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Encyclopedia > Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci

Self-portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515.[1]
Birth name Leonardo di Ser Piero
Born April 15, 1452(1452-04-15)

Flag of Italy Anchiano, Florence, Italy
Image File history File links Crystal_128_clock. ... Da Vinci may refer to: Leonardo da Vinci, an Italian Renaissance man. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Anchiano is 3 km (2 miles) from Vinci, Italy. ... The Province of Florence (Italian: ) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy, with an area of 3,514 sq. ...

Died May 2, 1519 (aged 67)
Flag of France Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, France
Nationality Italian
Field Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences
Movement High Renaissance
Famous works Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Vitruvian Man

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (pronunciation ), April 15, 1452May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician and writer. Born near Vinci in the region of Florence, the illegitimate son of a notary, Messer Piero, and a peasant girl, Caterina, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan where several of his major works were created. He also worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, spending his final years in France at the home given him by King François I. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Amboise is a medieval town and a commune of France, in the Indre-et-Loire département, on the banks of the Loire River, 14 miles east of Tours. ... Indre-et-Loire is a département in west-central France named after the Indre and the Loire rivers. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ... The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... Image File history File links It-Leonardo_di_ser_Piero_da_Vinci. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1435 births | 1488 deaths | Italian painters | Italian sculptors ... Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Francis I of France - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the "Renaissance man" or universal genius, a man whose seemingly infinite curiosity was equalled only by his powers of invention.[2] He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.[3] For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Renaissance Man (disambiguation). ... Universal Genius is a term used by the Hypatia Society [1] for a person with extraordinary mastery in several different areas of human endeavor as shown through works and accomplishments. Examples Gottfried Leibniz Leonardo da Vinci Galileo Galilei Alexander von Humboldt Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Isaac Newton See also Hypatia... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ...


It is primarily as a painter that Leonardo was and is renowned. Two of his works, the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper occupy unique positions as the most famous, most reproduced and most parodied portrait and religious painting of all time, their fame approached only by Michelangelo's Creation of Adam.[2] Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also iconic. Perhaps fifteen paintings survive, the small number due to his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination.[4] Nevertheless these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, comprise a contribution to later generations of artists only rivalled by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo. Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ... The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Categories: Art stubs | Paintings ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


As an engineer, Leonardo conceived ideas vastly ahead of his own time, conceptualising a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator, and the double hull, and outlining a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or even feasible during his lifetime,[5] but some of his smaller inventions such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire entered the world of manufacturing unheralded.[6] As a scientist, he greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics. For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... A double hull is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat further into the ship, perhaps... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life, 1452–1466

Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452, at Anchiano, a hamlet near the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno River in the territory of Florence. He was the illegitimate son of Ser Piero da Vinci, a Florentine notary, and Caterina, a peasant. Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense, "da Vinci" simply meaning "of Vinci": his full birth name was "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci", meaning "Leonardo, son of (Mes)ser Piero from Vinci." Little is known about his early life, which has been the subject of historical conjecture by Vasari and others.[7][8] At the age of five, he went to live in the household of his father, grandparents and uncle, Francesco, in the small town of Vinci, where his father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera, who loved Leonardo but unfortunately died young.[9] Anchiano is 3 km (2 miles) from Vinci, Italy. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Vinci is a town and comune of Firenze province in the Italian region of Tuscany, at 26 m (85 ft) above sea level. ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Vinci is a town and comune of Firenze province in the Italian region of Tuscany, at 26 m (85 ft) above sea level. ... Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ...

Leonardo's earliest known drawing, the Arno Valley, 1473 - Uffizi
Leonardo's earliest known drawing, the Arno Valley, 1473 - Uffizi

Leonardo was later to record only two incidents of his childhood. One, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face.[9] The second incident occurred while he was exploring in the mountains. He discovered a cave and recorded his emotions at being, on one hand, terrified that some great monster might lurk there and on the other, driven by curiosity to find out what was inside.[9] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x532, 180 KB) Study of a Tuscan Landscape (c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x532, 180 KB) Study of a Tuscan Landscape (c. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Genera Milvinae Harpagus Ictinia Rostrhamus Haliastur Milvus Lophoictinia Hamirostra Elaninae Elanus Chelictinia Machaerhamphus Gampsonyx Elanoides Kites are raptors with long wings and weak legs which spend a great deal of time soaring. ...


