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Encyclopedia > Lepidoptera
Butterflies / skippers, moths
The Clipper Parthenos sylvia
The Clipper Parthenos sylvia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Lepidoptera
Linnaeus, 1758
Subdivisions

See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... Type species Hesperia comma Silver-spotted skipper Diversity 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... For other uses, see Moths. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2346 × 1568 pixel, file size: 529 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthenos sylvia philippensis Subfamilia:Limenitidinae Location: St. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Orders     Palaeodictyoptera - extinct     Ephemeroptera (mayflies)     Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)   Infraclass Neoptera     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... This is a taxonomy of the order Lepidoptera down to family level: // Superfamily Agathiphagoidea Family Agathiphagidae Subsection Cossina Superfamily Castnioidea Family Castniidae Superfamily Cossoidea Series Cossiformes Family Cossidae Family Dudgeoneidae Series Limacodiformes Family Cyclotornidae Family Epipyropidae Family Dalceridae Family Limacodidae Superfamily Tortricoidea Family Tortricidae Subsection Bombycina Superfamily Bombycoidea Family Anthelidae... This is a list of the Diversity of the Lepidotera showing the estimated number of genera and species described for each superfamily and, where available, family. ...

Lepidoptera is an order of insect that includes moths and butterflies. It is one of the most speciose orders in the class Insecta, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies. Members of the order are referred to as lepidopterans. A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. This order has more than 180,000 species[1] in 128 families and 47 superfamilies. The name is derived from Ancient Greek λεπίδος (scale) and πτερόν (wing). Estimates of species suggest that the order may have more species and may be among the largest two or three orders, along with the hymenoptera and the coleoptera.[2] In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Lepidopteran on a flower. ... For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Moths. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... Type species Hesperia comma Silver-spotted skipper Diversity 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Genera See text. ... A lepidopterist is a person who catches and collects, or simply studies, lepidopterans, members of an order comprising butterflies, skippers, and moths. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In biology, a superfamily is a taxonomic grade intermediate between suborder and family. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ...

Contents

General Characteristics

Lepidopterans like all holometabola, undergo complete metamorphosis, going through a four-stage life cycle of egg - larva/caterpillar - pupa/chrysalis - imago/adult.[2] Their lifecycle can include an inactive period or diapause in any of the pre-adult stages that helps overcome unsuitable environmental conditions.[2] Orders Coleoptera(beetles) Diptera(flies and relatives) Hymenoptera(wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera(butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera(extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera(snakeflies) Siphonaptera(fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera(caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... Diapause is a physiological state of dormancy with very specific triggering and releasing conditions; there are various definitions and contexts in which the term is used, but its most common application is in arthropods, especially insects. ...


The larvae, caterpillars, have a toughened (sclerotized) head capsule, chewing mouthparts, and a soft body, that may have hair-like or other projections, 3 pairs of true legs, and additional prolegs (up to 5 pairs). They can be confused with the larvae of sawflies. Lepidopteran larvae can be differentiated by the presence of crochets on the prolegs which are absent in the Symphyta (sawflies). Most caterpillars are herbivores, but a few are carnivores (some eat ants or other caterpillars) and detritivores.[3] This article is about a form of an insect. ... Families (Cephoidea)   Cephidae-stem sawflies (Megalodontoidea)   Megalodontidae   Pamphilidae-leaf-rolling      & web-spinning sawflies (Orussoidea)   Orussidae-parasitic wood wasps (Siricoidea)   Siricidae- horntails (Tenthredinoidea)   Argidae-argid sawflies   Blasticotomidae   Cimbicidae-cimbicid sawflies   Diprionidae-conifer sawflies   Pergidae-pergid sawflies   Tenthredinidae-common sawflies (Xyeloidea)   Anaxyelidae-cedar sawflies   Xyelidae-xyelid sawflies   Xiphydriidae-wood wasps Symphyta is... Families (Cephoidea)   Cephidae-stem sawflies (Megalodontoidea)   Megalodontidae   Pamphilidae-leaf-rolling      & web-spinning sawflies (Orussoidea)   Orussidae-parasitic wood wasps (Siricoidea)   Siricidae- horntails (Tenthredinoidea)   Argidae-argid sawflies   Blasticotomidae   Cimbicidae-cimbicid sawflies   Diprionidae-conifer sawflies   Pergidae-pergid sawflies   Tenthredinidae-common sawflies (Xyeloidea)   Anaxyelidae-cedar sawflies   Xyelidae-xyelid sawflies   Xiphydriidae-wood wasps Symphyta is...


Adults have two pairs of membranous wings covered, usually completely, by minute scales. In some species, wings are reduced or absent (often in the female but not the male). Antennae are prominent. In moths, males frequently have more feathery antennae than females, for detecting the female pheromones at a distance. The Trichoptera (caddisflies) which are a sister group of the Lepidoptera have scales, but also possess caudal cerci on the abdomen, a feature absent in the Lepidoptera.[2] In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero to bear + ‘ορμόνη hormone) is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ...


Adult mouth parts prominently include the proboscis formed from maxillary galeae and are adapted for sucking nectar. Some species have reduced mouth parts (some species do not feed as adults), and others have them modified to pierce and suck blood or fruit juices (some Noctuids).[4] Mandibles are absent in all except the Zeugaloptera which have chewing mouthparts.[5] The maxillary palpi are reduced and consist of up to five segments. They are conspicuous in some of the more primitive families and are often folded. The labial palpi are more prominent and upward pointed.[2](See also: difference between a butterfly and a moth) Although the separation of Lepidopterans into butterfly and moth categories is a well-known distinction, the difference between a butterfly and a moth is not actually a standard taxonomic division. ...


