 7.6%. The Western Pacific area, however, showed a 14.8% increase during the same period.


Table 2 shows the leprosy situation in the four major countries which have yet to achieve the goal of elimination at the national level. It should be noted that: a) Elimination is defined as a prevalence of less than 1 case per 10,000 population; b) Madagascar reached elimination at the national level in September 2006; c) Nepal detection reported from mid-November 2004 to mid-November 2005; and d) D.R. Congo officially reported to WHO in 2008 that it had reached elimination by the end of 2007, at the national level.


History

Numerous leprosaria, or leper hospitals, sprang up in the Middle Ages; Matthew Paris estimated that in the early thirteenth century there were 19,000 across Europe.[40] The first recorded leprosarium was in Harbledown. (See Leper colony.) These institutions were run along monastic lines and, while lepers were encouraged to live in these monastic-type establishments, this was for their own health as well as quarantine. Indeed, some medieval sources indicate belief that those suffering from leprosy were considered to be going through Purgatory on Earth, and for this reason their suffering was considered more holy than the ordinary person's. More frequently, lepers were seen to exist in a place between life and death: they were still alive, yet many chose or were forced to ritually separate themselves from mundane existence.[41] Image File history File links Gerhard Amauer Hansen, Norwegian bacteriologist who discovered the bacillum for leprosy. ... Image File history File links Gerhard Amauer Hansen, Norwegian bacteriologist who discovered the bacillum for leprosy. ... Gerhard Henrick Armauer Hansen (July 29, 1841 - February 12, 1912) was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of Mycobacterium leprae as the causative agent of leprosy in 1873. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium leprae Hansen, 1874 Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus, is the bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansens disease). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Harbledown is a village to the west of Canterbury, Kent, now contiguous with the city and in effect a suburb. ... A leper colony is a place to quarantine people with leprosy from the rest of the population. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ...


Radegund was noted for washing the feet of lepers. Orderic Vitalis writes of a monk, Ralf, who was so overcome by the plight of lepers that he prayed to catch leprosy himself (which he eventually did). The leper would carry a clapper and bell to warn of his approach, and this was as much to attract attention for charity as to warn people that a diseased person was near. Radegund was born to King Berthar, one of the three kings of Thuringia (a kingdom located in present day Germany), some time in the first half of the sixth century. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...


Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, was discovered by G. H. Armauer Hansen in Norway in 1873, making it the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans.[42][43] Historically, individuals with Hansen's disease have been known as lepers, however, this term is falling into disuse as a result of the diminishing number of leprosy patients and the pejorative connotations of the term. The term most widely accepted among people and agencies working in the field of Hansen's disease is "people affected by Hansen's disease." Binomial name Mycobacterium leprae Hansen, 1874 Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus, is the bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansens disease). ... Gerhard Henrick Armauer Hansen (July 29, 1841 - February 12, 1912) was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of Mycobacterium leprae as the causative agent of leprosy in 1873. ...


Historically, the term Tzaraath from the Hebrew Bible was, erroneously, commonly translated as leprosy, although the symptoms of Tzaraath were not entirely consistent with leprosy and rather referred to a variety of disorders other than Hansen's disease.[44] Tzaraath (tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas, tsaraat; Hebrew צרעת) is an affliction mentioned in the Tanach and other Jewish sources, starting in Leviticus 13–Leviticus 14. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...


In particular, tinea capitis (fungal scalp infection) and related infections on other body parts caused by the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton violaceum are abundant throughout the Middle East and North Africa today and might also have been common in biblical times. Similarly, the related agent of the disfiguring skin disease favus, Trichophyton schoenleinii, appears to have been common throughout Eurasia and Africa before the advent of modern medicine. Persons with severe favus and similar fungal diseases (and potentially also with severe psoriasis and other diseases not caused by microorganisms) tended to be classed as having leprosy as late as the 17th century in Europe.[45] This is clearly shown in the painting Governors of the Home for Lepers at Haarlem 1667 by Jan de Bray (Frans Hals Museum, Haarlem, the Netherlands), where a young Dutch man with a vivid scalp infection, almost certainly caused by a fungus, is shown being cared for by three officials of a charitable home intended for leprosy sufferers. The use of the word "leprosy" before the mid-19th century, when microscopic examination of skin for medical diagnosis was first developed, can seldom be correlated reliably with Hansen's disease as we understand it today. Ringworms can also refer to fans of the Japanese Ring series of horror novels and films, as well as the US remake. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A dermatophyte is a parasitic fungus that infects the skin. ... Favus (Latin for honeycomb) is a disease of the scalp, but occurring occasionally on any part of the skin, and even at times on mucous membranes. ... Jan de Bray (1627 - 1697) was a Dutch painter. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


