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Encyclopedia > Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
Леонид Ильич Брежнев
Leonid Brezhnev

In office
October 14, 1964 – November 10, 1982
Preceded by Nikita Khrushchev
Succeeded by Yuri Andropov

Born December 19, 1906(1906-12-19)
Kamenskoe, Imperial Russia
Died November 10, 1982 (aged 75)
Moscow, Russian SFSR
Nationality Russian/Ukrainian
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Profession Engineer, Civil servant
Religion Atheism

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Il'ič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 6, 1906]November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus political leader of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone other than Joseph Stalin. He was twice Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (head of state), from May 7, 1960 to July 15, 1964 and from June 16, 1977 to November 10, 1982. Leonid Brezhnev or Brezhnev may refer to: Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (1906 – 1982), ruler of the Soviet Union M/S Leonid Brezhnev, a cruiseferry formerly known as M/S Karelya Brezhnev was the name of Naberezhnye Chelny Category: ... Leonid Brezhnev. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Dniprodzerzhynsk (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a city in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Ukraine, and a port on the Dnieper River. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Image File history File links Ru-Leonid Ilich Brezhnev. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Rise to power

Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoe (now Dniprodzerzhyns'k) in Ukraine, to Illya Yakovlevich Brezhnev (ethnically Russian), a steel worker, and his wife Natalia Denisovna (ethnically Ukrainian). He retained specific Ukrainian pronunciation and mannerisms his whole life, and listed his ethnicity as Ukrainian until 1952 (afterwards, evidently, considering himself a Russian)[1]. Like many working class youths in the years after the Russian Revolution of 1917, he received a technical education, at first in land management and then in metallurgy. He graduated from the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum and became an engineer in the iron and steel industries of eastern Ukraine. He joined the Communist Party youth organisation, the Komsomol in 1923 and the Party itself in 1931. Dniprodzerzhynsk ( Ukrainian: Дніпродзержинськ, Dniprodzerzhynsk; Russian: Dneprodzerzhinsk, formerly Kamenskoye) is a city in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Ukraine, a port on the Dnieper river. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... Land management can be defined as the process of managing the use and development of land resources in a sustainable way. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Technicum (Russian: те́хникум) was a Soviet mass-education facility of medium special education category 1 step higher than PTU, but aimed to train low-level industrial managers (foremen, technical supervisors etc. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist Union of Youth. The organisation served as the youth wing of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), the youngest members being fourteen years old, the upper limit for an age...

A 1936 photo of Leonid Brezhnev
A 1936 photo of Leonid Brezhnev

In 1935-36, Brezhnev was drafted for obligatory army service, and after taking courses at a tank school, he served as a political commissar in a tank factory. Later in 1936, he became director of the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum (technical college). In 1936, he was transferred to the regional centre of Dnipropetrovsk and, in 1939, he became Party Secretary in Dnipropetrovsk, in charge of the city's important defense industries. Image File history File links Brezhnev1936. ... Image File history File links Brezhnev1936. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted. ...


Brezhnev belonged to the first generation of Soviet Communists who had no adult memories of Russia before the revolution, and who were too young to have participated in the leadership struggles in the Communist Party which followed Lenin's death in 1924. By the time Brezhnev joined the Party, Joseph Stalin was its undisputed leader, and Brezhnev and many young Communists like him grew up as unquestioning Stalinists. Those who survived Stalin's Great Purge of 1937-39 could gain rapid promotions, since the Purges opened up many positions in the senior and middle ranks of the Party and state. Lenin redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ...

Brezhnev as political commissar in the Great Patriotic War
Brezhnev as political commissar in the Great Patriotic War

In June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union and, like most middle-ranking Party officials, Brezhnev was immediately drafted (his orders are dated June 22). He worked to evacuate Dnipropetrovsk's industries to the east of the Soviet Union before the city fell to the Germans on August 26, and then was assigned as a political commissar. In October, Brezhnev was made deputy head of political administration for the Southern Front, with the rank of Brigade-Commissar. Image File history File links Brezhnev_1942. ... Image File history File links Brezhnev_1942. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ... The Southern Front was one of the Soviet Army fronts during the World War II, cretaed under the command of Army General Ivan Tyulenev. ...