Vasari, the 16th century biographer of Renaissance painters, tells the story of how a local peasant requested that Ser Piero ask his talented son to paint a picture on a round plaque. Leonardo responded with a painting of snakes spitting fire which was so terrifying that Ser Piero sold it to a Florentine art dealer, who sold it to the Duke of Milan. Meanwhile, having made a profit, Ser Piero bought a plaque decorated with a heart pierced by an arrow which he gave to the peasant.[10] Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...


Verrocchio's workshop, 1466–1476

The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475) — Uffizi, by Verrocchio and Leonardo
The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475) — Uffizi, by Verrocchio and Leonardo

In 1466 Leonardo was apprenticed to one of the most successful artists of his day, Andrea di Cione, known as Verrocchio. The workshop of this renowned master was at the centre of the intellectual currents of Florence, assuring the young Leonardo of an education in the humanities. Among the painters apprenticed or associated with the workshop and also to become famous, were Perugino, Botticelli, and Lorenzo di Credi.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2413, 503 KB) Description: Title: de: Taufe Christi Technique: de: Holz Dimensions: de: 177 × 151 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Florenz Current location (gallery): de: Galleria degli Uffizi Other notes: de: In Zusammenrabeit mit Raffael entstanden... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2413, 503 KB) Description: Title: de: Taufe Christi Technique: de: Holz Dimensions: de: 177 × 151 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Florenz Current location (gallery): de: Galleria degli Uffizi Other notes: de: In Zusammenrabeit mit Raffael entstanden... The Baptism of Christ is a painting finished around 1475 by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio and his workshop. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1435 births | 1488 deaths | Italian painters | Italian sculptors ... Christ presenting the Keys to St Peter Fresco, 335 x 550 cm Sistine Chapel, Rome Pietro Perugino (1446-1524), whose family name was properly Vannucci, Italian painter, was born at Città della Pieve in Umbria, and belongs to the Umbrian school of painting. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Florence March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Lorenzo di Credi (1459-1537) was a Florentine painter and sculptor. ...


In a Quattrocento workshop such as Verrocchio's, artists were regarded primarily as craftsmen and only the master such as Verrocchio had social standing. The products of a workshop included decorated tournament shields, painted dowry chests, christening platters, votive plaques, small portraits, and devotional pictures. Major commissions included altarpieces for churches and commemorative statues. The largest commissions were fresco cycles for chapels. As a fourteen-year-old apprentice, Leonardo would have been trained in all the countless skills that were employed in a traditional workshop.[11] Although many craftsmen specialised in tasks such as frame-making, gilding and bronze casting, Leonardo would have been exposed to a vast range of technical skills and had the opportunity to learn drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics and carpentry as well as the obvious artistic skills of drawing, painting, sculpting and modelling.[11] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Annunciation Triptych is an altarpiece, ca. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ...

According to tradition, Leonardo posed for Verrocchio's David. Bargello Museum, Florence.

Although Verrocchio appears to have run an efficient and prolific workshop, most work was done by his employees, and few paintings can be ascertained as coming from his hand. On one of those, according to Vasari, Leonardo collaborated. The painting is the Baptism of Christ. According to Vasari, Leonardo painted the young angel holding Jesus’ robe in a manner that was so far superior to his master's that Verrocchio put down his brush and never painted again.[10] This is probably an exaggeration. On close examination, the painting reveals much that has been painted or touched up over the tempera using the new technique of oil paint. The landscape, the rocks that can be seen through the brown mountain stream and much of the figure of Jesus bears witness to the hand of Leonardo.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (436x994, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leonardo da Vinci ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (436x994, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leonardo da Vinci ... the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello, also known as the Bargello Palace or Palazzo del Popolo (Palace of the People) is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy. ... The baptism of Jesus is an event recounted in the New Testament in which Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ...


