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Encyclopedia > Leopard
Leopard

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. pardus
Binomial name
Panthera pardus
Linnaeus, 1758

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, which together comrprises the tiger, lion, and jaguar. Leopards that are melanistic, either completely black or very dark in coloration, are one of the big cats known colloquially as black panthers. Mac OS X v10. ... Leopard can refer to: // Leopard, the animal Snow Leopard or Clouded Leopard, big cats distantly related to the leopard Leopard (pattern), the spotting pattern characteristic of Leopards Leopard tank (or Leopard 1), a German main battle tank (1965-) Leopard 2, a modern German main battle tank (1979-), used by the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 695 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leopard in Serengeti, Tanzania I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links Leopard_distribution. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... “Feline” redirects here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Big cat refers to the medium-to-large wild felids of The Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Melanism is an increased amount of black or nearly black pigmentation (as of skin, feathers, or hair) of an individual or kind of organism. ... A melanistic leopard, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ...


Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa, from Korea to South Africa and Spain, it has disappeared from much of its former range and now chiefly occurs in subsaharan Africa. There are fragmented populations in Israel, Indochina, Malaysia, and western China. Despite the loss of range and continued population declines, the cat remains a least-concern species;[1] its numbers are greater than that of the other Panthera species, all of which face more acute conservation concerns. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ...


The species' success owes in part to its opportunistic hunting behaviour and its adaptability to a variety of habitats. The leopard consumes virtually any animal it can catch and ranges from rainforest to desert. Its ecological role resembles that of the similarly-sized cougar in the Americas. Physically, the spotted cat most closely resembles the jaguar, although it is of lighter build. The leopard and jaguar may have shared ancestry, though the leopard might be more closely related to the lion. A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions, and if a heterotroph, has a varied diet. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The cougar (Puma concolor), also puma, mountain lion, or panther, is a mammal of the Felidae family, native to the Americas. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Contents

Name

In Antiquity, it was believed that a leopard was a hybrid between a lion and a panther, as is reflected in its name, a Greek compound word derived from λέων léon ("lion") and πάρδος párdos ("male panther"), the latter related to Sanskrit पृदाकु pṝdāku ("snake, tiger, panther").[2][3] Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article is about a biological term. ... A melanistic leopard, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


A panther can be any of several species of large felid; in North America, the term refers to cougars, in South America, jaguars, and elsewhere, leopards. Early naturalists distinguished between leopards and panthers not by colour (a common misconception), but by the length of the tail—panthers having longer tails than leopards. Subfamilies Felinae Pantherinae Acinonychinae Machairodontinae (extinct) All cats are members of the family Felidae. ... North American redirects here. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The cougar (Puma concolor), also puma, mountain lion, or panther, is a mammal of the Felidae family, native to the Americas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ...


Felis pardus was one of the many species described in Linnaeus's 18th-century work, Systema Naturae.[4] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ...


The generic component of its modern scientific designation, Panthera pardus, is derived from Latin via Greek πάνθηρ pánthēr. A folk etymology held that it was a compound of παν pan ("all") and θηρ ("beast"). However, it is believed instead to derive from an Indo-Iranian word meaning "whitish-yellow, pale"; in Sanskrit, this word's reflex was पाण्डर pāṇḍara, from which was derived पुण्डरीक puṇḍárīka ("tiger", among other things), then borrowed into Greek.[5][6][7] Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Physical characteristics

The leopard is an agile and graceful predator. Although smaller than the other members of Panthera, the leopard is still able to take large prey given a massive skull that well utilizes powerful jaw muscles.[8] Its body is comparatively long for a cat and its legs are short.[9] Head and body length is between 90 and 190 cm (35 and 75 in), the tail reaches 60 to 110 cm (24 to 43 in). Shoulder height is 45 to 80 cm (18-31 in). Males are considerably larger than females and weigh 37 to 90 kg (81 to 198 lbs) compared to 28 to 60 kg (62 to 132 lbs) for females.[10]


One of many spotted cats, a leopard may be mistaken for a cheetah or a jaguar. The leopard has rosettes rather than cheetah's simple spots, but they lack internal spots, unlike the jaguar. The leopard is larger and less lanky than the cheetah but smaller than the jaguar. The leopard's black, irregular rosettes serve as camouflage. They are circular in East Africa but tend to be square-shaped in southern Africa.[9] A jaguar with prominent rosettes A rosette is a rose-like marking or formation which is found in clusters and patches on the fur of leopards, jaguars, and other big cats. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Leopards have been reported to reach 21 years of age in captivity.[11]


Black leopards

Main article: Black panther

A melanistic morph of the leopard occurs particularly in mountainous areas and rain forests. The black color is heritable and caused by only one recessive gene locus.[12] In some regions, for example on the Malayan Peninsula, up to half of all leopards are black. This may be a beneficial mutation that helps them survive in their rainforest habitat. In Africa, black leopards seem to be most common in the Ethiopian Highlands. While they are commonly called black panthers, the term is not applied exclusively to leopards, as it also applies to melanistic jaguars. Black leopards are less successful on the African plains because their coloration makes them stand out. While known as panthers, there are no known cases of melanistic cougars.[13] A melanistic leopard, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ... Melanism is an increased amount of black or nearly black pigmentation (as of skin, feathers, or hair) of an individual or kind of organism. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary Black nationalist organization in the United States that formed in the late 1960s and grew to national prominence before falling apart due to factional rivalries stirred up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Melanism is an increased amount of black or nearly black pigmentation (as of skin, feathers, or hair) of an individual or kind of organism. ...