The word "leprosy" derives from the ancient Greek words lepros, a scale, and lepein, to peel.[46] The word came into the English language via Latin and Old French. The first attested English use is in the Ancrene Wisse, a 13th-century manual for nuns ("Moyseses hond..bisemde o þe spitel uuel & þuhte lepruse." The Middle English Dictionary, s.v., "leprous"). A roughly contemporaneous use is attested in the Anglo-Norman Dialogues of Saint Gregory, "Esmondez i sont li lieprous" (Anglo-Norman Dictionary, s.v., "leprus").


Popular Culture

  • In the film Ben-Hur, Judahs' mother and sister suffer from leprosy.
  • R.E.M. has a song entitled New Test Leper on their New Adventures in Hi-Fi album.
  • The book series The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever revolves around the main character's leprosy.
  • The Motorcycle Diaries depicts Ernesto Che Guevera, at the age of 24, working at the San Pablo leper colony in Peru: 'Che' was a medical student at the time, specializing in leprosy. He wrote of the poor treatment and living conditions of the patients there. This, and other disparities he witnessed, contributed to his strong belief in the need for public health care.
  • Weird Al Yankovic has a song entitled "Party at the Leper Colony".
  • The King of Jerusalem in the 12th century, Baldwin IV, suffered from leprosy. This was portrayed in Kingdom of Heaven, a 2005 film directed by Ridley Scott. The Director's Cut of the film also depicts the king's nephew and heir to the throne, Baldwin V, in the early stages of leprosy.
  • The aging Robert the Bruce Sr. in the 1995 film Braveheart.
  • Dimmu Borgir has a song entitled Lepers Among Us.
  • The famous Vietnamese poet Han Mac Tu suffered and died from leprosy in the 1930s.
  • David Bowie describes Ziggy Stardust as a "leper messiah" in the song "Ziggy Stardust".
  • The band Metallica has a song called "Leper Messiah" on their Master of Puppets album.
  • In The Simpsons episode "Little Big Mom", Homer and Bart are tricked into believing they have leprosy.
  • Death Metal band Death has an album titled Leprosy
  • The American TV show House featured a young boy with leprosy in Season 1, Episode 13, "Cursed".
  • The book entitled Hawaii by James A. Michener tells one story of a Chinese man, Mun Ki, who discovers that he has leprosy, as termed 'mai Pake'. He is then banished to an isolated leper colony on another island with other afflicted people.
  • In an episode of the American sitcom Seinfeld, Jerry compared the DMV's high concentration of unattractive people to that of a leper colony.
  • In the song "One" by the rock band U2, Bono sings "Did you come here for forgiveness? Did you come to raise the dead? Did you come here to play Jesus to the lepers in your head?'
  • An episode of the TV series Monk is titled Mr. Monk and the Leper.
  • The protagonist in Stephen King's It, often appears to have severe leprosy.
  • In the popular video game World of Warcraft you can turn other players characters into Leper Gnomes with an item available only on in October.

