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Encyclopedia > Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II
Holy Roman Emperor
Full name Peter Leopold Joseph
Titles Grand Duke of Tuscany
King of Germany
King of Hungary
King of Croatia and Slavonia
King of Bohemia
Archduke of Austria
Born May 5, 1747
Vienna
Died March 1, 1792
Vienna
Predecessor Joseph II
Successor Francis II
Consort Maria Louisa
Father Francis I
Mother Maria Theresa


Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was a son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I. Leopold was one of the "enlightened monarchs". Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II from [1]. Public domain by age. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... // The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (German language: Franz II, Heiliger Römischer Kaiser) also referred to as Franz I, Emperor of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ...


Leopold was born in Vienna, a third son, and was at first educated for the priesthood, but the theological studies to which he was forced to apply himself are believed to have influenced his mind in a way unfavourable to the Church. On the death of his elder brother Charles in 1761, it was decided that he should succeed to his father's grand duchy of Tuscany, which was erected into a "secundogeniture" or apanage for a second son. This settlement was the condition of his marriage on August 5, 1764 with Maria Louisa, daughter of Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony. On the death of his father Francis I (August 18, 1765), he succeeded to the grand duchy. Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Maria Amalia of Saxony. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Grand Duke of Tuscany

For five years, he exercised little more than nominal authority, under the supervision of counsellors appointed by his mother. In 1770, he made a journey to Vienna to secure the removal of this vexatious guardianship and returned to Florence with a free hand. During the twenty years which elapsed between his return to Florence and the death of his eldest brother Joseph II in 1790, he was employed in reforming the administration of his small state. The reformation was carried out by the removal of the ruinous restrictions on industry and personal freedom imposed by his predecessors of the house of Medici and left untouched during his father's life, by the introduction of a rational system of taxation, and by the execution of profitable public works, such as the drainage of the Val di Chiana. Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ...


As he had no army to maintain, and as he suppressed the small naval force kept up by the Medici, the whole of his revenue was left free for the improvement of his state. Leopold was never popular with his Italian subjects. His disposition was cold and retiring. His habits were simple to the verge of sordidness, though he could display splendour on occasion, and he could not help offending those of his subjects who had profited by the abuses of the Medicean régime. But his steady, consistent, and intelligent administration, which advanced step by step, brought the grand duchy to a high level of material prosperity. His ecclesiastical policy, which disturbed the deeply rooted convictions of his people and brought him into collision with the pope, was not successful. He was unable to secularize the property of the religious houses or to put the clergy entirely under the control of the lay power.


During the last few years of his rule in Tuscany, Leopold had begun to be frightened by the increasing disorders in the German and Hungarian dominions of his family, which were the direct result of his brother's headlong methods. He and Joseph II were tenderly attached to one another and met frequently both before and after the death of their mother. The portrait by Pompeo Batoni in which they appear together shows that they bore a strong personal resemblance to one another. But it may be said of Leopold, as of Fontenelle, that his heart was made of brains. He knew that he must succeed his childless eldest brother in Austria, and he was unwilling to inherit his unpopularity. When, therefore, in 1789 Joseph, who knew himself to be dying, asked him to come to Vienna and become co-regent, Leopold coldly evaded the request. Portrait of Charles Crowle Pompeo Girolamo Batoni (1708-1787), Italian painter, was born at Lucca. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


He was still in Florence when Joseph II died at Vienna on February 20, 1790, and he did not leave his Italian capital until March 3. February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ...


Holy Roman Emperor

memorial of coronation 1790
memorial of coronation 1790

Leopold, during his government in Tuscany, had shown a speculative tendency to grant his subjects a constitution. When he succeeded to the Austrian lands, he began by making large concessions to the interests offended by his brother's innovations. He recognized the Estates of his different dominions as "the pillars of the monarchy," pacified the Hungarians, and divided the Belgian insurgents by concessions. When these failed to restore order, he marched troops into the country and re-established his own authority, and at the same time the historic franchises of the Flemings. Yet he did not surrender any part that could be retained of what Maria Theresa and Joseph had done to strengthen the hands of the state. He continued, for instance, to insist that no papal bull could be published in his dominions without his consent (placetum regium). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1383x2226, 1543 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1383x2226, 1543 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ...


