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Encyclopedia > Leonid Kravchuk
Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992
Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992

Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. He was the first President of Ukraine from early December 1991 to July 1994. Leonid Kravchuk (own picture) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Leonid Kravchuk (own picture) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A monument to St. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The President of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of state and acts in its name. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


Biography

Kravchuk was born in Velyky Zhytyn (now Volyns'ka oblast'), which was part of Poland at the time of his birth, but became part of Ukraine after World War II when he was a child. He joined the Communist Party of Ukraine in 1958 and rose through the ranks of the party and its agitprop department. He became a member of the Ukrainian Politburo in 1989 and the chairman of the Verkhovna Rada in 1990. With the weakening of the Soviet Union, Kravchuk became the effective leader of the republic. He left the Soviet communist party in August 1991 and began to support the Ukrainian independence movement. He officially declared his support for Ukrainian independence after the August 1991 Soviet coup attempt. Later that year, he was elected President of Ukraine in Ukraine's first presidential elections. Volyn Region or Volynia (Волинська область, Volynska oblast in Ukrainian) is the most northwestern administrative district of Ukraine, bordering Belarus to the north and Poland to the west. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... Categories: Politics stubs | Communist parties | Ukrainian politics | Ukrainian political parties ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Agitprop poster by Mayakovsky Agitprop is short for отдел агитации и пропаганды (otdel agitatsii i propagandy), i. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... This article is about the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of state and acts in its name. ...


Kravchuk ran for a second term as President in 1994, but was defeated by his former Prime Minister, Leonid Kuchma. He remains active in Ukrainian politics, serving as a member of Verkhovna Rada and the leader of SDPUo parliamentary group (since 2002). 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister A prime minister may be either: chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Леонід Кучма) (born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994 to January 23, 2005. ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leonid Kravchuk is the author of books dealing with his career and Politics of Ukraine (some of them were translated into English). Shortly after becoming independent in 1991, Ukraine named a parliamentary commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for national minorities. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Kravchuk is married, has children and grandchildren. His hobbies include reading and chess. He is also fond of Moscow patrol dogs. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-05, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Political portrait

Leonid Kravchuk's political creed is avoiding conflicts and straightforward declaration of his position. He is widely considered to be cunning, diplomatic, and cautious. He describes himself as like the man who refused to take an umbrella because he hoped to "slip between the raindrops".


Such diplomacy has helped Kravchuk to retain and strengthen his power over Ukraine during the transition from Soviet rule to independence. He was third in command in Ukraine's CPSU leadership before the fall of Soviet Union even though he didn't belong to the ruling Dnipropetrovs'k group. He avoided inflexible positions towards democratic changes and was a compromise figure for both party conservatives and reformists. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when... Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: Дніпропетровськ, Dnipropetrovsk; Russian: Днепропетро́вск, Dnepropetrovsk, formerly Екатериносла́в, Yekaterinoslav) is Ukraines third largest city with 1. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ...


After becoming president of independent Ukraine, Kravchuk successfully attempted to achieve and strengthen formal sovereignty of the country and develop its relations with the West. He withstood the enormous pressure from Russia and refused to retain the common Armed Forces and currency inside the CIS. Another of his stands has been refusal of nuclear weapons based on Ukrainian territory. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, group of people or oneself. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... CIS is an abbreviation of: Commonwealth of Independent States Canadian Interuniversity Sport Contact Image Sensor CompuServe Information Service Chinese International School Confederacy of Independent Systems (Star Wars) Continuous injection system Communication Information Services Card Information Structure Cisalpino See also uses of the word cis. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Kravchuk's economic policy has often been criticized. He failed to avoid corruption in the privatization of country's industry and promote effective financial decisions. Ukrainian annual inflation rates from 1992 to 1994 reached the world's highest record of 10000%. Millions of loans given by semi-government banks defaulted. This led to delays of many years in salaries for industry workers, teachers etc. The collapse of the Black Sea Steamship Company became the saddest symbol of Kravchuk's era. This global merchant fleet, the largest in the world (based mostly in Odessa), was covertly sold out to foreign companies, mostly for fake debts. Hundreds of sailors who hadn't received their salaries were trapped for years on board their vessels throughout the world. Kravchuk's own son was later accused of taking part in this fraud. Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ... Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... ODESSA (German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen; The Organization of Former SS-Members) was an alleged Nazi-German fugitive network set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers, among whom Martin Bormann and Heinrich Himmler. ...