The three thoracic segments are fused and consist of non-movable sclerites. The wings arise from the meso- and meta-thoracic segments and are similar in size in the primitive groups. In the more recent groups, the meso-thoracic wings are larger with more powerful musculature at their bases and more rigid vein structures on the costal edge. In the Noctuoidea, the metathorax is modified with a pair of tympanal organs. There are a variety of wing coupling mechanisms that connect the forewings and the hindwings. The more primitive groups have an enlarged lobe, jugum, at the base of the forewing that folds under the hindwing in flight. Other groups have a frenulum on the hindwing that hooks under a retinaculum on the forewing. In some groups such as the Psychidae, Lymantriidae, the females are flightless and have reduced wings.[2]


The abdominal segments 7-10 or 8-10 are modified to form the external genitalia. The abdomen is connected to the thorax in the more recent families by muscles connectd to projections from the abdominal sternite 2. Paired hearing organs at the base of the abdomen occur in the Pyraloidea and Geometroidea. Males have glandular organs such as expandable hair brushes or tufts, or as thin-walled, eversible sacs (coremata), from the intersegmental membranes. The genitalia are complex and provide the basis for species discrimination in most families and also in family identification.[2]


Primitive groups have a single genital aperture near the end of the abdomen through which both copulation and egg laying occur. This character is used to designate the Monotrysia. Hepialidae and related families have an external groove that carries sperm from the copulatory opening (gonopore) to the (ovipore) and are termed exoporian. The remaining groups have an internal duct that carry sperm and form the Ditrysia, with two distinct openings each for copulation and egg-laying.[2]It also has antennaes.


Families

Forester Moth (Zygaenidae)

There are about 130 families in this order with variations depending on the taxonomic treatment (see the family template box at the bottom of this section). Lepidopteran on a flower. ... Lepidopteran on a flower. ... Type Species Zygaena filipendulae (Six-Spot Burnet moth) Subfamilies Callizygaeninae Chalcosiinae Phaudinae Procridinae Zygaeninae Larva showing warning colours, flattening The Zygaenidae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths) typically day-flying with a slow fluttering flight, and with rather clubbed antennae. ...


The Lepidoptera are divided into several suborders, the largest being Glossata, the vast majority of which are Ditrysia. Infraorders Dacnonypha Exoporia Heteroneura Lophocoronina Neopseustina Glossata is a suborder of the insect order Lepidoptera that includes all the superfamilies of moths and butterflies that have a coilable proboscis (see also suborders Zeugloptera, Aglossata and Heterobathmiina). ... Families See Lepidoptera. ...


Several other classifications of lepidopteran families are used in older literature. These include the Rhopalocera (club-horned) consisting of what are commonly called butterflies and the Heterocera (varied-horned) consisting of the moths. However, Rhophalocera is a natural (monophyletic) group, while Heterocera is a paraphyletic assemblage. Rhopalocera and Heterocera are non-standard divisions in the taxonomy of Lepidopterans, used in an attempt to formalize the popular schoolyard distinction between butterflies and moths. ... Rhopalocera and Heterocera are non-standard divisions in the taxonomy of Lepidopterans, used in an attempt to formalize the popular schoolyard distinction between butterflies and moths. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Another non-standard classification separates the Lepidoptera into Microlepidoptera for the smaller species (mostly moths) and Macrolepidoptera for the larger species. Microlepidoptera is an grouping of moth and butterfly families, commonly know as the smaller moths (Micro, lepidoptera). ... Macrolepidoptera is a sometime Suborder of Order Lepidoptera, the second-largest Order of the Insects. ...


Evolution

History of study

Linnaeus in Systema Naturae (1758) recognized three divisions of the Lepidoptera: Papilio, Sphinx, and Phalaena with seven subgroups in Phalaena.[4] These persist today as 9 of the superfamilies of Lepidoptera. Other works on classification followed including those by Denis & Ignaz Schiffermüller (1775), Fabricius (1775) and Pierre André Latreille (1796). Jacob Hübner described many genera, and the Lepidopteran genera were catalogued by Ochsenheimer and Treitschke in a series of volumes on the Lepidopteran fauna of Europe published between 1807 and 1835.[4] G.A.W. Herrich-Schaffer (several volumes, 1843-1856), and Edward Meyrick (1895) based their classifications primarily on wing venation. Sir George Francis Hampson worked on the 'microlepidoptera' during this period. Among the first entomologists to study fossil insects and their evolution was Samuel H Scudder (1837-1911), who worked on butterflies.[6] He published a study of the Florissant deposits of Colorado. Andreas V. Martynov (1879-1938) recognized the close relationship between Lepidoptera and Trichoptera in his studies on phylogeny.[6] Major contributions in the 20th century included the creation of the monotrysia and ditrysia (based on female genital structure) by Borner in 1925 and 1939.[4] Willi Hennig (1913-1976) developed the cladistic methodology and applied it to insect phylogeny. Niels P. Kristensen, E. S. Nielsen and D. R. Davis studied the relationships among monotrysian families and Kristensen worked more generally on insect phylogeny and higher Lepidoptera too.[4][6]. While it is often found that DNA-based phylogenies differ from those based on morphology, this has not been the case for the Lepidoptera; DNA phylogenies correspond to a large extent to morphology-based phylogenies.[6] Phalaena was originally a subdivision of Lepidoptera, created by Carolus Linnaeus, and included moths in general. ... Ignaz Schiffermüller (1727 - 1806) was an Austrian naturalist. ... Pierre André Latreille. ... Jacob Hübner (1761 - 1826) was a German entomologist. ... Ferdinand Ochsenheimer (17 March 1767 in Mainz, Germany – 2 November 1822 in Vienna, Austria) was a German actor and entomologist (lepidopterist). ... Librettist and translator. ... Edward Meyrick (1854 - 1938) was an English schoolmaster and amateur entomologist. ... Sir George Francis Hampson, 10th Baronet, (January 14, 1860 - October 15, 1936) was a British entomologist. ... Willi Hennig (April 20, 1913 - November 5, 1976) was a German biologist and is known as the founder of phylogenetic systematics (cladistics). ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... Superfamilies Monotrysia Borner, 1939 Incurvarioidea Andesianoidea Palaephatoidea Tischerioidea Nepticuloidea The Monotrysia is a group of insects in the Lepidopteran order which is not currently considered to be a natural group or clade. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ...