Distribution and habitat

Leopards live mainly in grasslands, woodlands and riverside forests. Data from 1996 found the leopard to have the largest distribution of any wild cat,[8] although populations before and since have shown a declining trend and are fragmented outside of subsaharan Africa. The IUCN notes that within subsaharan Africa the species is "still numerous and even thriving in marginal habitats" where other large cats have disappeared, but that populations in North Africa may be extinct. In Asia, data on distribution are mixed: populations in Southwest and Central Asia are small and fragmented; in the northeast portion of the range, they are critically endangered; and in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and China, the cat is still relatively abundant.[1]


Biology and behavior

Traditionally stealthy animals, leopards are known for their ability to move undetected and silently. They are also agile climbers, and swim strongly as well.

Female leopard. Note the ocelli (white spots on the back of the ears) used for communication with cubs when hunting in long grass

They are mainly nocturnal but can be seen at any time of day and will even hunt during daytime on overcast days. In regions where they are hunted, nocturnal behaviour is more common. These cats are solitary, avoiding one another. However, three or four are sometimes seen together. Hearing and eyesight are the strongest of these cats' senses and are extremely acute. Olfaction is relied upon as well, but not for hunting. When making a threat, leopards stretch their backs, depress their ribcages between their shoulder blades so they stick out, and lower their heads (similar to domestic cats). During the day they may lie in bush, on rocks, or in a tree with their tails hanging below the treetops and giving them away. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 3888 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 3888 pixel, file size: 4. ... Eyespots on a peafowl. ...


Diet and hunting

Leopards are opportunistic hunters. Although mid-sized animals are preferred, the leopard will eat anything from dung beetles to 900 kg (1,984 lb) male giant elands.[8] Their diet consists mostly of ungulates and monkeys, but rodents, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish are also eaten;[14] in total, they hunt about 90 different species of animals. A solitary dog is a potential prey for leopards, although a pack of dogs can kill or drive off a leopard. Even large pythons are potential prey for leopards. There have been numerous sightings of leopards killing and eating large African Rock pythons. In Africa, mid-sized antelopes provide a majority of the leopard's prey, especially impala and Thomson's gazelles.[15] In Asia the leopard preys on deer such as chitals and muntjacs as well as various Asian antelopes and Ibex. Leopards have also been spotted killing and eating creatures as large as crocodiles. Genera not a complete list Agestrata Augosoma Canthon Chrysina Chalcosoma Chelorrhina Cheirolasia Cheirotonus Cotinis Dynastes Eudicella Goliathus Megsoma Onthophagus Pachnoda Phanaeus Plusiotis Ranzania Rhomborrhina Stephanorrhina Xylotrupes The scarab is a type of beetle noted for rolling dung into spherical balls and pushing it, as well as its habit of laying... A Giant Eland Binomial name Taurotragus derbianus Gray, 1847 The Giant Eland (Taurotragus derbianus also known as the Derby Eland) is an open forest savannah antelope. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Günther, 1884 Male Thompsons gazelle. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) The chital (or cheetal) deer, also known as the spotted deer or axis deer is a deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, and most of India. ... Species See text. ... Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibirica Capra walie An ibex, also called steinbock, is a type of wild mountain goat with large recurved horns that are transversely ridged in front. ...


The leopard stalks its prey silently and at the last minute pounces on its prey and strangles its throat with a quick bite. Leopards often hide their kills in dense vegetation or take them up trees,[15] and are capable of carrying animals up to three times their own weight this way.


One survey of nearly 30 research papers found preferred prey weights of 10 to 40 kg (22-88 lb), with 25 kg (55 lb) most preferred. Along with impala and chital, a preference for bushbuck and common duiker was found. Other prey selection factors include a preference for prey in small herds, in dense habitat, and those that afford the predator a low risk of injury.[16] KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus scriptus Pallas, 1766 The Bushbuck (Traelaphus scriptus) is an antelope that is found in forest and woodland throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Sylvicapra grimmia (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Duiker. ...

Anatolian leopard resting on a tree
Anatolian leopard resting on a tree

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Panthera pardus tulliana photographed by researcher Curt Kosswig in 1938 Trinomial name Panthera pardus tulliana The Anatolian Leopard, Panthera pardus tulliana, is a subspecies of leopard. ...