In 1942, when Ukraine was occupied by Germans, Brezhnev was sent to the Caucasus as deputy head of political administration of the Transcaucasian Front. In April 1943, he became head of the Political Department of the 18th Army. Later that year, the 18th Army became part of the 1st Ukrainian Front, as the Red Army regained the initiative and advanced westwards through Ukraine. The Front's senior political commissar was Nikita Khrushchev, who became an important patron of Brezhnev's career. At the end of the war in Europe Brezhnev was chief political commissar of the 4th Ukrainian Front which entered Prague after the German surrender. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Transcaucasian Front or Transcaucasus Front (Russian: Закавказский Фронт) was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Southern Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


In August 1946, Brezhnev left the Red Army with the rank of Major General. He had spent the entire war as a commissar rather than a military commander. After working on reconstruction projects in Ukraine he again became First Secretary in Dnipropetrovsk. In 1950, he became a deputy of the Supreme Soviet, the Soviet Union's highest legislative body. Later that year he was appointed Party First Secretary in Soviet Moldavia, which had been annexed from Romania and was being incorporated into the Soviet Union. In 1952, he became a member of the Communist Party's Central Committee and was introduced as a candidate member into the Presidium (formerly the Politburo). Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


Brezhnev and Khrushchev

Brezhnev and Nikita Khrushchev in 1961
Communist Party
of the Soviet Union

Party History
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Vkp1. ... History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was to a significant degree determined by a person who was the head of the party in particular periods of time. ...

Party Organization
Congress
Central Committee
Politburo
Secretariat
Orgburo
Control Committee
Auditing Commission General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Became synonymous with leader of the party under Stalin. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... The Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee was a key body within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy which was usually handled by the Politburo. ... // Existence of Orgburo The Orgburo existed from 1919 to 1952, until the 19th Congress, when the Orgburo was abolished and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat. ... Party Control Committee (PCC) of the CPSU Central Committee (Russian: Komitet Partiynogo Kontrolya) was a supreme disciplinary organ within the hierarchy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Central Auditing Commission (CAC), (Russian: Центральная Контрольная Комиссия (ЦКК), Centralnaya Kontrolnaya Komissiya) was a supervisory organ within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...

Leaders
Vladimir LeninJoseph Stalin
Nikita KhrushchevLeonid Brezhnev
Yuri AndropovKonstantin Chernenko
Mikhail Gorbachev
Lenin redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

Pravda
Komsomol
For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist Union of Youth. The organisation served as the youth wing of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), the youngest members being fourteen years old, the upper limit for an age...

Communism Portal
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Brezhnev met Nikita Khrushchev in 1931, shortly after joining the party. Before long, he became Khrushchev's protégé as he continued his rise through the ranks. He was Party First Secretary of the Moldavian SSR from November 3, 1950 to April 16, 1952. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Stalin died in March 1953, and in the reorganization that followed the Presidium was abolished and a smaller Politburo reconstituted. Although Brezhnev was not made a Politburo member, he was instead appointed head of the Political Directorate of the Army and the Navy, with rank of Lieutenant-General, a very senior position. This was probably due to the new power of his patron Khrushchev, who had succeeded Stalin as Party General Secretary. On May 7, 1955, he was made Party First Secretary of the Kazakh SSR, also an important post. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