Many attempts have been made to group the superfamilies of the Lepidoptera into natural groups, most of which fail because one of the two groups is not monophyletic: Microlepidotera and Macrolepidoptera, Heterocera and Rhopalocera, Jugatae and Frenatae, Monotrysia and Ditrysia.[4] In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ...


Lepidoptera tend not to be as common as some other insects in the habitats that are most conducive to fossilization, such as lakes and ponds, and their juvenile stage has only the head capsule as a hard part that might be preserved. Yet there are fossils, some preserved in amber and some in very fine sediments. Leaf mines are also seen in fossil leaves, although the interpretation of them is tricky.[6] The earliest fossil is Archaeolepis mane from the Jurassic, about 190 million years ago in Dorset, UK.[6] It consists of wings and shows scales with parallel grooves under a scanning electron microscope and the characteristic wing venation pattern shared with Trichoptera.[6] Only 2 more sets of Jurassic Lepidopteran fossils have been found, and 13 sets in the Cretaceous.[6] From there, many more fossils are found from the Tertiary, and particularly the Eocene Baltic amber. Leaf miners are insect larvae that live within leaf tissue. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ...


Phylogeny

 

Apoditrysia

Macrolepidoptera
Rhopalocera

Papilionoidea (true butterflies) Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ...



Hesperiidae (skippers) Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ...



Hedylidae (American moth-butterflies) Genera See text. ...





Geometroidea (geometer moths) Diversity over 20,500 species Geometroidea is the superfamily of geometrid moths. ...



Drepanoidea (hooktip moths) Diversity 673 species Drepanoidea is the superfamily of hook tip moths. ...




Cimeliidae (gold moths) Genera Axia Epicimelia Cimeliidae or the Gold Moths (formerly known as Axiidae[1]) is a family of moths whose precise relationships within the Macrolepidoptera[2] are currently uncertain, but they currently represent the only family in a recently-recognized superfamily whose nearest relatives include the butterflies, Calliduloidea, Drepanoidea, Geometroidea, Bombycoidea...



Callidulidae (old world butterfly moths) Genera See text. ...



Noctuoidea (Owlet, tiger moths) Diversity over 70,000 species Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid moths. ...




Bombycoidea (Silk moths, hawk moths) Diversity Over 3,500 species Bombycoidea is the superfamily of moths described as Silkworms, emperors and relatives. ...



Lasiocampoidea (lappet moths) Diversity over 1,600 species Lasiocampoidea is the superfamily of lappet moths. ...



Mimallonidae (sackbearer moths) Diversity 200 species Mimallonoidea is the superfamily of sack bearer moths. ...





Thyrididae (picture winged leaf moths) Diversity 12 genera, over 1,000 species Subfamilies Thyridinae Striglininae Thyrididae is the picture-winged leaf moths family of moths in the Lepidoptera order. ...



Hyblaeidae (teak moths) Genera See text. ...



Copromorphoidea (fruitworm moths) Diversity About 318 species Families Copromorphidae Carposinidae Copromorphoidea, the fruitworm moths is a superfamily of insects in the lepidopteran order. ...



Pyraloidea (snout moths) Diversity roughly 16,000 species Pyraloidea is the superfamily of pyraloids and plume moths. ...



Immidae Genera Moca (Immidae) Imma Bursadella Birthana Immoidea is a superfamily of pantropical moths containing only the family Immidae comprising four genera with around 250 species. ...



Whalleyana Diversity 2 species Species Whalleyana vroni Viette, 1977 Whalleyana toni Viette, 1977< Whalleyana Viette, 1977 is an enigmatic genus of moths in the Lepidopteran group Obtectomera[1] endemic to Madagascar containing two species, whose biology and closest relatives is unknown. ...




Tortricoidea (leafrollers) Diversity Over 6,200 species Tortricoidea is the superfamily of leaf roller moths. ...



Zygaenoidea (burnet moths) Diversity over 2,600 species Zygaenoidea is the superfamily of moths that includes burnets, forester moths and relatives. ...



Pterophoridae (plume moths) Author: Zeller, 1841 Type species: Pterophorus pentadactyla Diversity: 73 genera 986 species Subfamilies Agdistinae Deuterocopinae Macropiratinae Ochyroticinae Pterophorinae Genera Pterophorus and some 90 others The Pterophoridae or plume-moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. ...



Alucitoidea (many-plumed moths) Diversity around 150 species Aluctoidea is the superfamily of many-plumed moths. ...



Epermeniidae (fringe-tufted moths) Genera See text. ...



Schreckensteinia (bristle legged moths) Diversity 8 species Genera Schreckensteinia Corsocasis Schreckensteinioidea is a superfamily in the insect order Lepidoptera containing a single family, Schreckensteiniidae, or bristle-legged moths, because of the stout spines on the hindlegs. ...