The other creation of Verrocchio’s which is pertinent to the young Leonardo is the bronze statue of David, now in the Bargello Museum, which according to tradition is a portrait of the apprentice, Leonardo.[12] If this is the case, then in the figure of David we see Leonardo as a thin muscular boy, quite different to the rounded androgynous figure made by Verrocchio’s teacher, Donatello and with which it is often compared.[13] It is also suggested that the Archangel Michael in Verrocchio's Tobias and the Angel is a portrait of Leonardo.[12] Andrea del Verrochios bronze statue of David was most likely made between 1473 and 1475. ... the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello, also known as the Bargello Palace or Palazzo del Popolo (Palace of the People) is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ...


There are few records from this period of Leonardo's life. One is his earliest known dated work, a drawing done in pen and ink of the Arno valley, drawn on 5 August 1473.[14][15] In 1472, at the age of twenty, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of St Luke, the guild of artists and doctors of medicine,[16] but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate with him.[9] Arno can refer to: the Arno River in Italy Arno Bay, South Australia the singer Arno Hintjens the American cartoonist Peter Arno the German sculptor Arno Breker Madame Arno, Parisian artist and fighter. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Jan Gossaert, , c. ...


Professional life, 1476–1513

The Adoration of the Magi, (1481) — Uffizi, Florence, Italy. This important commission was interrupted when Leonardo went to Milan.
The Adoration of the Magi, (1481) — Uffizi, Florence, Italy. This important commission was interrupted when Leonardo went to Milan.

It is assumed that Leonardo had his own workshop in Florence between 1476 and 1481. Court records of 1476 show that, with three other young men, he was charged with sodomy,[17] of which charges all were acquitted.[18] From this date there is no record of his work or even his whereabouts until 1478.[19] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x917, 198 KB) Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo da Vinci Date: circa 1481-1482 Technique: Underpainting on panel Dimensions: 97 × 96 (246. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x917, 198 KB) Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo da Vinci Date: circa 1481-1482 Technique: Underpainting on panel Dimensions: 97 × 96 (246. ... The Adoration of the Magi (2007) is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


In 1478 he was commissioned to paint an altarpiece for the Chapel of St Bernard and in 1481 by the Monks at Scopeto for The Adoration of the Magi. In 1482 Leonardo, whom Vasari tells us was a most talented musician, created a silver lyre in the shape of a horse's head. Lorenzo de’ Medici was so impressed with this that he decided to send both the lyre and its maker to Milan, in order to secure peace with Ludovico il Moro, Duke of Milan.[20] At this time Leonardo wrote an often-quoted letter to Ludovico, describing the many marvellous and diverse things that he could achieve in the field of engineering and informing the Lord that he could also paint.[21][15] The Adoration of the Magi (2007) is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ... This page lists rulers of Milan from the 13th century to the present. ...


Between 1482 and 1499, when Louis XII of France occupied Milan, much of Leonardo’s work was in that city. It was here that he was commissioned to paint two of his most famous works, the Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, and The Last Supper for the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.[9] While living in Milan between 1493 and 1495 Leonardo listed a woman called Caterina as among his dependants in his taxation documents. When she died in 1495, the detailed list of expenditure on her funeral suggests that she was his mother rather than a servant girl.[22][9] Louis XII (b. ... The Virgin of the Rocks and Madonna of the Rocks are terms used to describe two different paintings with almost identical compositions. ... The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... S. Maria delle Grazie (), also Madonna delle Grazie (Our Lady of Graces) is the name of very many churches throughout Italy, as for example in Anghiari, Arezzo, Bevagna, Capua, Monteleone dOrvieto, Rome (at least three), S.Anatolia di Narco, Senigallia. ...

Study of horse from Leonardo's journals- Royal Library, Windsor Castle.
Study of horse from Leonardo's journals- Royal Library, Windsor Castle.