If Leopold's reign as emperor and king of Hungary and Bohemia had been prolonged during years of peace, it is probable that he would have repeated his successes as a reforming ruler in Tuscany on a far larger scale. But he lived for barely two years, and during that period he was hard pressed by peril from west and east alike. The growing revolutionary disorders in France endangered the life of his sister Marie Antoinette of Austria, the queen of Louis XVI, and also threatened his own dominions with the spread of a subversive agitation. His sister sent him passionate appeals for help, and he was pestered by the royalist emigrants, who were intriguing to bring about armed intervention in France. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Marie-Antoinette, painted by Wagenschon shortly after her marriage in 1770 Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born 2 November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height... Louis XVI of France (Louis-Auguste de France) (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


From the east he was threatened by the aggressive ambition of Catherine II of Russia and by the unscrupulous policy of Prussia. Catherine would have been delighted to see Austria and Prussia embark on a crusade in the cause of kings against the French Revolution. While they were busy beyond the Rhine, she would have annexed what remained of Poland and made conquests against the Ottoman Empire. Leopold II had no difficulty in seeing through the rather transparent cunning of the Russian empress, and he refused to be misled. Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...

inscription of memorial
inscription of memorial

To his sister, he gave good advice and promises of help if she and her husband could escape from Paris. The emigrants who followed him pertinaciously were refused audience, or when they forced themselves on him, were peremptorily denied all help. Leopold was too purely a politician not to be secretly pleased at the destruction of the power of France and of her influence in Europe by her internal disorders. Within six weeks of his accession, he displayed his contempt for her weakness by practically tearing up the treaty of alliance made by Maria Theresa in 1756 and opening negotiations with England to impose a check on Russia and Prussia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2592, 1809 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2592, 1809 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


He was able to put pressure on England by threatening to cede his part of the Low Countries to France. Then, when sure of English support, he was in a position to baffle the intrigues of Prussia. A personal appeal to Frederick William II led to a conference between them at Reichenbach in July 1790, and to an arrangement which was in fact a defeat for Prussia: Leopold's coronation as king of Hungary on November 11, 1790, preceded by a settlement with the diet in which he recognized the dominant position of the Magyars. He had already made an eight months' truce with the Turks in September, which prepared the way for the termination of the war begun by Joseph II, the peace of Sistova being signed in August 1791. The pacification of his eastern dominions left Leopold free to re-establish order in Belgium and to confirm friendly relations with England and Holland. Frederick William II (September 25, 1744 - November 16, 1797), king of Prussia, was known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm II. Frederick William II of Prussia Frederick William was the son of Augustus William (the second son of King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia) and of Louise Amalie of Brunswick-L... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Svishtov (formerly Sistova)is a Bulgarian town at Danube river, nearly 235 km north-east from Sofia. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto (French) Ik zal handhaven(Dutch) I shall stand fast1 Anthem Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Netherlands() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Amsterdam2 Official languages Dutch3 Ethnic groups  80. ...


During 1791, the emperor continued to be increasingly preoccupied with the affairs of France. In January, he had to dismiss the Count of Artois, afterwards Charles X, king of France, in a very peremptory way. His good sense was revolted by the folly of the French emigrants, and he did his utmost to avoid being entangled in the affairs of that country. The insults inflicted on Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, however, at the time of their attempted flight to Varennes in June, stirred his indignation, and he made a general appeal to the sovereigns of Europe to take common measures in view of events which "immediately compromised the honour of all sovereigns, and the security of all governments." Yet he was most directly interested in the conference at Sistova, which in June led to a final peace with Turkey. Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated rather than become a constitutional monarch. ... The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) was a significant episode in the French Revolution during which the French royal family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from the radical agitation of the Jacobins in Paris disguised as a Russian aristocratic family. ...


On August 25, he met the king of Prussia at Pillnitz, near Dresden, and they drew up a declaration of their readiness to intervene in France if and when their assistance was called for by the other powers. The declaration was a mere formality, for, as Leopold knew, neither Russia nor England was prepared to act, and he endeavoured to guard against the use which he foresaw the emigrants would endeavour to make of it. In face of the agitation caused by the Pillnitz declaration in France, the intrigues of the emigrants, and the attacks made by the French revolutionists on the rights of the German princes in Alsace, Leopold continued to hope that intervention might not be required. The Declaration of Pillnitz on August 27, 1791, was a statement issued at the Castle of Pillnitz in Saxony (south of Dresden) by Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II of Prussia. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


When Louis XVI swore to observe the constitution of September 1791, the emperor professed to think that a settlement had been reached in France. The attacks on the rights of the German princes on the left bank of the Rhine, and the increasing violence of the parties in Paris which were agitating to bring about war, soon showed, however, that this hope was vain. Leopold met the threatening language of the revolutionists with dignity and temper.