In February 1956, Brezhnev was recalled to Moscow, promoted to candidate member of the Politburo and assigned control of the defense industry, the space program, heavy industry, and capital construction. He was now a senior member of Khrushchev's entourage, and, in June 1957, he backed Khrushchev in his struggle with the Stalinist old guard in the Party leadership, the so-called "Anti-Party Group" led by Vyacheslav Molotov, Georgy Malenkov, Lazar Kaganovich as well as Shepilov (Russian - и примкнувший к ним Шепилов). Following the defeat of the old guard, Brezhnev became a full member of the Politburo. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... The Anti-Party Group was an epithet used by Nikita Khrushchev to describe Stalinist members of the Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, led by Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich and Georgy Malenkov, who attempted to depose him as First Secretary of the Party in May 1957. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Georgy (Georgii) Maximilianovich Malenkov (Russian: , his first name then surname pronounced GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF; January 8 [O.S. December 26, 1901] 1902 – January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician, Communist Party leader and close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ... Lazar Kaganovich Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Russian: ) (November 22, 1893–July 25, 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and a close associate of Joseph Stalin. ... Dmitri Shepilov Dmitri Trofimovich Shepilov (Russian: Дмитрий Трофимович Шепилов) (5 November 1905 [O.S. 23 October] – 8 August 1995) was a Soviet politician and foreign minister who joined the abortive plot to oust Nikita Khruschev from power in 1957. ...


In 1959, Brezhnev became Second Secretary of the Central Committee and, in May 1960, was promoted to the post of President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, making him nominal head of state. Although real power resided with Khrushchev as Party Secretary, the presidential post allowed Brezhnev to travel abroad, and he began to develop the taste for expensive western clothes and cars for which he later became notorious. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Президиум Верховного Совета СССР in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental body. ...


Until about 1962, Khrushchev's position as Party leader was secure, but as the leader aged he grew more erratic and his performance undermined the confidence of his fellow leaders. The Soviet Union's mounting economic problems also increased the pressure on Khrushchev's leadership. Outwardly, Brezhnev remained conspicuously loyal to Khrushchev, but, in 1963, he became involved in the plot to remove the leader from power, possibly actually leading the plot by some accounts, like Gennadii Voronov's[2]. Alexey Kosygin, Nikolay Podgorny, Alexander Shelepin and some other high officials were also involved in the plan. In that year Brezhnev succeeded Frol Kozlov, Khrushchev's protege, as Secretary of the Central Committee, making him Khrushchev's likely successor. Alexey Nikolayevich Kosygin (Russian: ) (1904 - December 18, 1980) was a politician and administrator in the Soviet Union. ... Nikolay Viktorovich Podgorny (Никола́й Ви́кторович Подго́рный) (February 18, 1903–January 12, 1983) was a politician and President of the USSR from 1965 to 1977. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Шелепин, 18 August 1918, Voronezh - October 24, 1994) was the head of KGB from December 25, 1958 to November 13, 1961. ... Frol Romanovich Kozlov (Фрол Романович Козлов in Russian) (August 5(18), 1908 - January 30, 1965) was a Soviet statesman, Hero of Socialist Labor (1961). ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ...


On October 14, 1964, while Khrushchev was on holiday, the conspirators struck. Brezhnev and Podgorny appealed to the Central Committee, blaming Khrushchev for economic failures, and accusing him of voluntarism and immodest behavior. Influenced by the Brezhnev allies, Politburo members voted to remove Khrushchev from office. Brezhnev was appointed Party First Secretary; Aleksei Kosygin was appointed Prime Minister, and Mikoyan became head of state (In 1965 Mikoyan retired and was succeeded by Podgorny). is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Voluntarism (lat. ... Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин) (1904 - December 18, 1980) was a politician and administrator in the Soviet Union. ...


Party leader

Richard Nixon and Brezhnev meeting at the White House, June 19, 1973
Richard Nixon and Brezhnev meeting at the White House, June 19, 1973
Gerald Ford and Brezhnev meeting in Vladivostok, November, 1974
Gerald Ford and Brezhnev meeting in Vladivostok, November, 1974