For Ludovico, he worked on many different projects which included the preparation of floats and pageants for special occasions, designs for a dome for Milan Cathedral and a model for a huge equestrian monument to Francesco Sforza, Ludovico’s predecessor. Leonardo modelled a huge horse in clay, which became known as the "Gran Cavallo". It surpassed in size the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello’s statue of Gattemelata in Padua and Verrocchio’s Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice. Seventy tons of bronze were set aside for casting it. The monument remained unfinished for several years, which was not in the least unusual for Leonardo. Michelangelo rudely implied that he was unable to cast it.[9] In 1495 the bronze was used for cannons to defend the city from invasion under Charles VIII.[9] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x1074, 128 KB) Description: Study of horse Source: http://gallery. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x1074, 128 KB) Description: Study of horse Source: http://gallery. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... , The Duomo di Milano from the Square. ... Portrait of Francesco Sforza, ca 1460, by Bonifazio Bembo: Sforza insisted on being shown in his worn dirty old campaigning hat. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400-1475), Italian condottiere (soldier of fortune), was born at Bergamo. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


The French returned to invade Milan in 1499 under Louis XII and the invading French used the life-size clay model for the "Gran Cavallo" for target practice. With Ludovico Sforza overthrown, Leonardo, with his assistant Salaino and friend, the mathematician Luca Pacioli, fled Milan for Venice. In Venice he was employed as a military architect and engineer, devising methods to defend the city from naval attack.[9][12] Louis XII (b. ... Painting of Luca Pacioli, attributed to Jacopo de Barbari, 1495 (attribution controversial[1]). Table is filled with geometrical tools: slate, chalk, compass, a dodecahedron model. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Returning to Florence in 1500, he was the guest of the Servite Monastery, then in 1502 entered the services of Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, acting as a military architect and engineer and travelling throughout Italy with his patron.[12] In Forlì he met Caterina Sforza, of whom it is speculated by some that the Mona Lisa may be a portrait. At Cesenatico he designed the port.In Florence, he was part of a committee formed to relocate, against the artist’s will, Michelangelo’s statue of David.[23] Cesare Borgia. ... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, at the nearby comune of Predappio. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ... Cesenatico is a port town of about 20,000 people on the Adriatic coast of Italy. ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ...


In 1506 he returned to Milan, which was in the hands of Maximilian Sforza after Swiss mercenaries had driven out the French. Many of Leonardo’s most prominent pupils or followers in painting either knew or worked with him in Milan,[9] including Bernardino Luini, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio and Marco D'Oggione.[24] However, he did not stay in Milan for long, as his father died in 1504, and in 1507 he was back in Florence trying to sort out problems with his brothers over his fathers estate. By 1508 he was living in his own house in Milan, in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila. [12] Maximilian Sforza was Duke of Milan between the occupations of Louis XII of France in 1500?, and Francis I of France in 1515. ... Swiss mercenaries crossing the Alps (Luzerner Schilling) Swiss mercenaries were soldiers notable for their service in foreign armies, especially the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of the European Enlightenment. ... Bernardino Luini (1482-1532) was an Italian painter. ... Madonna and Child (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest) Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio or Beltraffio (Milan 1466/67[1] — Milan, 1516) was a Lombard painter of the High Renaissance who worked in the studio of Leonardo. ... Marco DOggione was a Milanese painter and a chief pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, whose works he repeatedly copied. ...


Old age

Clos Lucé, in France where Leonardo died in 1519.
Clos Lucé, in France where Leonardo died in 1519.

From September 1513 to 1516, Leonardo lived in the Belvedere in the Vatican in Rome, where Raphael and Michelangelo were both active at the time. [12] In 1515, François I of France retook Milan. Leonardo was commissioned to make a centrepiece (a mechanical lion)[10] for the peace talks between the French king and Pope Leo X in Bologna. In 1516, he entered François' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Lucé[25] next to the king's residence at the royal Chateau Amboise. It was here that he spent the last three years of his life. The King granted Leonardo and his entourage generous pensions: the surviving document lists 1,000 écus for the artist, 400 for Count Francesco Melzi, (his pupil, named as "apprentice"), and 100 for Salaino ("servant").[citation needed] In 1518 Salaino left Leonardo and returned to Milan, where he eventually perished in a duel. [citation needed] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page is about the artist. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Francis I of France - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... The mansion Clos Lucé and garden Clos Lucé is a mansion in Amboise, France, located 500 meters from the Royal Château dAmboise, to which it is connected by an underground passageway. ... The Royal Ch teau at Amboise is a ch teau located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire d partement of the Loire Valley in France. ... The term écu may refer to one of several French coins. ... Count Francesco Melzi was a man suspected of having an affair with Leonardo Da Vinci. ...