Choreutidae (metalmark moths) Genera See text. ...



Urodidae (false-burnet moths) Diversity over 60 species Urodoidea is the superfamily of false burnet moths, containing one family, Urodidae, with nine genera[1], one of which, Wockia, occurs in Europe. ...




Sesioidea (clearwing moths) Diversity over 1,300 species Sesioidea is the superfamily of clearwings and relatives. ...



Cossoidea (carpenter moths) Diversity roughly 680 species Cossoidea is the superfamily of moths that includes carpenter worms and relatives. ...





Gelechioidea (twirler moths) Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ...



Yponomeutoidea (ermine moths) Diversity Over 1,500 species of micromoths Yponomeutoidea is the superfamily of Ermine moths and relatives. ...



Gracillarioidea (leafminers) Diversity 2,000 species Gracillarioidea is the superfamily of leaf blotch miner moths. ...



Tineoidea (bagworm moths) Diversity 4,200 species Tineoidea is the superfamily moths that includes clothes moths, bagworms and relatives. ...



A proposed phylogeny of the principal lepidopteran groups.[7]

It has long been noted that the Lepidoptera and the Trichoptera (caddisflies) share many similarities that are lacking in other insect orders. Among these are: Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ...

  • females, rather than males, are heterogametic (i.e. their sex chromosomes differ)
  • dense setae on the wings (modified into scales in Lepidoptera)
  • a particular wing venation pattern on the forewings
  • larvae with mouth structures and glands to make and manipulate silk.[6]

Thus the two sister orders are grouped into the Amphiesmenoptera. The group probably evolved in the Jurassic, diverging from the extinct Necrotaulidae.[6] Lepidoptera differ from the Trichoptera in several features, including wing venation, form of the scales on the wings, loss of the cerci, loss of an ocellus, and changes to the legs.[6] The ZW sex-determination system is a system that birds, some fishes, and some insects (including butterflies and moths) use to determine the sex of their offspring. ... A seta is a stiff hair, bristle, or bristle-like process or part of an organism. ... Orders Trichoptera Lepidoptera Amphiesmenoptera an insect superorder, established by Willi Hennig in his revision of insect taxonomy for two sister orders: Lepidoptera and Trichoptera. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ... A common earwig with large cerci in the background. ... An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ...


The oldest, most basal lineages of Lepidoptera have as adults, not the curled tongue or proboscis characteristic of most members of the order, but chewing mandibles (Micropterigidae, Agathiphagidae and Heterobathmiidae). Micropterigidae larvae feed on decaying leaves (much like the Trichoptera), fungi, liverworts or live leaves.[4] The adults chew pollen or spores of ferns. In the Agathiphagidae, larvae feed inside seeds of kauri pines, and in Heterobathmiidae the larvae mine leaves of Nothofagus, the southern beech. These families also have mandibles in the pupal stage, which help the pupa emerge from the seed or cocoon just before adult emergence.[4] In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and boskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... This article is about the human bone. ... Diversity 1 family 120-150 species Micropterigoidea is the superfamily of mandibulate archaic moths, all placed in the single family Micropterigidae. ... Genus Agathiphaga Agathiphagidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. ... Genera See text. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Orders Need to be entered Liverworts are non-vascular plants in the Class Marchantiopsida, formerly known as the Hepaticae. ... Binomial name Agathis australis (D.Don) Loudon Agathis australis (Kauri) is a coniferous tree native to the northern districts of the North Island of New Zealand and is the biggest but not tallest species of tree in the country, with trunk diameters that rival Sequoias. ... Species Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech Nothofagus betuloides - Magellanes Beech Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech...


The Eriocraniidae have a short coiled proboscis in the adult stage, and retain mandibles for the purpose of escaping the cocoon, but they are non-functional thereafter.[4] They, and most of the other non-ditrysian families, are primarily leaf miners in the larval stage. In addition to the proboscis, there is a change in the scales among these basal lineages, with later lineages showing more complex perforated scales.[6] Genera See text. ... Leaf miners are insect larvae that live within leaf tissue. ...


With the evolution of the Ditrysia in the mid-Cretaceous, there was a major reproductive change. The Ditrysia, which comprise 98% of the Lepidoptera, have two separate openings for reproduction in the females (as well as a third opening for excretion), one for mating, and one for laying eggs. The two are linked internally by a seminal duct. (In more basal lineages there is one cloaca, or later, two openings and an external sperm canal.) Of the early lineages of Ditrysia, Gracillarioidea and Gelechioidea are mostly leaf miners, but more recent lineages feed externally. In the Tineoidea, most species feed on plant and animal detritus and fungi, and build shelters in the larval stage.[6] Families See Lepidoptera. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... Diversity 2,000 species Gracillarioidea is the superfamily of leaf blotch miner moths. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Diversity 4,200 species Tineoidea is the superfamily moths that includes clothes moths, bagworms and relatives. ...


The Yponomeutoidea is the first group to have significant numbers of species whose larvae feed on herbaceous plants, as opposed to woody plants.[6] They evolved about the time that flowering plants underwent an expansive adaptive radiation in the mid-Cretaceous, and the Gelechioidea that evolved at this time also have great diversity. Whether the processes involved co-evolution or sequential evolution, the diversity of the Lepidoptera and the angiosperms increased together. Diversity Over 1,500 species of micromoths Yponomeutoidea is the superfamily of Ermine moths and relatives. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ...