During the Khrushchev years Brezhnev had supported the leader's denunciations of Stalin's arbitrary rule, the rehabilitation of many of the victims of Stalin's purges, and the cautious liberalization of Soviet intellectual and cultural policy. But as soon as he became leader, Brezhnev began to reverse this process, and developed an increasingly conservative and regressive attitude. In a May 1965 speech commemorating the 20th anniversary of defeat of Germany, Brezhnev mentioned Stalin positively for the first time. In April 1966, he took the title General Secretary, which had been Stalin's title until 1952. The trial of the writers Yuri Daniel and Andrei Sinyavsky in 1966—the first such trials since Stalin's day—marked the reversion to a repressive cultural policy. Under Yuri Andropov the state security service (the KGB) regained much of the power it had enjoyed under Stalin, although there was no return to the purges of the 1930s and 1940s. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1248x964, 369 KB) Summary Description: Gerald Ford and Leonid Brezhnev meeting in Vladivistok, November, 1974. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1248x964, 369 KB) Summary Description: Gerald Ford and Leonid Brezhnev meeting in Vladivistok, November, 1974. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Yuri Daniel was a Russian writer who often criticised commmunism. ... Andrei Sinyavsky Andrei Donatovich Sinyavsky (Russian language: Андрей Донатович Синявский) (1925 - 1997) was a Russian writer, dissident, gulag survivor, emigrant, Professor of Sorbonne University, magazine founder and publisher. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


The first crisis of Brezhnev's regime came in 1968, with the attempt by the Communist leadership in Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubček, to liberalize the Communist system (see Prague Spring). In July, Brezhnev publicly criticized the Czech leadership as "revisionist" and "anti-Soviet" and, in August, he orchestrated the Warsaw Pact, invasion of Czechoslovakia, and the removal of the Dubček leadership. The invasion led to public protests by dissidents in the Soviet Union. Brezhnev's assertion that the Soviet Union had the right to interfere in the internal affairs of its satellites to "safeguard socialism" became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine, although it was really a restatement of existing Soviet policy, as Khrushchev had shown in Hungary in 1956. Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Chinese poster from the first stage of the Cultural Revolution, reading: Down with the Soviet revisionists in large print, and Crush the dog head of Leonid Brezhnev and Alexey Kosygin at the bottom, 1967 The term revisionism is also used to refer to other concepts. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... For the Pearl Jam song, see Dissident (song). ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it...


Under Brezhnev, relations with China continued to deteriorate, following the Sino-Soviet split which had broken out in the early 1960s. In 1965, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai visited Moscow for discussions, but there was no resolution of the conflict. In 1969, Soviet and Chinese troops fought a series of clashes along their border on the Ussuri River. Brezhnev also continued Soviet support for North Vietnam in the Vietnam War. On January 22, 1969, a Soviet Army officer, Viktor Ilyin, tried to assassinate Brezhnev. The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... The Ussuri River (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Russian: река Уссури; Manchu: Usuri ula) is a river in the east of Northeast China and south of the Russian Far East. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Viktor Ilyin (b. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ...


The thawing of Sino-American relations beginning in 1971, however, marked a new phase in international relations. To prevent the formation of an anti-Soviet U.S.-China alliance, Brezhnev opened a new round of negotiations with the U.S. In May 1972, President Richard Nixon visited Moscow, and the two leaders signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), marking the beginning of the "détente" era. The Paris Peace Accords of January 1973 officially ended the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, removing a major obstacle to Soviet-U.S. relations. In May, Brezhnev visited West Germany, and, in June, he made a state visit to the U.S. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nixon redirects here. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ...


The high point of the Brezhnev "detente" era was the signing of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, which recognized the postwar frontiers in eastern and central Europe and, in effect, legitimized Soviet hegemony over the region. In exchange, the Soviet Union agreed that "participating States will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion." But these undertakings were never honoured, and political opposition to the detente process mounted in the U.S. as optimistic rhetoric about the "relaxation of tensions" was not matched by any internal liberalisation in the Soviet Union or its satellites. The issue of the right to emigrate for Soviet Jews became an increasing irritant in Soviet relations with the U.S. A summit between Brezhnev and President Gerald Ford in Vladivostok in November 1974 failed to resolve these issues. (See Jackson-Vanik amendment) The Helsinki Accords is the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe held in Helsinki in 1975 between the United States and Canada, the Soviet Union and the countries of Europe, including Turkey but not Albania. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... According to the 1974 Trade act, the Jackson-Vanik amendment, named for its major co-sponsors, Sen. ...

Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford are signing joint communiqué on the SALT treaty in Vladivostok
Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford are signing joint communiqué on the SALT treaty in Vladivostok

In the 1970s, the Soviet Union reached the peak of its political and strategic power in relation to the U.S. The SALT I treaty effectively established parity in nuclear weapons between the two superpowers, the Helsinki Treaty legitimised Soviet hegemony over eastern Europe, and the U.S. defeat in Vietnam and the Watergate scandal weakened the prestige of the U.S. Under Admiral Sergei Gorshkov the Soviet Union also became a global naval power for the first time. The Soviet Union extended its diplomatic and political influence in the Middle East and Africa, and, through its proxy Cuba, successfully intervened militarily in the 1975 civil war in Angola and the 1977-78 Ethiopia-Somalia War. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (3527 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (3527 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Communiqu is the second album by British rock band Dire Straits, released in 1979 (see 1979 in music). ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1969–1972 between the United States and the Soviet Union which resulted in a number of agreements relating to the offensive nuclear arsenals of the two nations and a reduction of the nuclear arms race. ... Watergate redirects here. ... Sergey Georgyevich Gorshkov (b. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Ogaden War was a conventional conflict between Somalia and Ethiopia in 1977 and 1978 over the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. ...


Meanwhile Brezhnev consolidated his domestic position. In June 1977, he forced the retirement of Podgorny and became once again Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, making this position equivalent to that of an executive president. Although Kosygin remained as Prime Minister until shortly before his death in 1980, Brezhnev was clearly dominant in the leadership from 1977 onwards. In May 1976, he made himself a Marshal of the Soviet Union, the first "political Marshal" since the Stalin era. Since Brezhnev had never held a military command, this step aroused resentment among professional officers, but their power and prestige under Brezhnev's regime ensured their continuing support. It was also during this time when his health showed signs of decline. The Presidium or Praesidium (from Latin praesidium meaning protection or defense so plural presidia or praesidia) is the name for the executive committee of various legislative and organizational bodies. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ...


Stagnation of the economy

Main article: Brezhnev stagnation

Both Soviet power internationally and Brezhnev's power domestically rested on a Soviet economy. The economy, however, was becoming stagnant, slowing down around 1970.[citation needed] There were two causes for this. First, the Soviet economy, despite Stalin's industrialization, was still heavily dependent on agriculture.[citation needed] Stalin's collectivization of agriculture had effectively destroyed the independent peasantry of the country, and agricultural productivity remained low despite massive state investment.[citation needed] Soviet agriculture increasingly could not feed the urban population, let alone provide for the rising standard of living which the regime promised as the fruits of "mature socialism", and on which industrial productivity depended. Additionally, Soviet industrial production and production of consumer goods stagnated and failed to keep pace with the demands placed upon it.[citation needed] Period of stagnation (Russian: , translitrated zastoy), also known as Brezhnevian Stagnation, the Stagnation Period, or the Era of Stagnation, or the Period of Stagnation (), refers to a period of socio-economic slowdown in the history of the Soviet Union that started when Leonid Brezhnevs become chairman of the Communist... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


These factors combined and reinforced each other through the second half of the 1970s. The enormous expenditure on the armed forces and on prestige projects such as the space program or Baikal Amur Mainline, aggravated by the need to import food grains at high market prices, reduced the scope for investment in industrial modernization or improving standards of living. Public housing and the state health and education systems stagnated,[citation needed]reducing morale and productivity among the urban population. The response was a huge "informal economy" (see Black Market) to provide a market for limited consumer goods and services. This, along with unsolved problem of corruption among regional officials, decreased Brezhnev's popular support during his reign. Several high regional officials were put under trial on corruption issues as soon as Yuri Andropov succeeded Brezhnev. Baikal-Amur Magistral in green; Trans-Siberian line in red The Baikal-Amur Mainline (Russian Байкало-Амурская Магистраль, Baikalo-Amurskaya Magistral’, BAM) is a railway line in Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just...

Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II treaty, 18 June 1979, in Vienna
Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II treaty, 18 June 1979, in Vienna

President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 16, 1979, in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Bill Fitz-Patrick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 16, 1979, in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Bill Fitz-Patrick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

Last years

The last years of Brezhnev's rule were marked by a growing personality cult, reaching a peak at his 70th birthday in December 1976. He was well known for his love affairs with medals. The final count stands at 114. In 1976, for his birthday he was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union (the highest order of the Soviet Union, notably given to heroes who sacrificed their lives, which came with the order of Lenin and the Gold Star). Brezhnev received the award three more times, once again in celebration of his birthdays. Brezhnev also received the Order of Victory, the highest Soviet military award, in 1978, becoming the only recipient receiving the order after the end of the World War II. Brezhnev's award was however revoked posthumously in 1989 for not meeting the requirements for the award. Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... The Order of Lenin (Russian: Орден Ленина, Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest national order of the Soviet Union. ... The Gold Star is the highest decoration of excellence in the Soviet Union and Russia. ... The Order of Victory The Order of Victory (Russian: Орден Победы) was the highest military decoration in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


This slew of military awards was justified by his participation in the little-known WWII episode, when a group of Soviet marines beat off a German attempt to land on the Black Sea coast at Malaya Zemlya. Brezhnev's book on the subject was compulsory study in every Soviet school; it is now believed that the book was written by some of his "court writers". At the urging of Brezhnev, the Malaya Zemlya episode was tremendously hyped up: a movie was filmed, featuring a song by Aleksandra Pakhmutova. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Malaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Aleksandra Nikolayevna Pakhmutova (Russian: ; born November 9, 1929) has remained one of the best known figures in Russian popular music since she first achieved fame in her homeland in the 1960s. ...


Unlike the cult of Stalin, however, the Brezhnev cult was widely seen as hollow and cynical[citation needed], and, in the absence of the purge, could command neither respect nor fear, resulting in a lack of reception and apathy[citation needed]. How much of this Brezhnev was aware of is unclear, since he often occupied himself with international summitry (such as the SALT II treaty, signed with Jimmy Carter in June 1979), and frequently overlooked important domestic matters. These were left to his subordinates, some of whom, like his agriculture chief Mikhail Gorbachev, became increasingly convinced that fundamental reform was needed. There was, however, no plotting in the leadership against Brezhnev, and he was allowed to grow increasingly feeble and isolated in power as his health declined. His declining health was rarely — if ever — mentioned in the Soviet newspapers, but it was practically evident at his public appearances. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... nSALT II was a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1972-1979 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Among Brezhnev's legacy to his successors was the December 1979 decision to intervene in Afghanistan, where a communist regime was struggling with the US-sponsored Muslim radicals and other forces to hold power. This decision was not taken by the Politburo, but by Brezhnev's inner circle at an informal meeting. It led to the sudden end of the detente era, with the imposition of a grain embargo by the U.S. In March 1982, Brezhnev suffered a stroke, and, thereafter, increasingly struggled to retain control. Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan al-Qaeda supported by[1] United States United Kingdom Pakistan Saudi Arabia Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80... For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ...


Death and legacy

By the mid-1970s "one of his closest companions was a KGB nurse, who fed him a steady stream of pills without consulting his doctors" [3]. He had developed narcotic dependence on sleeping pill nembutal[4] and died of a heart attack on November 10, 1982. He was honoured with one of the largest and most impressive funerals in the world. A four-day period of nationwide mourning was announced. His body was placed in an open coffin in House of Trade Unions in Moscow. Inside the hall, mourners shuffled up a marble staircase beneath chandeliers draped in black gauze. On the stage, amid a veritable garden of flowers, a complete symphony orchestra in black tailcoats played classical music. Brezhnev's embalmed body, dressed in a black suit, white shirt and black-and-red tie, laid in an open coffin banked with carnations, red roses and tulips, faced the long queue of mourners. At the right side of the hall, in the front row of seats reserved for the dead leader's family, his wife Viktoria, sat alongside with her their two children, Galina and Yuri. This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Pentobarbital is a barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... Binomial name L. The carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... [[Media:Example. ...


