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Encyclopedia > Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. The obverse Latin inscription reads, A. G. H. B. REX LEOPOLDVS D[EUS] G[RATIA] R. I. S., or in English, "King Leopold, Thanks Be to God." The reverse Latin inscription reads, 1670 ARCHID AVS[TRIA] DVX B[URGANDY] CO[MTÉ] TYR[OLIS] or in English, "1670 Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, and Count of Tyrol." The unusual shape of the emperor's mouth on this coin earned it the nickname, "Leopold the Hogmouth," but most collectors do not believe the coin was an accurate depiction.
Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. The obverse Latin inscription reads, A. G. H. B. REX LEOPOLDVS D[EUS] G[RATIA] R. I. S., or in English, "King Leopold, Thanks Be to God." The reverse Latin inscription reads, 1670 ARCHID AVS[TRIA] DVX B[URGANDY] CO[MTÉ] TYR[OLIS] or in English, "1670 Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, and Count of Tyrol." The unusual shape of the emperor's mouth on this coin earned it the nickname, "Leopold the Hogmouth," but most collectors do not believe the coin was an accurate depiction.

Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna of Spain. His maternal grandparents were Philip III of Spain and Margarita of Austria. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Coin_of_Leopold_I_3_Kreuzer_1670. ... Image File history File links Coin_of_Leopold_I_3_Kreuzer_1670. ... Berner Kreuzer von 1776 The Kreuzer was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the Southern German states prior to the unification of Germany in 1870, and in Austria. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Margaret of Austria, 1609, by Bartolomé González y Serrano Margaret of Austria (December 25, 1584-October 3, 1611), Queen of Spain and Portugal, was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and the sister of the Emperor Ferdinand II. She married Philip III...

Contents

Early life

He was a much younger brother of Ferdinand IV of Hungary and Mariana of Austria. Intended for the Church, he received a good education but his prospects were changed by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV, on July 9, 1654 of smallpox, when he became his father's heir. Ferdinand IV (September 8, 1633 - July 9, 1654) was King of the Romans, of Hungary, and of Bohemia. ... Mariana of Austria, 1652, portrayed by Diego Velázquez Mariana or Maria-Anna of Austria (Vienna, 23 December 1634 - Madrid, 16 May 1696), daughter of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III and Infanta Maria Ana of Spain, was the second wife of her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


The last thing Leopold wanted was to rule. He was hideous and under-sized, his bones stunted, his teeth broken by scurvy. He was painfully shortsighted. In him the Habsburg lip and chin were exaggerated to the point of caricature. He was pathologically shy. He would have liked to have gone into a monastery, and, indeed, from early childhood he had been intended for the Church. Instead of this he was called upon not merely to wear the crown but the carry Austria into the new course determined by the outcome of the Thirty Years' War and to defend his personal Empire against the two most formidable adversaries in the world: France, arrogant and triumphant under Louis XIV, and the Ottoman Turks in their last and most terrible bid to break into Europe. Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Mandibular prognathism is a disfiguring, genetic disorder where the lower jaw outgrows the upper. ...


In 1655 he was chosen king of Hungary and in 1656 king of Bohemia,1657 king of Croatia and in July 1658, more than a year after his father's death, he was elected emperor at Frankfurt in spite of the intrigues of Jules Cardinal Mazarin, who wished to place on the imperial throne Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria or some other prince whose elevation would break the Habsburg succession. Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... Ferdinand Maria, Picture from 1658 Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria (October 31, 1636 - May 26, 1679) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1651 to 1679. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


Mazarin, however, obtained a promise from the new emperor that he would not send assistance to Spain, then at war with France, and, by joining a confederation of German princes, called the league of the Rhine, France secured a certain influence in the internal affairs of Germany. Leopold's long reign covers one of the most important periods of European history; for nearly the whole of its forty-seven years he was pitted against Louis XIV of France, whose dominant personality completely overshadowed Leopold. The emperor was not himself a man of war, and never led his troops in person; yet the greater part of his public life was spent in arranging and directing wars. The first was with Sweden, whose king Charles X found a useful ally in the prince of Transylvania, György II Rákóczi, a rebellious vassal of the Hungarian crown. Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... Sun King redirects here. ... Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or Ердељ / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... George Rákóczy II, prince of Transylvania (1621-1660), was the eldest son of George I and Susannah Lorantfiy. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Early wars against the Ottoman Empire