Leonardo died at Clos Lucé, France, on May 2, 1519. François I had become a close friend. Vasari records that the King held Leonardo’s head in his arms as he died, although this story, beloved by the French and portrayed by Ingres in a romantic painting, has been shown to be legend rather than fact.[26] Vasari also tells us that in his last days, Leonardo sent for a priest to make his confession and to receive the Holy Sacrament.[10] In accordance to his will, sixty beggars followed his casket. He was buried in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert in the castle of Amboise. Although Melzi was his principal heir and executor, Salaino was not forgotten, receiving half of Leonardo's vineyards.[27] The mansion Clos Lucé and garden Clos Lucé is a mansion in Amboise, France, located 500 meters from the Royal Château dAmboise, to which it is connected by an underground passageway. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Francis I of France - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... The practice of the Roman Catholic Church includes seven sacraments. ... it doesnt exist ...


Some twenty years after Leonardo's death, François was reported by the goldsmith and sculptor Benevenuto Cellini as saying: Benvenuto Cellini (November 1, 1500 _ February 13, 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, painter, sculptor, soldier and musician of the Renaissance. ...

No man ever lived who had learned as much about sculpture, painting, and architecture, but still more that he was a very great philosopher.

[citation needed]

Relationships and influences

Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise, (1425-1452) were a source of communal pride. Many artists assisted in their creation.
Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise, (1425-1452) were a source of communal pride. Many artists assisted in their creation.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 405 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (464 × 687 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 405 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (464 × 687 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Florence — Leonardo's artistic and social background

Leonardo commenced his apprenticeship with Verrocchio in 1466, the year that Verrocchio’s master, the great sculptor Donatello, died. The painter Uccello whose early experiments with perspective were to influence the development of landscape painting, was a very old man. The painters Piero della Francesca and Fra Filippo Lippi, sculptor Luca della Robbia, and architect and writer Alberti were in their sixties. The successful artists of the next generation were Leonardo's teacher Verrocchio, Antonio Pollaiuolo and the portrait sculptor, Mino da Fiesole whose lifelike busts give the most reliable likenesses of Lorenzo Medici's father Piero and uncle Giovanni.[28][29][30] Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Paolo Uccello. ... The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... Madonna and Child 1440-45, tempera on panel National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 - October 8?, 1469), commonly called Lippo Lippi, one of the most renowned painters of the Italian quattrocento, was born in Florence; his father, Tommaso, was a butcher. ... Luca della Robbia (1400-1482) was a Florentine sculptor noted for his terracotta roundels. ... Alberti was an illustrious Florentine family, rivals of the Medicis and the Albizzi. ... Apollo and Daphne by Antonio Pollaiuolo Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mino di Giovanni. ...


Leonardo's youth was spent in a Florence that was ornamented by the works of these artists and by Donatello's contemporaries, Masaccio whose figurative frescoes were imbued with realism and emotion and Ghiberti whose Gates of Paradise, gleaming with gold leaf, displayed the art of combining complex figure compositions with detailed architectural backgrounds. Piero della Francesca had made a detailed study of perspective, and was the first painter to make a scientific study of light. These studies and Alberti's Treatise were to have a profound effect on younger artists and in particular on Leonardo's own observations and artworks.[28][29][30] Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 – autumn 1428), was the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 - December 1, 1455) was an important Renaissance artist, specializing in sculpture and metalworking. ... The Battistero of San Giovanni. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Metal leaf. ... Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ...


Massaccio's depiction of the naked and distraught Adam and Eve leaving the Garden of Eden created a powerfully expressive image of the human form, cast into three dimensions by the use of light and shade which was to be developed in the works of Leonardo in a way that was to be influential in the course of painting. The Humanist influence of Donatello's David can be seen in Leonardo's late paintings, particularly John the Baptist.[28] The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, before and after restoration. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tenebrism. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Leonardo da Vinci. ...

Lorenzo de' Medici between Antonio Pucci and Francesco Sassetti, with Giulio de' Medici, fresco by Ghirlandaio.
Lorenzo de' Medici between Antonio Pucci and Francesco Sassetti, with Giulio de' Medici, fresco by Ghirlandaio.