Then, on November 15, the day of the funeral, classes in schools and universities were cancelled and all roads into Moscow were closed. The ceremony was broadcast on every television channel. The coffin was taken by an armoured vehicle to Red Square. As the coffin reached to the middle of the Red Square it was taken out of the carriage it was placed on, and with its lid removed, it was placed on a red-draped bier facing the Lenin Mausoleum. At the top of the Lenin Mausoleum lavish eulogies were delivered by General Secretary Andropov, Defense Minister Dmitriy Ustinov, Academy of Sciences President Anatoli Alexandrov and a factory worker. Then, the politburo members went down from the mausoleum and the most important of them: Andropov, Chernenko and Gromyko on the left and by Premier Nikolai Tikhonov, Defense Minister Dimitry Ustinov and Moscow party boss Grishin on the right, carried the open coffin to another bier behind the mausoleum, in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. At exactly 12:45 p.m Brezhnev's coffin was lowered to the grave as foghorns blared, joining with sirens, wheezing factory whistles and rolling gunfire in a mournful cacophony. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... LID is an abbreviation for: Light-Weight Identity, a system that allows individuals to claim and own their digital identity on the Internet League for Industrial Democracy Library Interchange Definition This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A bier from Grendon church A bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes made of other materials, used to carry a corpse for burial in a funeral procession. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum, also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place of Vladimir Lenin. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum, also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place of Vladimir Lenin. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Russian: ) (October 17, 1908–December 20, 1984) was Defense Minister of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov (1903 - 1994) was a Russian engineer. ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов), (June 2 (O.S.) = June 15 (N.S.), 1914 - February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just sixteen months later. ... Chernenko Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Константи́н Усти́нович Черне́нко) (September 24, 1911 - March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU who led the Soviet Union from February 13, 1984 until his death just eleven months later. ... Andrei Gromyko Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 18 (July 5, Old Style), 1909 – July 2, 1989) was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... Nikolai Aleksandrovich Tikhonov (ru: Николай Александрович Тихонов ) (Kharkiv, May 14, 1905 – Moscow, June 1, 1997) was the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (or Premier of the Soviet Union) from 1980 to 1985. ... Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Russian: ) (October 17, 1908–December 20, 1984) was Defense Minister of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death. ... Viktor Vasilyevich Grishin (Ви́ктор Васи́льевич Гри́шин) (1914?-May 25, 1992) was a Soviet communist and member of the Politburo. ... A bier from Grendon church A bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes made of other materials, used to carry a corpse for burial in a funeral procession. ... Kremlin Wall Necropolis The Kremlin Wall Necropolis (Некрополь у Кремлёвской стены in Russian) is a part of the Kremlin Wall, which surrounds the Moscow Kremlin and overlooks the Red Square. ...


Following Brezhnev's death, the Volga River valley city of Naberezhnye Chelny was renamed "Brezhnev" in his honor.[5] In less than five years, however, the original name was restored. An outlying area of Moscow, the Cherry Tree District (Cheryomushky Rayon), was returned to its former name, as was Red Guards Square. [6]. Naberezhnye Chelny (Russian: ; Tatar: ; lit. ...