Ben-Hur is the fictional story of Judah Ben-Hur, a Judean aristocrat who, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus, is enslaved through the betrayal of his Roman friend Messala. ... REM or R.E.M. is an acronym for: Rapid Eye Movement, a phase during sleep U.S. rock music band R.E.M., formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 Roentgen equivalent man, a unit for measuring levels of exposure to radiation. ... New Test Leper is a song by R.E.M. It is included on their tenth studio album, New Adventures in Hi-Fi, which was released in 1996. ... New Adventures in Hi-Fi is R.E.M.s tenth album, and their fifth major label release for Warner Bros. ... The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever is a trilogy of fantasy novels by Stephen R. Donaldson. ... Map of Guevaras trip with Alberto Granado. ... Che Guevara Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary and Cuban guerrilla leader. ... This article is about the musician. ... Singles from Poodle Hat Released: May, 2003 Released: January 13, 2006 Poodle Hat is the eleventh album by Weird Al Yankovic. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Baldwin IV (1161-1185), the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first wife Agnes of Edessa, was king of Jerusalem from 1174 to 1183, when he had his nephew Baldwin V crowned in his place. ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... Baldwin V (1177-1186) was the son of Sibylla of Jerusalem and her first husband, William of Montferrat. ... Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[1] (July 1253 - March 1304 [2]), was a feudal lord in both Scotland and England prior to and during the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... For the moshing term Braveheart, see Wall of death (moshing). ... For the geologic feature in Iceland, see Dimmuborgir. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an iconic English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars is a 1972 concept album by David Bowie, praised as the definitive album of the 1970s by Melody Maker magazine. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... For the title track of the album, see Master of Puppets (song). ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Little Big Mom is the tenth episode of the eleventh season of The Simpsons. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Leprosy is the second album released by Death in 1988. ... House, also known as House, M.D., is an American medical drama television series created by David Shore and executive produced by Shore and film director Bryan Singer. ... Hawaii was a novel written by James Michener in 1959. ... James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas, and Poland. ... A leper colony is a place to quarantine people with leprosy from the rest of the population. ... Seinfeld is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989 to May 14, 1998, running a total of 9 seasons. ... Monk is an Emmy and Golden Globe winning U.S. television show about the private detective Adrian Monk (Tony Shalhoub). ... Mr. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... Look up It in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
History of leprosy
Research