Reproduction

A male may follow a female who catches his attention. Eventually, a fight for reproductive rights may take place. Depending on the region, leopards may mate all year round (Asia and Africa) or seasonally during January to February (Manchuria and Siberia). The estrous cycle lasts about 46 days and the female usually is in heat for 6–7 days.[17] Cubs are usually born in a litter of 2–3, but infant mortality is high and mothers are not commonly seen with more than 1–2 cubs. The pregnant females find a cave, crevice among boulders, hollow tree, or thicket to give birth and make a den. Cubs open their eyes after a period of 10 days. The fur of the young tends to be longer and thicker than that of adults. Their pelage is also more gray in color with less defined spots. Around three months the infants begin to follow the mother out on hunts. At one year of age leopard young can probably fend for themselves but they remain with the mother for 18–24 months. The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ...


Social structure and home range

Studies of leopard home range size have tended to focus on protected areas, which may have led to skewed data; as of the mid-1980s, only 13% of the leopard range actually fell within a protected area.[18] In their IUCN survey of the literature, Nowell and Jackson suggest male home territories vary between 30-78 square kilometers, but just 15-16 km² for females.[8] Research in a conservation area in Kenya shows similar territory sizes and sex differential: 32.8 km² ranges for males, on average, and 14 km² for females.[19] In Nepal, somewhat larger male ranges have been found at about 48 km², while female ranges are in-keeping with other research, at 17 km²; female home territories were seen to decrease to just five to seven km² when young cubs were present, while the sexual difference in range size seemed to be in positive proportion to overall increase.[20] However, significant variations in size of home territories have been suggested across the leopard's range. In Namibia, for instance, research that focussed on spatial ecology in farmlands outside of protected areas found ranges that were consistently above 100 km², with some more than 300 km²; admitting that their data were at odds with others', the researchers also suggested little or no sexual variation in the size of territories.[18] Virtually all sources suggest that males do have larger ranges. There seems to be little or no overlap in territory amongst males, although overlap exists between the sexes; one radio-collar analysis in the Ivory Coast found a female home range completely enclosed within a male's.[21] Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...


The leopard is solitary and, aside from mating, interactions between individuals appear to be infrequent.[21] Aggressive encounters have been observed, however. Two of five males studied over a period of a year at a game reserve in South Africa died, both violently. One was initially wounded in a male-male territorial battle over a carcass; taken in by researchers, it was released after a successful convalescence only to be killed by a different male a few months later. A second was killed by another predator, possibly a spotted hyena. A third of the five was badly wounded in intraspecific fighting, but recovered.[22] Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. ...


Interspecific predatory relationships

Because of their wide habitat range, leopards must compete for food and safety with other large predators such as lions, tigers, spotted hyenas and wild dogs. These competitors sometimes may steal the leopard's kill or devour its young. A single lion or tiger is capable of killing an adult leopard. Leopards have adapted to live alongside these other predators by hunting at different times of the day, and by avoiding areas frequented by them. In search of safety, the leopard will often stash its young or a recent kill high up in a tree. Lions are occasionally successful in climbing trees and fetching leopard kills, and if motivated, an adult tiger might also scale a tree to acquire food.[23] For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ...


Taxonomy

Subspecies

Indian leopard

It was once suggested that there may be as many as 30 extant subspecies of the leopard, but modern taxonomic analyses have demonstrated that only eight or nine subspecies classifications are valid.[24][25] Image File history File links Panther. ... Image File history File links Panther. ...

Sri Lankan leopard
Female leopard in the Sabi Sands area of South Africa. Note the white spot on its tail, used for communicating with cubs while hunting or in long grass

Other subspecies classified under old taxonomic divisions: Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... The Indian Leopard is a subspecies of Leopard found in much of the Indian peninsula, Burma, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Nepal. ... The North China leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) is a subspecies of leopards native to northern China and Korea. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus kotiya The Sri Lanka leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya), also known as the Ceylonese leopard or Kotiya is a subspecies of leopard native to Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus orientalis Schlegel, 1857 Synonyms Panthera pardus amurensis Amur Leopard at the Philadelphia Zoo The critically endangered Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis or Panthera pardus amurensis) is possibly the rarest subspecies of leopard in the world with estimates of between 25 to 34 known individuals remaining in... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927 The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), or Iranian leopard is one of the subspecies of leopards thats native to western Asia, The Persian leopard is endangered through out its distribution area in the Middle East. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927 The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), or Iranian leopard is one of the subspecies of leopards thats native to western Asia. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus nimr (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) The Arabian leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) is a smaller subspecies of leopard than that of its cousins in Asia and Africa. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 3888 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by [Lee R. Berger|Lee Berger]. Female leopard hunting in the Sabi Sands, South Africa. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 3888 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by [Lee R. Berger|Lee Berger]. Female leopard hunting in the Sabi Sands, South Africa. ...