Brezhnev presided over the Soviet Union for longer than any man except Stalin. He is criticized for a prolonged era of stagnation called the 'Brezhnev Stagnation', in which fundamental economic problems were ignored and the Soviet political system was allowed to decline. Intervention in Afghanistan, which was one of the major decisions of his career, also significantly undermined both international standing and internal strength of the Soviet Union. In Brezhnev's defense, it may be said that the Soviet Union reached unprecedented and never-repeated levels of power, prestige, and internal calm under his rule. A research by VTsIOM showed that most of the Russian people would like to live during Brezhnev's era rather than any other period of Russian history during the 20th century[7]. Furthermore, unlike his predecessor Khrushchev, he was a skillful negotiator on the diplomatic stage. The task of attempting to reform that system following his rule would be left to wait three years later to the reformist Gorbachev. Period of stagnation (Russian: , translitrated zastoy), also known as Brezhnevian Stagnation, the Stagnation Period, or the Era of Stagnation, or the Period of Stagnation (), refers to a period of socio-economic slowdown in the history of the Soviet Union that started when Leonid Brezhnevs become chairman of the Communist... All-Russia Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) Founding of VTsIOM Yuri Levada The founding and development of the agency was intertwined with the career of its founder, Yuri Levada-- the first professor to teach sociology at Moscow State University. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

An image on the Berlin Wall of Leonid Brezhnev and Erich Honecker making out. The words at the top read "God! Help me stay alive" and continue at the bottom "Among this mortal love"
Commemorative plaque of Brezhnev, donated to the Haus am Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin, Germany
Commemorative plaque of Brezhnev, donated to the Haus am Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin, Germany


Brezhnev lived in 26 Kutuzovsky Prospekt, Moscow. He also lived during vacations in his Gosdacha in Zavidovo. He was married to Viktoria Petrovna (1912-1995). Her final four years she lived virtually alone, abandoned by everybody. She had suffered for a long time from diabetes and was nearly blind in her last years. He had a daughter, Galina Brezhneva (officially, a press agent) (1929-1998), and a son, Yuri (born 1933) (a trade official). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self Shot in Berlin Germany in 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self Shot in Berlin Germany in 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the television series, see Making Out. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 2402 KB) Summary A photograph I took in the summer of 2005 of a plaque of Brezhnev donated to the Haus am Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin, Germany by the Russian Federation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 2402 KB) Summary A photograph I took in the summer of 2005 of a plaque of Brezhnev donated to the Haus am Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin, Germany by the Russian Federation. ... Kutuzovsky Prospekt with the triumphal arch Kutuzovsky Prospekt, (russian: Кутузовский Проспект), is a major thoroughfare in Moscow, Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Zavidovo (Russian: ) is a village (selo) in Konakovsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ Игор Сюндюков, "Застій" та його українські творці
  2. ^ Gennadii Vornov, "Ot ottepeli do zastoya", Izvestiya 18. November, 1988, p. 3.
  3. ^ Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin (2000). The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-14-028487-7. page 266
  4. ^ Russian: Валерий Болдин, Виктор Голиков Генсек Брежнев Газета «Завтра», 48(471), 26.11.2002
  5. ^ Geoffrey Blainey, A Short History of the Twentieth Century, Penguin Books Australia Ltd., Vic., 2006.
  6. ^ "World Notes", TIME Magazine, January 18, 1988
  7. ^ Rosbalt. Best leaders:Brezhnev and Putin

Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is a British historian and professor with a special interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Professor Geoffrey Blainey AC (born 11 March 1930), is one of Australias most significant historians. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ...

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Leonid Brezhnev (1212 words)
Leonid Brezhnev nåede op til Sovjetunionens øverste magtsfærer allerede i 1952, da han blev medlem af såvel Centralkomiteen som partiets Politbureau.
Som nybagt maskiningeniør søgte han i sommeren 1931 om medlemskab i kommunistpartiet i den ukrainske Sovjetrepublik.
Da blev Brezhnev igen hentet frem fra glemslen og placeret i partiledernes første række.
Leonid Brezhnev, 1906-1982 (862 words)
Leonid Ilich Brezhnev, was born at Kamenskoye, Ukraine.
When Stalin died (March 1953), Brezhnev lost his posts on the Central Committee and in the Politburo and had to accept the position of deputy head of the political department of the Ministry of Defense with the rank of lieutenant general.
Brezhnev was soon promoted to first secretary of the Kazakstan Communist Party (1955), and in 1956 he was reelected to his posts on the CPSU Central Committee and in the Politburo.
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