He died suddenly in Vienna, in March 1792.


Like his parents before him, Leopold had sixteen children, the eldest of his eight sons being his successor, the Emperor Francis II. Some of his other sons were prominent personages in their day. Among them were: Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany; the Archduke Charles of Austria, a celebrated soldier; the Archduke John, also a soldier; the Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary; and the Archduke Rainer, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia. Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (German language: Franz II, Heiliger Römischer Kaiser) also referred to as Franz I, Emperor of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the... Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern_Essling (May 21_22, 1809) The epileptic younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, Archduke Charles of Austria (Erzherzog Karl) (September 5, 1771 - April 30, 1847) achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of Austrias army. ...


Ancestors

Leopold's ancestors in three generations
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Father:
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Father's father:
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
Father's father's father:
Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
Father's father's mother:
Eleanor Maria Josepha of Austria
Father's mother:
Elizabeth Charlotte of Orleans
Father's mother's father:
Philippe I, Duke of Orleans
Father's mother's mother:
Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine
Mother:
Maria Theresa of Austria
Mother's father:
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother's father's father:
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother's father's mother:
Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Mother's mother:
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Mother's mother's father:
Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother's mother's mother:
Christine Louise of Oettingen

Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Leopold Joseph (September 11, 1679 – March 27, 1729), was Duke of Lorraine from 1697 to 1702, and again, from 1714 to his death. ... Charles V Leopold (April 3, 1643 – April 18, 1690), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1675 to 1690, a time when Lorraine was occupied by France. ... Philippe I, Duke of Orléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701) was the son of the Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of France. ... Elizabeth, Princess Palatine by Nicolas de Largillière (Château de Chantilly) Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine (May 27, 1652 in Heidelberg - October 9 or December 8, 1722 at the Château of Saint-Cloud near Paris), known in French as la princesse Palatine and in German as Liselotte von der... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg or Eleonore of Pfalz-Neuburg (January 6, 1655, Düsseldorf - January 19, 1720, Vienna) was empress of Austria as wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Louis Rudolph (German Ludwig Rudolf; 22 July 1671 – 1 March 1735), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1731 until his death. ...

Issue

Children with his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (also known as Maria Ludovica of Spain): In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... Maria Louisa(Spanish: Maria Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 - 15 May 1792) was Empress consort to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Maria Louisa was born in Portici, in Campania, the site of the summer palace of her parents, King Charles VII and Queen Maria Amalia of Naples and...

The Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria, born January 14th 1767, was the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Tuscany Leopold II, and later became Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Anthony Clement of Saxony, HM Anton Clemens Theodor Maria Joseph Johann Evangelista Johann Nepomuk Franz Xaver Aloys Januar King of Saxony, (December 27, 1755 - June 6, 1836) was the son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and Maria Antonia of Bavaria, and succeed his brother Frederick Augustus I as King... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies (June 6, 1772, Naples - April 13, 1807, Vienna) was the eldest daughter of Fernando I, King of the Two Sicilies (1751-1825) and his wife, Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria (1752-1814). ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, also known as Maria Ludovika of Modena, (German: Maria Ludovika Beatrix von Modena) (Monza, 14 December 1787 – Vienna, 7 April 1816) was daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este (1754-1806) and his wife, Maria Beatrice Ricciarda dEste (1750-1829). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern_Essling (May 21_22, 1809) The epileptic younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, Archduke Charles of Austria (Erzherzog Karl) (September 5, 1771 - April 30, 1847) achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of Austrias army. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Her Serene Highness Fürstin Carolina zu Nassau-Weilburg née Her Serene Highness Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau, Princess-Regent of Republic of the Netherlands (February 28, 1743, Leeuwarden- May 6, 1787, Kirchheimbolanden) was the daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and HRH Anne... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Palatine Joseph of Hungary or Archduke Joseph Anton Johann of Austria (9 March 1776, Florence – 13 January 1847, Buda), in Hungarian József nádor, was the Palatine of Hungary between 1796 and 1847. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 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Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