Today usually included in the African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus):

  • Barbary leopard (Panthera pardus panthera)
  • Cape leopard (Panthera pardus melanotica)
  • Central African leopard (Panthera pardus shortridgei)
  • Congo leopard (Panthera pardus ituriensis)
  • East African leopard (Panthera pardus suahelica)
  • Eritrean leopard (Panthera pardus antinorii)
  • Somalian leopard (Panthera pardus nanopardus)
  • Ugandan leopard ((Panthera pardus chui)
  • West African leopard (Panthera pardus reichinowi)
  • West African forest leopard (Panthera pardus leopardus)
  • Zanzibar leopard (Panthera pardus adersi)

Today usually included in the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor): Trinomial name Panthera pardus panthera (Schreber, 1777) The Barbary Leopard, Panthera pardus panthera, which inhabits the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa, closely resembles the familiar East African leopard. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus adersi (Pocock, 1932) The Zanzibar Leopard (Panthera pardus adersi) is an elusive and possibly extinct subspecies of leopard endemic to Unguja Island in the Zanzibar archipelago, part of Tanzania. ...

  • Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana)
  • Baluchistan leopard (Panthera pardus sindica)
  • Caucasus leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica)
  • Central Persian leopard (Panthera pardus dathei)
  • Sinai leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi)

Today usually included in the Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) Panthera pardus tulliana photographed by researcher Curt Kosswig in 1938 Trinomial name Panthera pardus tulliana The Anatolian Leopard, Panthera pardus tulliana, is a subspecies of leopard. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus jarvisi Pocock, 1932 The Sinai Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) also known as the Judean Desert Leopard is/was a subspecies of leopard. ...

  • Kashmir leopard (Panthera pardus millardi)
  • Nepal leopard (Panthera pardus pernigra)

Prehistoric extinct subspecies

  • European leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi) (†)

Variant coloration

A melanistic leopard, or "black panther".
A melanistic leopard, or "black panther".

A pseudo-melanistic leopard has a normal background colour, but its excessive markings have coalesced so that its back seems to be entirely black. In some specimens, the area of solid black extends down the flanks and limbs; only a few lateral streaks of golden-brown indicate the presence of normal background colour. Any spots on the flanks and limbs that have not merged into the mass of swirls and stripes are unusually small and discrete, rather than forming rosettes. The face and underparts are paler and dappled like those of ordinary spotted leopards. Image File history File links BlackLeopard. ... Image File history File links BlackLeopard. ...


In a paper about panthers and ounces of Asia, Reginald Innes Pocock used a photo of a leopard skin from southern India; it had large black-rimmed blotches, each containing a number of dots and it resembled the pattern of a jaguar or clouded leopard. Another of Pocock's leopard skins from southern India had the normal rosettes broken up and fused and so much additional pigment that the animal looked like a black leopard streaked and speckled with yellow. Reginald Innes Pocock sucks!!! Partial bibliography Reginald I. Pocock (1902) Reginald Innes Pocock (1902) Reginald Innes Pocock (1900) The Fauna of British India (including Ceylon and Burma). ...


Most other colour morphs of leopards are known only from paintings or museum specimens. There have been very rare examples where the spots of a normal black leopard have coalesced to give a jet black leopard with no visible markings. Pseudo-melanism (abundism) occurs in leopards. The spots are more densely packed than normal and merge to largely obscure the background colour. They may form swirls and, in some places, solid black areas. Unlike a true black leopard the tawny background colour is visible in places. One pseudo-melanistic leopard had a tawny orange coat with coalescing rosettes and spots, but white belly with normal black spots (like a black-and-tan dog).


A 1910 description of a pseudo-melanistic leopard:

There is, however, a peculiar dark phase in South Africa, a specimen of which was obtained in 1885 in hilly land covered with scrub-jungle, near Grahamstown. The ground-colour of this animal was a rich tawny, with an orange tinge; but the spots, instead of being of the usual rosette-like form, were nearly all small and solid, like those on the head of an ordinary leopard; while from the top of the head to near the root of the tail the spots became almost confluent, producing the appearance of a broad streak of black running down the back. A second skin had the black area embracing nearly the whole of the back and flanks, without showing any trace of the spots, while in those portions of the skin where the latter remained they were of the same form as in the first specimen. Two other specimens are known; the whole four having been obtained from the Albany district. These dark-coloured South African leopards differ from the black leopards of the northern and eastern parts of Africa and Asia in that while in the latter the rosette-like spots are always retained and clearly visible, in the former the rosettes are lost – as, indeed, is to a considerable extent often the case in ordinary African leopards – and all trace of spots disappears from the blacker portions of the skin.

Lydekker, R. (1910), Harmsworth Natural History

Another pseudo-melanistic leopard skin was described in 1915 by Holdridge Ozro Collins who had purchased it in 1912. It had been killed in Malabar, India that same year.

The wide black portion, which glistens like the sheen of silk velvet, extends from the top of the head to the extremity of the tail entirely free from any white or tawny hairs … In the tiger, the stripes are black, of a uniform character, upon a tawny background, and they run in parallel lines from the centre of the back to the belly. In this skin, the stripes are almost golden yellow, without the uniformity and parallelism of the tiger characteristics, and they extend along the sides in labyrinthine graceful curls and circles, several inches below the wide shimmering black continuous course of the back. The extreme edges around the legs and belly are white and spotted like the skin of a leopard … The skin is larger than that of a leopard but smaller than that of a full grown tiger.