This war, a legacy of the last reign, was waged by Leopold as the ally of Poland until peace was made at Oliva in 1660. A more dangerous foe next entered the lists. The Ottoman Empire interfered in the affairs of Transylvania, always an unruly district, and this interference brought on a war with the Holy Roman Empire, which after some desultory operations really began in 1663. By a personal appeal to the diet at Regensburg Leopold induced the princes to send assistance for the campaign; troops were also sent by France, and in August 1664 the great imperialist general, Raimondo Montecuccoli, gained a notable victory at Saint Gotthard. By the Peace of Vasvár the emperor made a twenty years' truce with the sultan, granting more generous terms than his recent victory seemed to render necessary. Treaty of Oliwa. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Raimondo, Count of Montecuccoli or Montecucculi (born February 21, 1608 or 1609 at the castle of Montecucculo in Modena; died October 16, 1680 at Linz) was prince of the holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan duke of Melfi, Austrian general. ... // Combatants Austria Holy Roman Empire League of the Rhine France Ottoman Empire Commanders Raimondo Montecuccoli Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden Count Coligny Ahmed Köprülü Strength ~ 25,000, including Imperial and French troops ~ 60,000 Casualties Minimal Significant The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: ) was fought on August 1... The Peace of Vasvár was a treaty between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire which followed the Battle of Saint Gotthard of August 1, 1664. ...


Wars against France

After a few years of peace began the first of three wars between France and the Empire. The aggressive policy pursued by Louis XIV towards the United Provinces had aroused the serious attention of Europe, and steps had been taken to check it. Although the French king had sought the alliance of several German princes and encouraged the Turks in their attacks on Austria the emperor at first took no part in this movement. He was on friendly terms with Louis, to whom he was closely related and with whom he had already discussed the partition of the lands of the Spanish monarchy; moreover, in 1671 he arranged with him a treaty of neutrality. Sun King redirects here. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ...


In 1672, however, he was forced to take action. He entered into an alliance for the defence of the United Provinces and war broke out; then, after this league had collapsed owing to the defection of the elector of Brandenburg, another and more durable alliance was formed for the same purpose, including, besides the emperor, the king of Spain and several German princes, and the war was renewed. At this time, twenty-five years after the peace of Westphalia, the Empire was virtually a confederation of independent princes, and it was very difficult for its head to conduct any war with vigour and success, some of its members being in alliance with the enemy and others being only lukewarm in their support of the imperial interests. Thus this struggle, which lasted until the end of 1678, was on the whole unfavourable to Germany, and the advantages of the Treaty of Nijmegen (February 1679) were with France. Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ...


Almost immediately after the conclusion of peace Louis renewed his aggressions on the German frontier. Engaged in a serious struggle with Turkey, the emperor was again slow to move, and although he joined a league against France in 1682 he was glad to make a truce at Regensburg two years later. In 1686 the league of Augsburg was formed by the emperor and the imperial princes, to preserve the terms of the treaties of Westphalia and of Nijmegen. The whole European position was now bound up with events in England, and the tension lasted until 1688, when William of Orange won the English crown and Louis invaded Germany. In May 1689 the grand alliance was formed, including the emperor, the kings of England, Spain and Denmark, the elector of Brandenburg and others, and a fierce struggle against France was waged throughout almost the whole of western Europe. In general the several campaigns were favourable to the allies, and in September 1697 England, Spain and the United Provinces made peace with France at the Treaty of Rijswijk. Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area 57. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... William III of England (The Hague,14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the United Netherlands from 28 June 1672, King of... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ...


To this treaty Leopold refused to assent, as he considered that his allies had somewhat neglected his interests, but in the following month he came to terms and a number of places were transferred from France to Germany. The peace with France lasted for about four years and then Europe was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession. The king of Spain, Charles II, was a Habsburg by descent and was related by marriage to the Austrian branch, while a similar tie bound him to the royal house of France. He was feeble and childless, and attempts had been made by the European powers to arrange for a peaceable division of his extensive kingdom. Leopold refused to consent to any partition, and when in November 1700 Charles died, leaving his crown to Philip, duke of Anjou, a grandson of Louis XIV, all hopes of a peaceable settlement vanished. Under the guidance of William III a powerful league, the grand alliance, was formed against France; of this the emperor was a prominent member, and in 1703 he transferred his claim on the Spanish monarchy to his second son, the Archduke of Austria, also known as Charles III of Hungary. The early course of the war was not favourable to the imperialists, but the tide of defeat had been rolled back by the great victory of Blenheim before Leopold died on May 5, 1705. Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Charles II of Spain. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... William III of England (The Hague,14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the United Netherlands from 28 June 1672, King of... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... Combatants England,[1] Austria, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Denmark, Hesse, Hanover France, Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Eugene of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[2] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 20,000 killed, drowned, or... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ...