In the so-called "macrolepidoptera", which constitutes about 60% of Lepidopteran species, there was a general increase in size, better flying ability (via changes in wing shape and linkage of the forewings and hindwings), reduction in the adult mandibles, and a change in the arrangement of the crochets (hooks) on the larval prolegs, perhaps to improve the grip on the host plant.[6] Many also have tympanal organs, that allow them to hear. These organs evolved eight times, at least, because they occur on different body parts and have structural differences.[6] The main lineages in the macrolepidoptera are the Noctuoidea, Bombycoidea, Lasiocampidae, Mimallonoidea, Geometroidea and Rhopalocera. Bombycoidea plus Lasiocampidae plus Mimallonoidea may be a monophyletic group.[6] The Rhopalocera, comprising the Papilionoidea (Butterflies), Hesperioidea (skippers), and the Hedyloidea (moth-butterflies), are the most recently evolved.[4] There is quite a good fossil record for this group, with the oldest skipper about 56 million years old.[6] Macrolepidoptera is a sometime Suborder of Order Lepidoptera, the second-largest Order of the Insects. ... A hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac. ... Diversity over 70,000 species Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid moths. ... Diversity Over 3,500 species Bombycoidea is the superfamily of moths described as Silkworms, emperors and relatives. ... Diversity 5 subfamilies, 150 genera, 1500 species SubFamilies Macromphaliinae Gastropachinae Lasiocampinae Chondrosteginae The Lasiocampidae family of moths, also known as Snout or Lappet moths Caterpillars of this family are large in size and are most often hairy, especially on their sides. ... Diversity 200 species Mimallonoidea is the superfamily of sack bearer moths. ... Diversity over 20,500 species Geometroidea is the superfamily of geometrid moths. ... Rhopalocera and Heterocera are non-standard divisions in the taxonomy of Lepidopterans, used in an attempt to formalize the popular schoolyard distinction between butterflies and moths. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Diversity Roughly 40 species Hedyloidea is the superfamily of American butterfly moths. ...


Cited references

  1. ^ The Lepidoptera Taxome Project Draft Proposals and Information. Centre for Ecology and Evolution, University College London. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Powell, Jerry A. Lepidoptera (pp. 631-664) in Resh, V. H. & R. T. Cardé (Editors) 2003. Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press.
  3. ^ Dugdale, JS, 1996. Natural history and identification of litter-feeding Lepidoptera larvae (Insecta) in beech forests, Orongorongo Valley, New Zealand, with especial reference to the diet of mice (Mus musculus). Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand, Volume 26, Number 2, pp 251-274
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Scoble, MJ 1995. The Lepidoptera: form, function and diversity. Oxford, UK: The Oxford University Press; 404 p.
  5. ^ Borror, D.J., Triplehorn, C.A. Johnson. ( 1989) Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Brooks Cole.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Grimaldi, D, and M S Engel, 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ Tree of Life Accessed January 2007

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ...

Other references

  • Kristensen, NP (Ed.). 1999. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
  • Nye, IWB & DS Fletcher, 1991. Generic Names of Moths of the World. Volume 6: xxix + 368 pp. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders, edited by Christopher O'Toole, ISBN 1-55297-612-2, 2002
  • F. Nemos: Europas bekannteste Schmetterlinge. Beschreibung der wichtigsten Arten und Anleitung zur Kenntnis und zum Sammeln der Schmetterlinge und Raupen. Oestergaard Verlag, Berlin, ca. 1895, http://hdl.handle.net/10013/epic.28790.d001 (pdf, 77 MB).