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ Sasaki S, Takeshita F, Okuda K, Ishii N (2001). "Mycobacterium leprae and leprosy: a compendium". Microbiol Immunol 45 (11): 729-36. PMID 11791665. 
  2. ^ a b Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, 451-3. ISBN 0838585299. 
  3. ^ Leviticus 13:59, Artscroll Tanakh and Metsudah Chumash translations, 1996 and 1994, respectively.
  4. ^ a b c d Leprosy. WHO. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  5. ^ a b WHO (1995). "Leprosy disabilities: magnitude of the problem". Weekly Epidemiological Record 70 (38): 269-75. PMID 7577430. 
  6. ^ Naafs B, Silva E, Vilani-Moreno F, Marcos E, Nogueira M, Opromolla D (2001). "Factors influencing the development of leprosy: an overview". Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 69 (1): 26-33. PMID 11480313. 
  7. ^ Brand, Paul; Philip Yancey (c1997). The gift of pain : why we hurt & what we can do about it. Zondervan Publ.. ISBN 0-310-22144-7. 
  8. ^ McNeil Jr DG. "Worrisome New Link: AIDS Drugs and Leprosy", New York Times, 2006-10-24. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  9. ^ McMurray DN (1996). Mycobacteria and Nocardia. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  10. ^ Bhattacharya S, Vijayalakshmi N, Parija SC (2002). "Uncultivable bacteria: Implications and recent trends towards identification". Indian journal of medical microbiology 20 (4): 174-7. PMID 17657065. 
  11. ^ Reich CV (1987). "Leprosy: cause, transmission, and a new theory of pathogenesis". Rev. Infect. Dis. 9 (3): 590-4. PMID 3299638. 
  12. ^ Rojas-Espinosa O, Løvik M (2001). "Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepraemurium infections in domestic and wild animals". Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot. 20 (1): 219-51. PMID 11288514. 
  13. ^ Hastings RC, Gillis TP, Krahenbuhl JL, Franzblau SG (1988). "Leprosy". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1 (3): 330-48. PMID 3058299. 
  14. ^ Alcaïs A, Mira M, Casanova JL, Schurr E, Abel L (2005). "Genetic dissection of immunity in leprosy". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17 (1): 44-8. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2004.11.006. PMID 15653309. 
  15. ^ AR Dept of Health debunks leprosy fears (2008-02-08). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  16. ^ Kaur H, Van Brakel W (2002). "Dehabilitation of leprosy-affected people--a study on leprosy-affected beggars". Leprosy review 73 (4): 346-55. PMID 12549842. 
  17. ^ Doull JA, Guinto RA, Rodriguez RS, et al. (1942). "The incidence of leprosy in Cordova and Talisay, Cebu, Philippines". International Journal of Leprosy 10: 107–131. 
  18. ^ Noordeen S, Neelan P (1978). "Extended studies on chemoprophylaxis against leprosy". Indian J Med Res 67: 515-27. PMID 355134. 
  19. ^ Weddell G, Palmer E (1963). "The pathogenesis of leprosy. An experimental approach". Leprosy Review 34: 57-61. PMID 13999438. 
  20. ^ Job C, Jayakumar J, Aschhoff M (1999). ""Large numbers" of Mycobacterium leprae are discharged from the intact skin of lepromatous patients; a preliminary report". Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 67 (2): 164-7. PMID 10472371. 
  21. ^ Arch Dermato Syphilis 1898; 44:159–174
  22. ^ Shepard C (1960). "Acid-fast bacilli in nasal excretions in leprosy, and results of inoculation of mice". Am J Hyg 71: 147-57. PMID 14445823. 
  23. ^ Pedley J (1973). "The nasal mucus in leprosy". Lepr Rev 44 (1): 33-5. PMID 4584261. 
  24. ^ Davey T, Rees R (1974). "The nasal dicharge in leprosy: clinical and bacteriological aspects". Lepr Rev 45 (2): 121-34. PMID 4608620. 
  25. ^ Rees R, McDougall A (1977). "Airborne infection with Mycobacterium leprae in mice". J Med Microbiol 10 (1): 63-8. PMID 320339. 
  26. ^ Chehl S, Job C, Hastings R (1985). "Transmission of leprosy in nude mice". Am J Trop Med Hyg 34 (6): 1161-6. PMID 3914846. 
  27. ^ Hansen's Disease (Leprosy). Technical Information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-10-12). Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  28. ^ Montestruc E, Berdonneau R (1954). "2 New cases of leprosy in infants in Martinique." (in French). Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 47 (6): 781-3. PMID 14378912. 
  29. ^ Rees RJ, Pearson JM, Waters MF (1970). "Experimental and clinical studies on rifampicin in treatment of leprosy". Br Med J 688 (1): 89-92. PMID 4903972. 
  30. ^ Yawalkar SJ, McDougall AC, Languillon J, Ghosh S, Hajra SK, Opromolla DV, Tonello CJ (1982). "Once-monthly rifampicin plus daily dapsone in initial treatment of lepromatous leprosy". Lancet 8283 (1): 1199-1202. PMID 6122970. 
  31. ^ Chemotherapy of Leprosy. WHO Technical Report Series 847. WHO (1994). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  32. ^ Seventh WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy. WHO Technical Report Series 874. WHO (1998). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  33. ^ Moet FJ, Pahan D, Oskam L, Richardus JH (2008). "Effectiveness of single dose rifampicin in preventing leprosy in close contacts of patients with newly diagnosed leprosy: cluster randomised controlled trial". BMJ 336: 761. doi:10.1136/bmj.39500.885752.BE. 
  34. ^ Bakker MI, Hatta M, Kwenang A, et al. (2005). "Prevention of leprosy using rifampicin as chemoprophylaxis". Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 443–8. 
  35. ^ Fine PE, Smith PG (1996). "{{{title}}}". Lepr Rev 67 (4): 249–252. PMID 9033195. 
  36. ^ Karonga prevention trial group (1996). "Randomized controlled trial of single BCG, repeated BCG, or combined BCG and killed Mycobacterium leprae vaccine for prevention of leprosy and tuberculosis in Malawi". Lancet 348: 17–24. PMID 8691924. 
  37. ^ Levis W. "Leprosy rising", CNN, 2007-05-20. 
  38. ^ "Epidemiology of leprosy in relation to control. Report of a WHO Study Group" (1985). World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 716: 1-60. PMID 3925646. 
  39. ^ "Global leprosy situation, 2006" (2006). Weekly Epidemiological Record 81: 309–16. 
  40. ^   "Leprosy". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  41. ^ Brody, Saul Nathaniel (1974). The Disease of the Soul: Leprosy in Medieval Literature. Ithaca: Cornell Press.
  42. ^ Hansen GHA (1874). "Undersøgelser Angående Spedalskhedens Årsager (Investigations concerning the etiology of leprosy)" (in Norwegian). Norsk Mag. Laegervidenskaben 4: pp. 1–88. 
  43. ^ Irgens L (2002). "The discovery of the leprosy bacillus". Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 122 (7): 708-9. PMID 11998735. 
  44. ^ Artscroll Tanakh, Leviticus 13:59, 1996
  45. ^ Kane J, Summerbell RC, Sigler L, Krajden S, Land G (1997). Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes: A clinical guide and laboratory manual of dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi from skin, hair and nails. Star Publishers (Belmont, CA). ISBN 0898631572. 
  46. ^ Barnhart RK (1995). Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0062700847. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Paul Brand (1914 - 2003) was a pioneer in developing the tendon transfer technique for use in the hands of those with leprosy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