Collins, Holdridge Ozro (1915)

In May 1936, the British Natural History Museum exhibited the mounted skin of an unusual Somali leopard. The pelt was richly decorated with an intricate pattern of swirling stripes, blotches, curls and fine-line traceries. This is different from a spotted leopard, but similar to a king cheetah hence the modern cryptozoology term king leopard. Between 1885 and 1934, six pseudo-melanistic leopards were recorded in the Albany and Grahamstown districts of South Africa. This indicated a mutation in the local leopard population. Other king leopards have been recorded from Malabar in southwestern India. Shooting for trophies may have wiped out these populations. The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... The King Cheetah is a rare mutation of cheetah characterized by a different pelt pattern. ... Cryptozoology (from Greek: κρυπτός, kryptós, hidden; ζῷον, zôon, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge or study – zoology) is the search for animals hypothesized to exist, but for which conclusive proof is missing. ...


Hybrids

Main article: Pumapard
Pumapard, Rothschild Museum, Tring
Pumapard, Rothschild Museum, Tring

A pumapard is a hybrid animal resulting from a union between a leopard and a puma. Three sets of these hybrids were bred in the late 1890s and early 1900s by Carl Hagenbeck at his animal park in Hamburg, Germany. Most did not reach adulthood. One of these was purchased in 1898 by Berlin Zoo. A similar hybrid in Berlin Zoo purchased from Hagenbeck was a cross between a male leopard and a female puma. Hamburg Zoo's specimen was the reverse pairing, the one in the black and white photo, fathered by a puma bred to an Indian leopardess. Whether born to a female puma mated to a male leopard, or to a male puma mated to a female leopard, pumapards inherit a form of dwarfism. Those reported grew to only half the size of the parents. They have a puma-like long body (proportional to the limbs, but nevertheless shorter than either parent), but short legs. The coat is variously described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, chestnut or "faded" rosettes. Pumapard, c. ... Species P. concolor P. yagouaroundi Puma is a Felidae genus that contains the Cougar (also known as the Puma, among other names) and the Jaguarundi. ... Carl Hagenbeck Carl Hagenbeck (1844-1913) was a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Leopards and humans

Dionysus and a panther. Crater. The Louvre c. 370 BC
Dionysus and a panther. Crater. The Louvre c. 370 BC

Leopards have been known to humans since antiquity and have featured in the art, mythology and folklore of many countries where they have occurred historically, such as Ancient Greece, Persia and Rome, as well as some where they haven't such as England. The modern use of the leopard as an emblem for sport or coat of arms is much more restricted to Africa, though numerous products worldwide have used the name. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Leopards and humans have many relations, involving tourism, heraldry and modern culture. Leopeard domestication has also been recorded - several leopards were kept in a menagerie established by King John at the Tower of London in the 13th century; around 1235 three animals were given to Henry III by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.[26] This article is about the King of England. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ...

A female leopard in the Sabi Sands of South Africa illustrating just how close tourists can get to these wild cats.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leopard walking next to game vehicle. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leopard walking next to game vehicle. ...

Tourism

Despite its size, this largely nocturnal and arboreal predator is difficult to see in the wild. The best location to see leopards in Africa is in the Sabi Sand Private Game Reserve in South Africa, where leopards are habituated to safari vehicles and are seen on a daily basis at very close range. In Asia, one can see leopards Yala National Park in Sri Lanka, which has one of the world's highest density of wild leopards, but even here sightings are by no means guaranteed because more than half the park is closed off to the public, allowing the animals to thrive. Another good destination for leopard watching is the recently reopened Wilpattu National Park, also in Sri Lanka. In India the leopards are found all over the country and there is maximum man-animal conflict here only as they are spread everywhere.The best places in India can be national parks in Madhya Pradesh and in Uttarakhand. A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... The kinkajou is an arboreal mammal. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Map of Africa 1890 Look up safari in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The beach and a rock outcrop at Yala Yala National Park, in Ruhuna is an important national park on the south east coast of Sri Lanka. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ...

Coat of arms of the German state of Baden-Württemberg
Coat of arms of the German state of Baden-Württemberg

Image File history File links Grosses_Landeswappen_Baden-Wuerttemberg. ... Image File history File links Grosses_Landeswappen_Baden-Wuerttemberg. ...

Heraldry

Main article: Leopard (heraldry)

The lion passant guardant or "leopard" is a frequently used charge in heraldry, most commonly appearing in groups of three. The heraldric leopard lacks spots and sports a mane, making it visually almost identical to the heraldric lion, and the two are often used interchangeably. These traditional lion passant guardants appear in the coat of arms of England and many of its former colonies; more modern naturalistic (leopard-like) depictions appear on the coat of arms of several African nations including Benin, Malawi, Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon which uses a black panther. The leopard is also the unofficial national animal of Germany, replacing the Tiger, which was, along with the eagle, the national animal of Nazi Germany. The leopard tank was a German designed tank which entered service in 1965. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Lion (heraldry). ... In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field on an escutcheon (or shield). ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... The winged lion of Mark the Evangelist for centuries has been the national emblem and landmark of Venice (detail from a painting by Vittore Carpaccio, 1516) The lion is a common charge in heraldry. ... The Coat of Arms of England The Coat of Arms of England is gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed & langued azure The Coat of Arms was introduced by King Richard I of England in the 1190s, apparently as a version of the arms of the Duchy of... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Genera Several, see text. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a German designed and produced main battle tank that first entered service in 1965 and was used as the main battle tank for Germany, several other European countries, Australia, Canada, Brazil and Chile. ...