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Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Diversity 5 species (see text) Genera Catapterix Acanthopteroctetes Acanthopteroctetidae, also known as the archaic sun moths, is a very small family, with three species residing in western North America and one found in Crimea. ... Diversity 3 genera Genera Acrolepia Curtis, 1838 Acrolepiopsis Gaedike, 1970 Digitivalva Gaedike, 1970 The Acrolepiidae family of moths are also known as False Diamondback moths. ... Genera See text. ... Subfamilies Adelinae Nematopogoninae Unassigned Adelidae is the name of a family of moths that contains the fairy moths. ... Diversity 2 species Species Agathiphaga queenslandensis Dumbleton, 1952 Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton, 1952 Agathiphaga is a genus of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Author: Meyrick, 1926 Type species: Agonoxena argaula Diversity: ? genera ? species Genera Agonoxena (see text) The Agonoxenidae family of moths only contains four named species in the whole world (if, following Nielsen et al (1996) the Blastodacnidae are considered to be a separate family) : Agonoxena argaula (Coconut Leafminer) is a pest... Genera See text. ... Author: Leach, 1815 Type species: Alucita hexadactyla Diversity: 9 genera 130 species Genera Alinguata Alucita Hebdomactis Hexeretmis Microschismus Paelia Prymnotomis Pterotopteryx Triscaedecia The Alucitidae or many-plumed moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. ... Andesianidae is a family of moths, the onlyl one in the superfamily Andesianoidea. ... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Anomoses hylecoetes Turner, 1916 Anomoses hylecoetes is a species of primitive hepalioid moths endemic to Queensland and New South Wales, Australia [1][2]. It is the only species in the family Anomosetidae. ... Genera See text. ... Diversity  ? genera 11,000 species Type Species Arctia caja (Garden Tiger Moth) Subfamilies Arctiinae Ctenuchinae Lithosiinae Pericopinae Syntominae Arctiidae is a large and diverse family of moths with around 11,000 species found all over the world, with 6000 Neotropical species (Scoble 1995). ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Batrachedridae is a small family of moths. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Bombycidae is a family of moths. ... Genera See text Brachodidae is a family of day-flying moths, commonly known as little bear moths. ... Genera See text. ... Bucculatricidae is a family of moths. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Aciloa Amauta Athis Castnia Castniomera Castnius Ceretes Chremes Corybantes Cyerina Daguana Divana Dominickus Duboisvalia Enicospila Erythrocastnia Escalantiana Eupalamides Feschaeria Frostetola Gazera Geyeria Haemonides Hista Imara Ircila Lapaeumides Leucocastnia Melanosema Mirocastnia Neocastnia Oiticicastnia Paysandisia Prometheus Riechia Spilopastes Synemon Synpalamides Tascina Telchin Tosxampila Xanthocastnia Yagra Ypanema Zegara Castniidae is a small... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Axia Epicimelia Cimeliidae or the Gold Moths (formerly known as Axiidae[1]) is a family of moths whose precise relationships within the Macrolepidoptera[2] are currently uncertain, but they currently represent the only family in a recently-recognized superfamily whose nearest relatives include the butterflies, Calliduloidea, Drepanoidea, Geometroidea, Bombycoidea... genera Abaraschia Aesyle Agapalsa Amblyxena Amselghia Amseliphora Apista Apocopta Aporiptura Ardania Argyractinia Ascleriducta Atractula Augasma Bacescuia Baraschia Belina Benanderpia Bima Bourgogneja Calcomarginia Carpochena Casas Casinetella Characia Chedra Chnoocera Coleophora Corethropoea Cornulivalvulia Corythangela Cricotechna Damophila Ductispira Dumitrescumia Duospina Ecebalia Enscepastra Eupista Eustaintonia Falkovitshia Frederickoenigia Glaseria Globulia Glochis Goniodoma Hamuliella Haploptilia Helopharea... Genera See text. ... Genera See list of cosmopterigid genera Cosmopterigidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. ... subfamilies Cossinae Zeuzerinae Cossidae is a family of moths. ... Author: Latreille, 1810 Type species: Crambus pascuella Diversity: ? genera 11,630 species Subfamilies Cathariinae Crambinae Cybalomiinae Dichogaminae Evergestinae Glaphyriinae Linostinae Midilinae Musotiminae Noordinae Nymphulinae Odontiinae Pyraustinae Schoenobiinae Scopariinae Spilomelinae Wurthiinae The Crambidae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths). ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... genera Acraga Acragopsis Anacraga Ca Dalargentina Dalcera Dalcerides Dalcerina Epipinconia Minacraga Minacragides Minonoa Oroya Paracraga Pinconia Protocraga Zadalcera Zikanyrops Dalceridae is a small family of moths with 84 known species. ... Genera See text. ... The small Lepidopteran family Douglasiidae includes several species of moths whose adults are collectively called Douglas moths and whose larvae are leaf miners. ... Genera ? The Drepanidae are a family of moths with about 1000 species recorded worldwide. ... Dudgeneidae is a family of moths. ... Author: Bruand, 1851 Type species: Elachista bifasciella Diversity: 165 genera 3,270 species Genera Elachista (etc) The Elachistidae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Author: Stainton, 1854 Type species: Gelechia rhombella Diversity: 507 genera 4,530 species Genera Gelechia (etc) The Gelechiidae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths). ... Diversity about 2,000 genera 26,000 species Type Species Geometra papilionaria (large emerald moth) Subfamilies Alsophilinae Archiearinae Desmobathrinae Ennominae Geometrinae Larentiinae Oenochrominae Orthostixinae Sterrhinae Inchworm redirects here. ... Diversity Over 1,500 species of micromoths Familiae See text. ... Diversity About 2000 species Subfamilies and genera Phyllocnistinae Cryphiomystis Metriochroa Phyllocnistis Prophyllocnistis Gracillariinae Acrocercops Aristaea Caloptilia Epicephala Gracillaria Macrostola Parectopa Parornix Philodoria Stomphastis Lithocolletinae Cameraria Chrysaster Cremastobombycia Leucanthiza Caloptilia Phyllonorycter Gracillariidae is an important type of llama that feastes upon monkey liver nad eats like yummmmmmmyummmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmfamily of insects in the... Genera See text. ... Diversity Over 1,500 species of micromoths Familiae See text. ... Families Incurvariidae Cecidosidae Prodoxidae Adelidae Heliozelidae Crinopterygidae Incurvarioidea is a