Internal problems

Leopold I column (1673) in Trieste
Leopold I column (1673) in Trieste

In governing his own lands Leopold found his chief difficulties in Hungary, where unrest was caused partly by his desire to crush Protestantism. A rising was suppressed in 1671 and for some years Hungary was treated with great severity. In 1681, after another rising, some grievances were removed and a less repressive policy was adopted, but this did not deter the Hungarians from revolting again. Espousing the cause of the rebels the sultan sent an enormous army into Austria early in 1683; this advanced almost unchecked to Vienna, which was besieged from July to September, while Leopold took refuge at Passau. Realizing the gravity of the situation somewhat tardily, some of the German princes, among them the electors of Saxony and Bavaria, led their contingents to the imperial army which was commanded by the emperor's brother-in-law, Charles, duke of Lorraine, but the most redoubtable of Leopold's allies was the king of Poland, John Sobieski, who was already dreaded by the Turks. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 765 KB) Summary Trieste, Piazza della Borsa, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor column(1673) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 765 KB) Summary Trieste, Piazza della Borsa, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor column(1673) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Old Town of Passau Passau (Latin: Batavia) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as Dreiflüssestadt (the City of three rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of the Bavarian Forest to... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is a federal state of Germany. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Charles IV (* April 5, 1604 in Nancy – September 18, 1675 in Allenbach), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1661 to 1670 See also: Dukes of Lorraine family tree Categories: French people stubs | Dukes of Lorraine | 1604 births | 1675 deaths ... Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie...


Success against the Turks and in Hungary

On September 12, 1683 the allied army fell upon the enemy, who was completely routed, and Vienna was saved. The imperial forces, among whom Prince Eugene of Savoy was rapidly becoming prominent, followed up the victory with others, notably one near Mohács in 1687 and another at Zenta in 1697, and in January 1699 the sultan signed the treaty of Karlowitz by which he admitted the sovereign rights of the house of Habsburg over nearly the whole of Hungary. Before the conclusion of the war, however, Leopold had taken measures to strengthen his hold upon this country. In 1687, the Hungarian diet in Pozsony (called Pressburg at that time) changed the constitution, the right of the Habsburgs to succeed to the throne without election was admitted and the emperor's elder son Joseph I was crowned hereditary king of Hungary. September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Mohács is a town in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube, 115 miles south of Budapest. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Senta (Сента, Hungarian: Zenta) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 45. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... Pozsony is: the Hungarian name for Preßburg = Bratislava (the current capital of Slovakia), once capital of the Hungarian kingdom Hence, the abbreviated name of the Pozsony county from a time when it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Preßburg is the historical name (in German and in English) for the city of Bratislava. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ...


The Holy Roman Empire

During this reign some important changes were made in the constitution of the Empire. In 1663, the imperial diet entered upon the last stage of its existence, and became a body permanently in session at Regensburg. In 1692, the duke of Hanover was raised to the rank of an elector, becoming the ninth member of the electoral college. In 1700, Leopold, greatly in need of help for the impending war with France, granted the title of king in Prussia to the elector of Brandenburg. The net result of these and similar changes was to weaken the authority of the emperor over the members of the Empire and to compel him to rely more and more upon his position as ruler of the Austrian archduchies and of Hungary and Bohemia. Leopold was the first to have realized this altered state of affairs and to have acted in accordance with it. // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Hanover (German: Hannover []), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


Ancestors

Leopold's ancestors in three generations
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Father:
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Father's father:
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Father's father's father:
Charles II of Austria
Father's father's mother:
Maria Anna of Bavaria
Father's mother:
Maria Anna of Bavaria
Father's mother's father:
William V, Duke of Bavaria
Father's mother's mother:
Renata of Lorraine
Mother:
Maria Anna of Spain
Mother's father:
Philip III of Spain
Mother's father's father:
Philip II of Spain
Mother's father's mother:
Anne of Austria
Mother's mother:
Margaret of Austria
Mother's mother's father:
Charles II of Austria
Mother's mother's mother:
Maria Anna of Bavaria

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria ( Vienna June 3, 1540 – July 10, 1590 in Graz) was an Archduke of Austria and Regent of Inner Austria from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608) was daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (1660 - 1690), whose full birth name was Maria Anna Christine Victoria von Wittelsbach, was also known as Dauphine Victoire. ... William V, Duke of Bavaria. ... William V, Duke of Bavaria and his wife, Renata of Lorraine Renata of Lorraine (April 20, 1544, Nancy – May 22, 1602, Munich) was the daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip II of Spain. ... Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain Anna of Austria (Cigales, Valladolid, November 1, 1549 - Badajoz, October 26, 1580), was Queen of Spain and Portugal. ... Margaret of Austria, 1609, by Bartolomé González y Serrano Margaret of Austria (1584-1611), Queen of Spain and Portugal, was the daughter of the Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and the sister of the Emperor Ferdinand II. She married Philip III of Spain on... Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria ( Vienna June 3, 1540 – July 10, 1590 in Graz) was an Archduke of Austria and Regent of Inner Austria from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608) was daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. ...