Leonardo’s political contemporaries were Lorenzo Medici (il Magnifico), who was three years older, and his popular younger brother Giuliano who was slain in the Pazzi Conspiracy in 1478. Ludovico il Moro who ruled Milan between 1479–1499 and to whom Leonardo was sent as ambassador from the Medici court, was also of Leonardo’s age.[28][29] Image File history File links Ghirlandaio_a-pucci-lorenzo-de-medici-f-sassetti_1. ... Image File history File links Ghirlandaio_a-pucci-lorenzo-de-medici-f-sassetti_1. ... Lorenzo de Medici Lorenzo de Medici (Florence, January 1, 1449 – 9 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. ... The Pazzi family were Tuscan nobles who had become bankers in Florence in the 14th century. ... Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...


With Alberti, Leonardo visited the home of the Medici and through them came to know the older Humanist philosophers of whom Marsiglio Ficino, proponent of Neo Platonism and Cristoforo Landino, writer of commentaries on Classical writings, were foremost. Also associated with the Academy of the Medici was Leonardo's contemporary, the brilliant young poet and philosopher Pico della Mirandola.[30][31] Leonardo later wrote in the margin of a journal "The Medici made me and the Medici destroyed me." While it was through the action of Lorenzo that Leonardo was to receive his important Milanese commissions, it is not known exactly what Leonardo meant by this cryptic comment.[9] Marsilio Ficino (also known by his Latin name, Marsilius Ficinus) (Figline Valdarno, October 19, 1433 - Careggi, October 1, 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Cristoforo Landino (1424-24 September 1498) was a humanist and an important figure of the Florentine Renaissance. ... Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (February 24, 1463 – November 17, 1494) was an Italian Renaissance humanist philosopher and scholar. ...


Although usually named together as the three giants of the High Renaissance, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael were not of the same generation. Leonardo was 23 when Michelangelo was born and 31 when Raphael was born. The short-lived Raphael died in 1520, the year after Leonardo, but Michelangelo went on creating for another 45 years.[29][30] The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


Assistants and pupils

Salai as John the Baptist (c. 1514) — Louvre
Salai as John the Baptist (c. 1514) — Louvre

Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno,[32] nicknamed Salai or il Salaino ("The little devil), was described by Giorgio Vasari as "a graceful and beautiful youth with fine curly hair, in which Leonardo greatly delighted."[10] Il Salaino entered Leonardo's household in 1490 at the age of ten. The relationship was not an easy one. A year later Leonardo made a list of the boy’s misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton." The "Little Devil" had made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions, and spent a fortune on apparel, among which were twenty-four pairs of shoes. Nevertheless, Leonardo’s notebooks during their early years contain many pictures of the handsome, curly-haired adolescent. Il Salaino remained his companion, servant, and assistant for the next thirty years.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2748, 204 KB) Description: Title: de: Hl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2748, 204 KB) Description: Title: de: Hl. ... Leonardo da Vinci. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ...


As a painter, Salaino’s work is generally considered to be of less artistic merit than others among Leonardo's pupils such as Marco d'Oggione and Boltraffio. In 1515 he painted, under the name of Andrea Salai, a nude portrait of "Lisa del Giocondo", based upon the Mona Lisa and known as Monna Vanna.[33] The Mona Lisa was bequeathed to Salaino by Leonardo, and in Salaino's own will it was assessed at the high value of £200,000.[citation needed] Marco DOggione was a Milanese painter and a chief pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, whose works he repeatedly copied. ... Madonna and Child (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest) Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio or Beltraffio (Milan 1466/67[1] — Milan, 1516) was a Lombard painter of the High Renaissance who worked in the studio of Leonardo. ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ...


In 1506, Leonardo took as a pupil Count Francesco Melzi, the fifteen-year-old son of a Lombard aristocrat. Salaino, at first jealous of Melzi, eventually accepted his continued presence and the three undertook journeys throughout Italy. Melzi became Leonardo's life companion, and is considered to have been his favourite student. He travelled to France with Leonardo and was with him until his death.[9] Vertumnus and Pomona (1518/22) by Francesco Melzi Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Francesco Melzi Francesco Melzi (ca. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ...

Study for a portrait of Isabella d'Este (1500) Louvre. Isabella appears to have been his only female friend.
Study for a portrait of Isabella d'Este (1500) Louvre. Isabella appears to have been his only female friend.