Names in other languages: German/Czech/Slovak/Croatian: Leopold II., Hungarian: II. Lipót Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Preceded by
Francis Stephen
Grand Duke of Tuscany
1765-1790
Succeeded by
Ferdinand III
Preceded by
Joseph II
Holy Roman Emperor
Also King of Germany

1790-1792
Succeeded by
Francis II
King of Hungary
1790-1792
King of Croatia and Slavonia
1790-1792
King of Bohemia
1790-1792
Preceded by
Joseph II
Archduke of Austria
1790-1792
Succeeded by
Francis II


Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434_1531 Cosimo de Medici 1434_1464 Piero I de Medici 1464-1469 (The Gouty) Lorenzo I de Medici 1469-1492 (The Magnificent) Giuliano de Medici 1469-1478 Piero II de Medici 1492-1494 Republic restored 1494-1512 Cardinal Giovanni de Medici 1512_1513 Lorenzo II de Medici... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (German language: Franz II, Heiliger Römischer Kaiser) also referred to as Franz I, Emperor of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... // The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (German language: Franz II, Heiliger Römischer Kaiser) also referred to as Franz I, Emperor of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the...

The Enlightenment
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Prominent people by country
Austria: Joseph II | Leopold II | Maria Theresa
Denmark-Norway: Ludvig Holberg | Jens Schielderup Sneedorff | Johann Friedrich Struensee
France: Pierre Bayle | Fontenelle | Montesquieu | François Quesnay | Voltaire | G.L. Buffon | Jean-Jacques Rousseau | Denis Diderot | Helvétius | Jean le Rond d'Alembert | Baron d'Holbach | Marquis de Sade | Condorcet | Antoine Lavoisier | Olympe de Gouges | see also: French Encyclopédistes
Germany: Erhard Weigel | Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz | Frederick II | Immanuel Kant | Gotthold Ephraim Lessing | Thomas Abbt | Johann Gottfried von Herder | Adam Weishaupt | Johann Wolfgang von Goethe | J. C. F. von Schiller | Carl Friedrich Gauss | see also: German Classicism
Great Britain: Thomas Hobbes | John Locke | Isaac Newton | Samuel Johnson | David Hume | Lord Monboddo | Adam Smith | John Wilkes | Edmund Burke | Edward Gibbon | James Boswell | Jeremy Bentham | Mary Wollstonecraft | see also: Scottish Enlightenment
Italy: Giambattista Vico | Cesare Beccaria
Netherlands: Hugo Grotius | Benedict Spinoza
Poland: Stanisław Leszczyński | Stanisław Konarski | Stanisław August Poniatowski | Ignacy Krasicki | Hugo Kołłątaj | Ignacy Potocki | Stanisław Staszic | Jan Śniadecki | Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz | Jędrzej Śniadecki
Russia: Catherine the Great | Peter the Great | Ekaterina Dashkova | Mikhail Lomonosov | Ivan Shuvalov | Nikolay Novikov | Alexander Radishchev | Mikhail Shcherbatov
Spain: Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos | Leandro Fernández de Moratín
USA: Benjamin Franklin | David Rittenhouse | John Adams | Thomas Paine | Thomas Jefferson
Related concepts
Capitalism | Civil Liberties | Critical Thinking | Deism | Democracy | Empiricism | Enlightened absolutism | Free Markets | Humanism | Liberalism | Natural Philosophy | Rationality | Reason | Sapere aude | Science | Secularism
Persondata
NAME Leopold II
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Joseph, Peter Leopold
SHORT DESCRIPTION Holy Roman Emperor
DATE OF BIRTH May 5, 1747
PLACE OF BIRTH Vienna
DATE OF DEATH March 1, 1792
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1900 words)
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany.
Leopold was born in Vienna, a third son, and was at first educated for the priesthood, but the theological studies to which he was forced to apply himself are believed to have influenced his mind in a way unfavourable to the Church.
Leopold was too purely a politician not to be secretly pleased at the destruction of the power of France and of her influence in Europe by her internal disorders.
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor - definition of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor in Encyclopedia (1519 words)
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (May 5, 1747 - March 1, 1792) was a Holy Roman Emperor (1790 - 1792) and grand-duke of Tuscany.
Leopold was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs".
He and Joseph II were tenderly attached to one another, and met frequently both before and after the death of their mother, while the portrait by Pompeo Baltoni in which they appear together shows that they bore a strong personal resemblance to one another.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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