Private life

Epitome of the Habsburg jaw, Leopold ("the Hogmouth") was married three times.


In 1666 he married Margaret Theresa (d. 1673), daughter of Philip IV of Spain, also his niece, (the young infanta depicted in Diego Velasquez' "Las Meninas"). Also known as Margarita Teresa, she was daughter of Philip IV. The miraculous series of Velazquez portraits of this Spanish princess at various stages of her childhood were done for Leopold as he waited in Vienna for his betrothed to grow up. This grave, blank image of immortal dreams was married at fifteen. She bore her husband five children and died in childbirth at twenty-two. Leopold was kind and gay with her. 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Margaret of Spain in Mourning Dress 1666 by Juan Bautista Martinez del Mazo. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Las Meninas, painted in 1656. ...


Children :

His second wife was Archduchess Claudia Felicitas, the heiress of Tyrol. She died at the age of 22 on 2 September 1676; their two daughters also died. She was buried in the crypt of the St. Dominic side chapel of the Dominican church in Vienna. // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ...


His third wife was Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, a princess of the Palatinate. By his first two wives, he had no surviving sons, but his third wife bore him two: Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg or Eleonore of Pfalz-Neuburg (January 6, 1655, Düsseldorf - January 19, 1720, Vienna) was empress of Austria as wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ...

Their other children were Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of...

Maria Elisabeth of Austria (1680 - 1741), archduchess, governor of the Austrian Netherlands between 1724 and 1741 . ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Leopold Joseph (September 11, 1679 РMarch 27, 1729), was Duke of Lorraine from 1697 to 1702, and again, from 1714 to his death. ... Mary Anne of Austria (September 7, 1683 ,Linz - August 14, 1754, Lissabon) Archduchess of Austria and Queen consort of Portugal. ... John V (Portuguese Jọo pron. ... Maria Theresia Habsburg (1684-1696) was a daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Maria Magdalena, Archduchess of Austria (born 26 March 1689 in Vienna; died 1 May 1743 ibid. ...

Character and overall assessment

Leopold was a man of industry and education, and during his later years, he showed some political ability. Extremely tenacious of his rights and regarding himself as an absolute sovereign, he was also very intolerant and greatly influenced by the Jesuits. In person, he was short, but strong and healthy. Although he had no inclination for a military life, he loved exercise in the open air, such as hunting and riding; he also had a taste for music and composed several Oratorios and Suites of Dances. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


He made fearful mistakes. He stumbled reluctantly, sometimes as a direct result of his own mismanagement, from war to war, and failed to press the advantage when he had it. He was a bigot of the narrowest kind and alienated his Hungarian subjects by harsh treatment of the Protestants and a rigid system of government. Hopelessly at a disadvantage in the handling of men, he secluded himself in his court behind a solemn barrier of protocol and etiquette taken over from Madrid, dressing always in the Spanish fashion in black with red stockings. Hidden from the world, however, he could be gay and charming. He snatched every moment he could spare for his beloved music, playing himself, composing more than well. He was happiest with his books, but he was also an alchemist of sorts and he loved painting.


Vienna's second district, Leopoldstadt, is named after him. Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Haidgasse in Leopoldstadt The Volksprater amusement park in the Wiener Prater The Hauptallee in the Prater Leopoldstadt (Leopold-Town) is Viennas second district. ...


Names in other languages: German/Czech/Slovak/Croatian: Leopold I, Hungarian: I. Lipót.

Preceded by:
Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Emperor
Also King of Germany

1658-1705
Succeeded by:
Joseph I
Archduke of Austria, Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola
1657-1705
King of Hungary
1657-1705
King of Croatia and Slavonia
1657-1705
King of Bohemia
1657-1705
Preceded by:
Imre Thököly
Prince of Transylvania
1691-1705
Preceded by:
Archduke Sigismund Francis of Austria
Ruler of Tyrol and Further Austria
1665-1705

Julia Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... // The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Count Imre Thököly de Késmárk (Thököly/Tököly/Tökölli Imre in Hungarian; Imrich Tököli in Slovak; Emericq Thököly according to his most frequent signature) (1657-1705), statesman, leader of an anti-Habsburg uprising, prince of Transylvania. ... What about Gelu, Glad, Menumorut, you hungarian maggot? Read more before writing here! This is a list of Transylvanian rulers The Great Principality of Transylvania was disolved 1867 and his territory incorporated in the Hungarian Part (Transleithania) of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918). ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Further Austria (born November 27, 1630 in Innsbruck, died June 25, 1665 in Innsbruck) was the ruler of Further Austria including Tyrol from 1662 to 1665. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Crankshaw, Edward. The Habsburgs: Portrait of a Dynasty. New York: The Viking Press. 1971.


External links

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Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

 
 

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