From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Isabella dEste painted by Titian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Personal life

Leonardo had many friends who are now renowned in their fields, or for their influence on history. These included the mathematician Luca Pacioli with whom he collaborated on a book in the 1490s and Cesare Borgia, in whose service he spent the years 1502 and 1503. During that time he also met Niccolò Machiavelli, with whom later he was to develop a close friendship. Also among his friends were also Franchinus Gaffurius and Isabella d'Este. Leonardo appears to have had no close relationships with women except for Isabella d'Este. He drew a portrait of her while on a journey which took him through Mantua which appears to have been used to create a painted portrait, now lost.[9] Leonardo da Vinci, (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519), is regarded as the archetypal Renaissance Man. ... Painting of Luca Pacioli, attributed to Jacopo de Barbari, 1495 (attribution controversial[1]). Table is filled with geometrical tools: slate, chalk, compass, a dodecahedron model. ... Cesare Borgia. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Franchinus Gaffurius (January 14, 1451 – June 25, 1522) was an Italian music theorist and composer of the Renaissance. ... Isabella dEste painted by Titian. ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ...


Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret. He commented "the act of procreation and anything that has any relation to it is so disgusting that human beings would soon die out if there were no pretty faces and sensuous dispositions".[34] Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...


Leonardo's most intimate relationships were with his pupils Salai and Melzi, Melzi writing that Leonardo's feelings for him were both loving and passionate. It has been claimed since the 16th century that these relationships were of an erotic nature. Since that date much has been written about his presumed homosexuality and its role in his art, particularly in the androgyny and eroticism manifested in John the Baptist and Bacchus and more explicitly in a number of drawings.[35]


Painting

Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his enormous fame rested on his achievements as a painter and on a handful of works, either authenticated or attributed to him that have been regarded as among the supreme masterpieces ever created.


These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities which have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics. Among the qualities that make Leonardo’s work unique are the innovative techniques that he used in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology, his interest in physiognomy and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition and his use of the subtle gradation of tone. All these qualities come together in his most famous works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper and the Virgin of the Rocks. Physiognomy (Gk. ...


Early works

Annunciation (1475–1480) — Uffizi, is thought to be Leonardo's earliest complete work.
Annunciation (1475–1480) — Uffizi, is thought to be Leonardo's earliest complete work.

Leonardo’s early works begin with the Baptism of Christ painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two other paintings appear to date from his time at the workshop, both of which are Annunciations. One is small, 59 cms long and only 14 cms high. It is a “predella” to go at the base of a larger composition, in this case a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated. The other is a much larger work, 217 cm long. In both these Annunciations, Leonardo has used the very formal arrangement of Fra Angelico’s two well known pictures of the same subject, the Virgin Mary sitting or kneeling to the right of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with rich flowing garment, raised wings and bearing a lily.[36] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1212x521, 149 KB) Annunciation by Leonardo da Vinci Date: circa 1473-1475 Technique: Oil on panel Dimensions: 38. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1212x521, 149 KB) Annunciation by Leonardo da Vinci Date: circa 1473-1475 Technique: Oil on panel Dimensions: 38. ... Annunciation by Leonardo da Vinci, ca 1472-75. ... The Baptism of Christ is a painting finished around 1475 by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio and his workshop. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... Lorenzo di Credi (1459-1537) was a Florentine painter and sculptor. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


In the smaller picture Mary averts her eyes and folds her hands in a gesture that symbolised submission to God’s will. In the larger picture, however, Mary is not in the least submissive. The beautiful girl, interrupted in her reading by this unexpected messenger, puts a finger in her bible to mark the place and raises her hand in greeting. This calm young woman accepts her role as the Mother of God not with resignation but with confidence. In this painting the young Leonardo presents the Humanist face of the Virgin Mary, a woman who recognises humanity’s role in God’s incarnation.[37] Russian Orthodox Icon of the Theotokos Theotokos is a Greek word that means God-bearer or Mother of God. It is a title assigned by the early Christian Church to Mary, the mother of Jesus, at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities...