The Leopard Men

The Leopard men were a West African society that practiced cannibalism during the 1900s. They were centred in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire. The Leopard Society were a West African society that practised cannibalism. ... Cannibal redirects here. ...


Members would dress in leopard skins, waylaying travelers with sharp claw-like weapons in the form of leopards' claws and teeth. The victims' flesh would be cut from their bodies and distributed to members of the society. They held a belief that this ritual cannibalism would strengthen both members of the society as well as their entire tribe.[27]


Man-eating

Although most leopards will tend to avoid humans, people are occasionally targeted as prey. Most healthy leopards prefer wild prey to humans, but cats who are injured, sickly or struggling with a shortage of regular prey often turn to hunting people and may become habituated to it. In the most extreme cases, both in India, a leopard dubbed "the Leopard of Rudraprayag" is claimed to have killed over 125 people and the infamous leopard called "Panar Leopard" killed over 400 after being injured by a poacher and thus being made unable to hunt normal prey. The "Leopard of Rudraprayag" and the "Panar Leopard" were both killed by the famed hunter Jim Corbett. Man-eating leopards are considered bold by feline standards and commonly enter human settlements for prey, more so than their lion and tiger counterparts. Kenneth Anderson, who had first hand experience with many man-eating leopards, described them as far more threatening than tigers; The Leopard of Rudraprayag is claimed to have killed over 125 people before being killed by famed big cat hunter and author Jim Corbett. ... The Panar Leopard allegedly killed 400 after being injured by a poacher and thus unable to hunt normal prey before being killed by famed big cat hunter and author Jim Corbett. ... Jim Corbett, hunter turned conservationist. ... Kenneth Anderson (1910-1974) was an Indian writer and hunter who wrote many books about his adventures in the jungles of South India. ...

Although examples of such animals are comparatively rare, when they do occur they depict the panther [leopard] as an engine of destruction quite equal to his far larger cousin, the tiger. Because of his smaller size he can conceal himself in places impossible to a tiger, his need for water is far less, and in veritable demoniac cunning and daring, coupled with the uncanny sense of self preservation and stealthy disappearance when danger threatens, he has no equal...


Nine Man-Eaters and One Rogue, Chapter II The Spotted Devil of Gummalapur

However because they can subsist on small prey and are less dependent on large prey, leopards are less likely to turn to man-eating than either lions or tigers. However, leopards might be attracted to human settlements by livestock or pets, especially domestic dogs, whom they have a weakness for.