Shocked by these developments and also by growing tensions with Russia, the voters of industrial and predominantly Russian-speaking southeastern Ukraine supported Kravchuk's main rival, Leonid Kuchma, in the 1994 presidential elections. He won under the slogans of fighting corruption, reconstruction of the economy, and further integration with Russia. Kravchuk's reliance on bureaucratic pressure, support of pro-Western nationalists, and media bias did not serve him well. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Look up Slogan on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A slogan is a memorable phrase used in political or commercial context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. ...


Soon after his defeat in 1994, Leonid Kravchuk joined the powerful business and political group known as Kiev Holding or the Dynamo Group. This group, led by oligarchs Viktor Medvedchuk and Hryhoriy Surkis, is formally organized as the United Social Democratic Party of Ukraine or SDPUo (Ukrainian: Соціал-демократична партія України (об’єднана), СДПУ (о). Despite formal centrist/social-democratic slogans, the party is widely associated with big business, organized crime, corruption, and media bias in favor of President Leonid Kuchma. In 2004, H. Surkis was banned from visiting the United States, due to his alleged involvement in irregularities during the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004. The group also took a strongly pro-Russian and anti-Western stand. Analysts say that TV channels and other media controlled by the group have started a sharp anti-U.S./anti-NATO campaign. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Oligarch may refer to one of the folowing. ... Viktor Medvedchuk (Ukrainian: ) is a Ukrainian politician. ... Politics of Ukraine Politics of Ukraine Political parties in Ukraine Elections in Ukraine: President: 2004 SDPU(o) party emblem Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (United) or SDPU(U)or SDPU(o) (Ukrainian: Sotsial-Demokratychna Partiya Ukrayiny [Obyednana], СОЦІАЛ-ДЕМОКРАТИЧНА ПАРТІЯ УКРАЇНИ (ОБЄДНАНА) or СДПУ(О)), is a Ukrainian political party. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4...


Kravchuk has been highly criticized for remaining one of the leaders of SDPUo, specializing in negotiations and public relations, despite his declared pro-democratic and patriotic position. In November 2004, following the disputed Ukrainian presidential election, he told the media that he was afraid that the resulting crisis would cause the disintegration of the country, intensifying movements for certain regions of Ukraine to join other countries. Public relations is, simply-stated, the art and science of building relationships between an organization and its key audiences. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


See also

Preceded by:
Vladimir Ivashko
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR
1990–1991
Succeeded by:
None
Preceded by:
None
President of Ukraine
1991–1994
Succeeded by:
Leonid Kuchma

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leonid Kravchuk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (843 words)
Kravchuk was born in Velyky Zhytyn (now Volyns'ka oblast'), which was part of Poland at the time of his birth, but became part of Ukraine after World War II when he was a child.
Kravchuk ran for a second term as President in 1994, but was defeated by his former Prime Minister, Leonid Kuchma.
Leonid Kravchuk is the author of books dealing with his career and Politics of Ukraine (some of them were translated into English).
Leonid Kravchuk - definition of Leonid Kravchuk in Encyclopedia (927 words)
Kravchuk was born in Velyky Zhytyn (now Volyns'ka oblast'), which was part of Poland at the time of his birth, but became part of Ukraine after World War II, which occurred when he was a child.
Leonid Kravchuk is an author of few books dealing with his career and Politics of Ukraine (some of them were translated into English).
Kravchuk is being highly critisized for remaining one of the leaders of SDPUo, specializing in negotiations and public relations, despite his declared pro-democratic and patriotic position.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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