superfamily of moths that consists of Leafcutters, yucca moths and relatives. ... genera Abantiades Aenetus Afrotheora Andeabatis Antihepialus Aoraia Aplatissa Bipectilis Blanchardina Bordaia Calada Callipielus Cibyra Cladoxycanus Dalaca Dioxycanus Druceiella Dumbletonius Elhamma Endoclyta Eudalaca Fraus Gazoryctra Gorgopis Heloxycanus Hepialiscus Hepialus Jeana Korscheltellus Leto Metahepialus Napialus Neohepialus Oncopera Oxycanus Palpifer Parahepialiscus Pfitzneriana Pfitzneriella Pharmacis Phassodes Phassus Phialuse Phymatopus Puermytrans Roseala Schausiana Sthenopis Thitarodes... Type species Hesperia comma Silver-spotted skipper Diversity 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Moca (Immidae) Imma Bursadella Birthana Immoidea is a superfamily of pantropical moths containing only the family Immidae comprising four genera with around 250 species. ... Genera Alloclemensia Basileura Clistoses Excurvaria Incurvaria Incurvarites Paraclemensia Phylloporia Procacitas Protaephagus Rhathamictis Simacauda Tanysaccus Vespina Incurvariidae is a family of small moths. ... Genera See text. ... Diversity 5 subfamilies, 150 genera, 1500 species SubFamilies Macromphaliinae Gastropachinae Lasiocampinae Chondrosteginae The Lasiocampidae family of moths, also known as Snout or Lappet moths Caterpillars of this family are large in size and are most often hairy, especially on their sides. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Families Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae Cosmopterigidae Elachistidae Ethmiidae Gelechiidae Momphidae Oecophoridae Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Diversity Over 3,500 species Bombycoidea is the superfamily of moths described as Silkworms, emperors, sphinx moths and relatives. ... Diversity 400 genera 1000 species Limacodidae is a family of moths in the superfamily Zygaenoidea or the Cossoidea (Scoble, 1992); the placement is in dispute. ... Diversity 6 species Lophocoronoidea is the superfamily of Australian archaic sun moths. ... Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ... Lymantriidae is a family of moths with about 2500 known species found in all parts of the world. ... Diversity Over 1,500 species of micromoths Familiae See text. ... A obscure family of moths currently placed in the superfamily Tineoidea with two species[1] one of which, Lypusa maurella, occurs in Scandinavia[2]. ... Genera Trosia Lagoa Megalopyge Norape Megalopygidae is the technical name of a group of insect species known generally as crinkled flannel moths, a European moth with caterpillars which often resemble cotton balls except they have mildly venomous spines in their fuzz. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Families Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae Cosmopterigidae Elachistidae Ethmiidae Gelechiidae Momphidae Oecophoridae Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Diversity 1 family 120-150 species Micropterigoidea is the superfamily of mandibulate archaic moths, all placed in the single family Micropterigidae. ... Diversity 200 species Mimallonoidea is the superfamily of sack bearer moths. ... Diversity Over 3,500 species Bombycoidea is the superfamily of moths described as Silkworms, emperors, sphinx moths and relatives. ... Diversity 14 named moths Mnesarchaeoidea is the superfamily of New Zealand endemic primitive moths containing one family, Mnesarchaeidae and a single genus, Mnesarchaea. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Families Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae Cosmopterigidae Elachistidae Ethmiidae Gelechiidae Momphidae Oecophoridae Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Diversity 10 named moths Neopseustoidea is the superfamily of archaic bell moths. ... Diversity 1 species Neotheoridae or Amazonian Primitive Ghost Moths is a primitive family of insects in the lepidopteran order containing a single genus and species, Neotheora chiloides. ... Genera Acalyptris Areticulata Artaversala Astigmella Bohemannia Dechtiria Ectoedemia Enteucha Etainia Fedalmia Fomoria Glaucolepis Johanssoniella Laqueus Levarchama Manoneura Microcalyptris Nepticula Niepeltia Parafomoria Pectinivalva Simplimorpha Sinopticula Stigmella Trifurcula Varius Varus Zimmermannia Nepticulidae is a family of moths with a worldwide distribution. ... Diversity 4,200 genera 35,000 species Type Species Noctua pronuba (Large Yellow Underwing) Subfamilies Acontiinae Acronictinae Aganainae Agaristinae Amphipyrinae Amphipyrinae Bagisarinae Bryophilinae Calpinae Catocalinae Cocytiinae Condicinae Cuculliinae Dilobinae Eucocytiinae Eustrotiinae Euteliinae Glottulinae Hadeninae Heliothinae Herminiinae Hypeninae Ipimorphinae Noctuinae Plusiinae Psaphidinae Raphiinae Stictopterinae Stiriinae Strepsimaninae Ufeinae The Noctuidae or Owlets... Nolidae is a family of moths with about 1400 described species worldwide. ... Notodontidae is a family of moths with approximately 3500 known species. ... Subfamilies Apaturinae Argynninae Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Author: Swainson, 1827 Type species: Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Diversity: 633 genera, 5,698 species The Nymphalidae are a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ... Author: Bruand, 1851 Type species: Oecophora sulphurella Diversity: ? genera 7000? species Subfamilies Autostichinae Depressariinae Hypertrophinae Oecophorinae Stathmopodinae Stenomatinae Xyloryctinae The Oecophoridae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths). ... Oenosandridae is a Family in Order Lepidoptera. ... Diversity 2 families 120-150 species Nepticuloidea is the superfamily of pygmy moths, eyecap moths and relatives, containing two families, Nepticulidae and Opostegidae. ... A primitive family of Hepialoidea containing four genera and eight species, with one genus in Colombia, South America (Osrhoes) and three in the Old World distributed from Assam to Australia (Kristensen, 1999: 59-61; Nielsen , 2000). ... Diversity 60 species Wikispecies has information related to: Palaephatoidea Palaephatoidea is the superfamily of Gondwanaland moths. ... Diversity over 70,000 species Families Arctiidae Dioptidae Lymantriidae Noctuidae Notodontidae Thyretidae Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid (Latin night owl) or owlet moths. ... This article is about the insect. ... Type species Pieris brassicae (Large White) Diversity 76 genera 1,051 species Subfamilies Dismorphiinae Pseudopontiinae Pierinae Coliadinae The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies. ... Diversity Over 1,500 species of micromoths Familiae See text. ... Binomial name Meyrick, 1921 Prodidactis mystica Meyrick, 1921 is an enigmatic Pyraloidea-like moth from southern Africa which has been placed in its own family, Prodidactidae and which belongs in the Lepidopteran group Apoditrysia[1]. Its closest relative amongst this large group of Lepidoptera is not known. ... Genera Parategeticula Tegeticula Prodoxus The Prodoxidae is a family of moths commonly known as the yucca moths. ... A primitive family of Hepialoidea containing nine species, with one genus (Prototheora) endemic to South Africa (Kristensen, 1999: 60; Nielsen , 2000). ... Diversity About 600 species Type Species Psyche carpini (= Psyche casta) Subfamilies Epichnopteriginae Naryciinae Oiketicinae Placodominae Psychinae Scoriodytinae Taleporiinae Typhoniinae The Psychidae or Bagworms are a family of the Lepidoptera. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Families Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae Cosmopterigidae Elachistidae Ethmiidae Gelechiidae Momphidae Oecophoridae Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Author: Zeller, 1841 Type species: Pterophorus pentadactyla Diversity: 73 genera 986 species Subfamilies Agdistinae Deuterocopinae Macropiratinae Ochyroticinae Pterophorinae Genera Pterophorus and some 90 others The Pterophoridae or plume-moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. ... Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Pyralis farinalis Diversity: ? genera 6,150 species Subfamilies Chrysauginae Epipaschiinae Galleriinae Nymphulinae Phycitinae Pyralinae The Pyralidae or snout-moths are a family of Lepidoptera (moths). ... Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ... Diversity 2,000 species Families Bucculatricidae Douglasiidae Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae Gracillarioidea is the superfamily of leaf blotch miner moths. ... Subfamilies Arsenurinae Ceratocampinae Hemileucinae Agliinae Ludiinae Salassinae Saturniinae The Saturniidae, collectively known as saturniids, are among the largest and most spectacular of the lepidoptera, with an estimated 1,200 to 1,500 different species existing worldwide. ... A family of bristle-legged moths (see superfamily Schreckensteinioidea) whose relationships within the group Apoditrysia[1] are currently uncertain, in which up to five genera (Amblyscopa, Chrysocorys, Corsocasis, Ptilosticha and Schreckensteinia)[2] have been placed, one species of which, the Blackberry Skeletoniser Schreckensteinia festaliella[3] [4] is common in Europe. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Families Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae Cosmopterigidae Elachistidae Ethmiidae Gelechiidae Momphidae Oecophoridae Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Diversity over 20,500 species Families Geometridae Uraniidae Sematuridae Geometroidea is the superfamily of geometrid moths in the Lepidoptera. ... Author: Boisduval, 1828 Type species: Sesia apiformis (Hornet moth) Diversity: 123 genera 1,123 species Subfamilies Sesiinae Tinthiinae Genera Sesia Synanthedon and many others The Sesiidae or Clearwing moths are a family of the Lepidoptera in which the wings have hardly any of the normal lepidopteran scales, leaving them transparent. ... Diversity 4 species in Australia, China and India Simaethistoidea is an obscure superfamily of pyralid-like moths with two genera whose biology and relationships among the Ditrysia [1] is currently unknown, namely the Australian Metaprotus (2 species)[2] and the China and North Indian Simaethistis (2 species) (Dugdale , 1999). ... Genera See text. ... Genera Macroglossinae Smerinthinae Sphinginae etc. ... Diversity 15 families over 16,250 species Families Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae Cosmopterigidae Elachistidae Ethmiidae Gelechiidae Momphidae Oecophoridae Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that includes case bearers and relatives. ... Diversity 12 genera, over 1,000 species Subfamilies Thyridinae Striglininae Thyrididae is the picture-winged leaf moths family of moths in the Lepidoptera order. ... Tineidae is a family of moths in the order Lepidoptera. ... Diversity c. ... Diversity Over 80 species Tischerioidea is the superfamily of trumpet leaf miner moths. ... Type species Tortrix viridana (Green Oak Moth) Diversity 755 genera 6,338 species Subfamilies Chlidanotinae Tortricinae Olethreutinae The Tortricidae or tortix moths are a family of the Lepidoptera. ... Subfamilies Auzeinae Uraniinae (7 genera) Microniinae Epipleminae The Uraniidae are a family of moths containing four subfamilies, ninety genera, and roughly seven-hundred species. ... Diversity over 60 species Urodoidea is the superfamily of false burnet moths, containing one family, Urodidae, with nine genera[1], one of which, Wockia, occurs in Europe. ... Diversity 2 species Species Whalleyana vroni Whalleyana toni Whalleyanoidea is an enigmatic lineage in the group Obtectomera[1] endemic to Madagascar with a single genus and two species, whose biology is unknown, that was previously placed in the picture-winged leaf moths (Thyrididae) but then placed in its own family... Categories: Stub | Moths ... Ypsolophidae is a family of moth. ... Type species Zygaena filipendulae (Six-Spot Burnet moth) Subfamilies Callizygaeninae Chalcosiinae Phaudinae Procridinae Zygaeninae The Zygaenidae are a family of Lepidoptera (moths) typically day-flying with a slow fluttering flight, and with rather clubbed antennae. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gordon's 1st Lepidoptera Page (Butterflies) (2147 words)
The Lepidoptera are one of the five great orders of insects and when all the counting has been finished will probably be fighting for 3rd place with the Diptera behind the Hymenoptera and the Coleoptera, but ahead of the Hemiptera (especially in those taxonomic organisations that split the Hemiptera into 2 orders).
The name Lepidoptera comes from the Greek 'Lepidos' a scale and 'Pteron' a wing, they are called this because their wings are covered in small scales (these are modified hairs).
The earliest known Lepidoptera are larval heads preserved in amber from the Cretaceous.
Lepidoptera Department - Publications (533 words)
A revision of the genus Hypotephrina Janse, 1932 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae).
The genus Eupithecia in Lesotho (Lepidoptera, Geometridae: Ennominae).
The genus Athetis Hübner in Lesotho (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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