Notes

  1. ^ a b c Cat Specialist Group (2002). Panthera pardus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ "Leopard". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  3. ^ Monier-Williams, Sir Monier; Prof. E. Leumann, Ph.D., Prof. C. Cappeller, Ph.D., et al. "pṝdāku", A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (JPEG), p. 647. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. 
  4. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I., Editio decima, reformata., Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).. 
  5. ^ "Panther". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
  6. ^ Monier-Williams, Sir Monier; Prof. E. Leumann, Ph.D., Prof. C. Cappeller, Ph.D., et al. "pāṇḍara", A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (JPEG), p. 616. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. 
  7. ^ Monier-Williams, Sir Monier; Prof. E. Leumann, Ph.D., Prof. C. Cappeller, Ph.D., et al. "puṇḍárīka", A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (JPEG), p. 631. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. 
  8. ^ a b c d Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. eds. (1996). Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. (see Panthera Pardus, pp. 24 – 29.)
  9. ^ a b Leopard. African Wildlife Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-09-21..
  10. ^ Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  11. ^ Crandall, L (1964). The management of wild animals in captivity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  12. ^ The Black Panther. Retrieved on 3 April 2008.
  13. ^ Black leopard general information. Retrieved on 3 April 2008.
  14. ^ Schaller, p. 290
  15. ^ a b Schaller, p. 291
  16. ^ Hayward, M. W.; Henschel, P.; et al. (October 2006). "Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus)". Journal of Zoology 270 (2): 298-313. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. 
  17. ^ Sadleir R (1966). "Notes on the Reproduction of the larger Felidae", Int. Zoo Yearbook: Vol 6. London: Zool. Soc. London, 184-87. 
  18. ^ a b Marker, L. L.; Dickman, A. J. (March 2005). "Factors affecting leopard (Panthera pardus) spatial ecology, with particular reference to Namibian farmlands". South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35 (2). Retrieved on 2007-09-13. 
  19. ^ Mizutani, F.; Jewell, P. A. (1998). "Home-range and movements of leopards (Panthera pardus) on a livestock ranch in Kenya". Journal of Zoology 244: 269-286. doi:10.1017/S0952836998002118. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. 
  20. ^ Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per (2005). "Spacing and activity patterns of leopards Panthera pardus in the Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal". Wildlife Biology 11: 145–152. doi:[145:SAAPOL2.0.CO;2 10.2981/0909-6396(2005)11[145:SAAPOL]2.0.CO;2]. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. 
  21. ^ a b Jenny, D. (November 1996). "Spatial organization of leopards Panthera pardus in Tai National Park, Ivory Coast: Is rainforest habitat a "tropical haven"?". Journal of Zoology 240 (3): 427-440. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. 
  22. ^ Hunter, Luke; Balme, Guy; et al. (2003). "The landscape ecology of leopards (Panthera pardus) in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A preliminary project report.". Ecological Journal 5: 24-30. Retrieved on 2007-09-16. 
  23. ^ Schaller, p. 293
  24. ^ Olga Uphyrkina et al. (November 2001). Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera pardus. Molecular Ecology, Volume 10, Issue 11, Page 2617. Abstract
  25. ^ Sriyanie Miththapala. (August 1996). Phylogeographic Subspecies Recognition in Leopards (Panthera pardus): Molecular Genetic Variation. Conservation Biology, Volume 10, Issue 4, Page 1115. Abstract
  26. ^ Owen, James (November 3, 2005). Medieval Lion Skulls Reveal Secrets of Tower of London "Zoo". National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  27. ^ The Leopard Society - Africa in the mid 1900s. Retrieved on 3 April 2008.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Allsen, Thomas T. (2006). "Natural History and Cultural History: The Circulation of Hunting Leopards in Eurasia, Seventh-Seventeenth Centuries." In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. Pp. 116-135. ISBN-13: ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN-10: ISBN 0-8248-2884-4
  • Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2005). The Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 42, June 2005. pp. 1-8. (in German).
  • Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) in Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 60, December 2006. pp. 1-10.
  • Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-73639-3. 
  • Leopards and spots on ears and tail [1]
  • DeRuiter, D.J. and Berger, L.R. (2000) Leopards as Taphonomic Agents in dolomitic Caves - Implications for bone Accumulations in the Hominid-bearing Deposits of South Africa. J. Arch. Sci. 27, 665-684.

Professor Lee Rogers Berger, also known as Rod when he was younger, was born in Shawnee Mission Kansas in 1965 but grew up in Georgia in the United States but has lived in South Africa since 1989 and has been a Permanent Resident of South Africa since 1993. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Panthera pardus
Wikispecies has information related to:
  • Pictures and Information on Leopards
  • Leopards at wild-cat.org
  • South African Leopard and Predator Conservation
  • Leopard: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
  • African leopard
  • The Nature Conservatory's Species Profile: Leopard
  • Images and movies of the South Arabian leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) from ARKive
  • Images and movies of the Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) from ARKive
  • Center for Animal Research and Education Providing Sanctuary for over 50 big cats