Further reading

  • Bargès A (1996). "Entre conformismes et changements, le monde de la lèpre au Mali". Paris, Editions Karthala: pp. 280-313. 
  • Clark E (1994). "Social Welfare and Mutual Aid in the Medieval Countryside". The Journal of British Studies 33 (4): pp. 394–6. 
  • Icon Health Publications (2004). Leprosy: A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References. San Diego: Icon Health Publications. ISBN 0-597-84006-7. 
  • Demaitre L (2007). Leprosy in Premodern Medicine: A Malady of the Whole Body. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8613-3. 
  • Rawcliffe C (2001). "Learning to Love the Leper: aspects of institutional Charity in Anglo Norman England". Anglo Norman Studies 23: pp. 233–52. 
  • Rawcliffe C (2006). Leprosy in Medieval England. Ipswich: Boydell Press. ISBN 1843832739. 
  • Talarigo J (2004). The Pearl Diver: (fiction) young woman with leprosy is exiled to leprosy colony in Japan, 1929. Doubleday. ISBN 1-4025-8661-2. 
  • Tayman J (2006). The Colony : The Harrowing True Story of the Exiles of Molokai. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-3300. 
  • Brennert A (2003). Moloka'i:(fiction) young woman with leprosy is exiled to leprosy colony in Hawaii, 1891. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30435-8. 

A bacteriostatic antimycobacterial prescribed to treat Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium). ... Morinamide (or morphazinamide) is a drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis. ... Pyrazinamide is a drug used to treat tuberculosis in afflicted patients. ... Terizidone is a drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis. ... Aldesulfone sodium (or sulfoxone) is an antibiotic used in the treatment of leprosy. ... Clofazimine is a fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. ... Dapsone is an antibiotic medication most commonly used for the treatment of Mycobacterium leprae infections (leprosy). ... Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Leprosy NGO India,Leprosy Treatment Clinic India, Leprosy in india, Indian Leprosy Association, Leprosy Treatment in ... (330 words)
At the beginning of 2002, the number of leprosy patients in the world was around 635000 leprosy cases, as reported by 106 countries.
At the, National level, Hon’ ble President of India Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam is the President of the Sangh and the Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare is the Chairman.
Leprosy NGO India, Leprosy Treatment Clinic India, Leprosy in india, Indian Leprosy Association, Leprosy Treatment in india:An NGO offering leprosy treatment from india and a unique clinic for leprosy in india offering free treatment for poor people.
The Leprosy Mission International (0 words)
is a leading international non-denominational Christian organization, with over 130 years experience in leprosy work.
As long as leprosy afflicts individuals and communities, The Leprosy Mission (TLM) is committed to doing all it can to break its power and impact.
This means not just providing a cure, but also addressing the underlying causes, working to prevent disability and to restore dignity and wholeness to people and communities affected by leprosy around the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m