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Genera Caracal Catopuma Felis Herpailurus Leopardus Leptailurus Lynx Oncifelis Oreailurus Otocolobus Prionailurus Profelis Puma Felinae is a subfamily of the Felidae, the family which contains all true cats. ... Felis is a genus of cats in the family Felidae. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1892 The Chinese Mountain Cat (Felis bieti), also known as the Chinese Desert Cat, is a small wild cat of western China. ... Binomial name Felis chaus Schreber, 1777 The Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), also called the Swamp Lynx (although not closely related to the lynxes), is a small cat with a rather short tail (length 70 cm, plus 30 cm tail). ... Binomial name Otocolobus manul Pallas, 1776 The Pallas Cat (Otocolobus manul, or Felis manul) or Manul is a small wild cat of Central Asia. ... Binomial name Felis nigripes Burchell, 1824 The Black-footed Cat (Felis nigripes) is a small wild cat distributed over South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and marginally into Zimbabwe. ... Binomial name Felis silvestris Schreber, 1775 subspecies See text The Wildcat (Felis silvestris), sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small predator native to Europe, the western part of Asia, and Africa. ... Species Prionailurus bengalensis Prionailurus planiceps Prionailurus rubiginosus Prionailurus viverrinus Prionailurus is the genus of Asian small cats, one of the groupings of wild cats. ... Binomial name Felis bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) The Leopard Cat (Felis bengalensis) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia. ... Trinomial name Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis The Iriomote Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, Felis bengalensis iriomotensis or Mayailurus iriomotensis; Japanese: 西表山猫 Iriomote-yamaneko), is a subspecies of leopard cat that lives exclusively on the Japanese island of Iriomote. ... Binomial name Prionailurus planiceps (Vigors, 1827) The Flat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps, sometimes Felis planiceps or Ictailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Prionailurus rubiginosus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831) The Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus, sometimes Felis rubiginosa) is a small wild cat of southern India and Sri Lanka. ... Binomial name Prionailurus viverrinus or Felis viverrina (Bennett, 1833) The Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus or Felis viverrina) is a medium-sized cat of Asia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The cougar (Puma concolor), also puma, mountain lion, or panther, is a mammal of the Felidae family, native to the Americas. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The cougar (Puma concolor), also puma, mountain lion, or panther, is a mammal of the Felidae family, native to the Americas. ... Binomial name Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809) The Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi) is a medium-sized Central and South American wild cat: length 30 inches (65 cm) with 20 inches (45 cm) of tail. ... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Kerr, 1792 The Canadian Lynx (Lynx canadensis) is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian lynx range The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Bobcat (disambiguation). ... Leopards are cool This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Leopardus braccatus The Pantanal (Leopardus braccatus) is a small feline of Brazil and northern Argentina. ... Colocolo may refer to: Colocolo (tribal chief): Araucanian tribal chief Colo-Colo: A Chilean football team Monito del Monte: A South American marsupial This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Oncifelis geoffroyi (dOrbigny & Gervais, 1844) The Geoffroys cat is probably the most common wild cat in South America. ... Binomial name Oncifelis guigna (Molina, 1782) Kodkod The Kodkod (Oncifelis guigna), also known as Guigna, is the smallest felid in the Americas and is found only in Chile and Argentina. ... Binomial name Oreailurus jacobita Cornalia, 1865 The Andean Cat is also known as the Andean Mountain Cat. ... Binomial name (Desmarest, 1816) The Pampas Cat (Leopardus pajeros) is a small feline from the Pampas area of Argentina and Chile. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Ocelot range The Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), also known as the Painted Leopard, McKenneys Wildcat or Manigordo (in Costa Rica), is a wild cat distributed over South and Central America and Mexico, but has been reported as far north as Texas and in Trinidad, in the... Binomial name Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) The Little Spotted Cat (Leopardus tigrinus, sometimes Oncifelis tigrinus or Felis tigrina) is also known as Oncilla, Tigrillo or Tiger Cat. ... Binomial name (Schinz, 1821) Margay range map Synonyms Felis wiedii The Margay (Leopardus wiedii[3]) is a spotted cat native to Central and South America. ... For the commune in northern France, see Serval, Aisne. ... For the commune in northern France, see Serval, Aisne. ... Binomial name Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) Type species Caracal melanotis Gray, 1843 (= Felis caracal Schreber, 1776) by monotypy Caracal range map Synonyms Felis caracal The Caracal (Caracal caracal), also called Persian Lynx or African Lynx, is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. ... Binomial name Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) Type species Caracal melanotis Gray, 1843 (= Felis caracal Schreber, 1776) by monotypy Caracal range map Synonyms Felis caracal The Caracal (Caracal caracal), also called Persian Lynx or African Lynx, is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. ... Binomial name The African Golden Cat (Profelis aurata) is a medium-sized wild cat distributed over the rainforests of West and Central Africa. ... Binomial name The African Golden Cat (Profelis aurata) is a medium-sized wild cat distributed over the rainforests of West and Central Africa. ... A golden cat is a medium-sized wild cat belonging to either the genus Catopuma or Profelis. ... Binomial name Catopuma badia Gray, 1874 The Bay Cat (Catopuma badia, other genus names in use are Felis, Profelis or Badiofelis) is also known as Bornean Cat or Bornean Bay Cat, since it is endemic to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Catopuma temminckii (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827) The Asian Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii, previously been placed in genera Profelis and Felis), also called the Asiatic Golden Cat and Temmincks Golden Cat, is a medium-sized wild cat (length 90 cm, plus 50 cm tail) weighing from 12 to 16... Binomial name Pardofelis marmorata Martin, 1837 The Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is similar in size to the Domestic Cat, with a longer, more thickly furred tail, an indicator of an arboreal life-style, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. ... Binomial name Pardofelis marmorata Martin, 1837 The Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is similar in size to the Domestic Cat, with a longer, more thickly furred tail, an indicator of an arboreal life-style, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. ... Genera Neofelis Panthera Uncia Pantherinae is a sub-family of the family Felidae which include the genera Panthera, Uncia and Neofelis. ... Binomial name Neofelis nebulosa (Griffith, 1821) The Clouded Leopard, Neofelis nebulosa is a medium-sized cat, 60 to 110 cm long and weighing between 11 and 20 kg. ... Binomial name (Griffith, 1821) Range map Synonyms Felis macrocelis Felis marmota The Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized cat, 55 to 110 cm (2 ft to 3 ft 6 in) long and weighing between 15 and 23 kg (33 to 50 lb). ... Binomial name Neofelis diardi (G. Cuvier, 1823) Range Synonyms Felis diardii Felis macrocelis Felis marmota Neofelis nebulosa diardi Neofelis diardi is a medium-sized wild cat found on Borneo, Sumatra and the Batu Islands in the Malay Archipelago and publicised under the name Bornean Clouded Leopard by the World Wide... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia[3] or Uncia uncia[1]), sometimes known as the Ounce or Sabu, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia. ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia[3] or Uncia uncia[1]), sometimes known as the Ounce or Sabu, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia. ...


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