Paintings of the 1480s

Virgin of the Rocks, National Gallery, London, possibly 1505–1508, demonstrates Leonardo's interest in nature.
Virgin of the Rocks, National Gallery, London, possibly 1505–1508, demonstrates Leonardo's interest in nature.

In the 1480s Leonardo received two very important commissions, and commenced another work which was also of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition. Unfortunately two of the three were never finished and the third took so long that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment. One of these paintings is that of St Jerome in the Wilderness. Although the painting is barely begun the entire composition can be seen and it is very unusual. Jerome, as a penitent, occupies the middle of the picture, set on a slight diagonal and viewed somewhat from above. His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction. Across the foreground sprawls his symbol, a great lion whose body and tail make a double spiral across the base of the picture space. The other remarkable feature is the sketchy landscape of craggy rocks against which the figure is silhouetted.[37] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2534, 247 KB) See also the version present at the Louvre Museum Image:Leonardo da Vinci 029. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2534, 247 KB) See also the version present at the Louvre Museum Image:Leonardo da Vinci 029. ... The Virgin of the Rocks and Madonna of the Rocks are terms used to describe two different paintings with almost identical compositions. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. ... Penance is the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament of Reconciliation/ Confession. ...


The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama were to reappear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi, a commission from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto. It is a very complex composition about 250 cm square. For it Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture which makes part of the backdrop to the scene. But in 1482 Leonardo went off to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de’ Medici in order to win favour with Ludovico il Moro and the painting was abandoned.[36][12] The Adoration of the Magi (2007) is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Lorenzo de Medici Lorenzo de Medici (Florence, January 1, 1449 – 9 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. ... Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ...

Unfinished painting of St. Jerome in the Wilderness, (c.1480), Vatican,
Unfinished painting of St. Jerome in the Wilderness, (c.1480), Vatican,

The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks which was commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception. The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers, was to fill a large complex altarpiece, already constructed.[12] Leonardo chose to paint an apocryphal moment of the infancy of Christ when the Infant John the Baptist, in protection of an angel, met the Holy Family on the road to Egypt. In this scene, as painted by Leonardo, John recognizes and worships Jesus as the Christ. The painting demonstrates an eerie beauty as the graceful figures kneel in adoration around the infant Christ in a wild and rocky landscape of tumbling rock and whirling water.[38] While the painting is quite large, about 200 x 120 cms, it is nowhere as complex as the painting ordered by the monks of St Donato, having only four figures rather than about 50 and a rocky landscape rather than architectural details. The painting was eventually finished; in fact, two versions of the painting were finished, one which remained at the chapel of the Confraternity and the other which Leonardo carried away to France. But the Brothers did not get their painting, or the de Predis their payment, until the next century.[12][15] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2822, 345 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leonardo da Vinci ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2822, 345 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leonardo da Vinci ... The Virgin of the Rocks and Madonna of the Rocks are terms used to describe two different paintings with almost identical compositions. ... St. ...


Paintings of the 1490s

The Last Supper (1498) — Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy. One of Leonardo's most famous works, it has been subject to much recent speculation about its symbolism.

Leonardo's most famous painting of the 1490s is The Last Supper, also painted in Milan. The painting represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death. It shows specifically the moment when Jesus has said “one of you will betray me.” Leonardo tells the story of the consternation that this statement caused to the twelve followers of Jesus.[15] Vasari[10] describes in detail how he worked on it, how some days he would paint like fury, how other days he would spend hours just looking at it, and how he walked the streets of the city looking for the face of Judas, the traitor.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1169x595, 169 KB) The Last Supper The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1169x595, 169 KB) The Last Supper The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ... Santa Maria delle Grazie is a Renaissance church in Milan built by Guiniforte Solari between 1466 and 1490 on a commission by Dominican monks. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ... The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ...


When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterisation.[10] But its artist was also denounced for the fact that it was no sooner finished than it began to fall off the wall. Leonardo, instead of using the reliable technique of fresco, had experimented with different paint-binding agents, which were subject to mold and to flaking. Despite this, the painting has remained one of the most reproduced works of art, countless copies being made in every medium from carpets to cameos.


Paintings of the 1500s

Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503–1505/1507) — Louvre, Paris, France
Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503–1505/1507) — Louvre, Paris, France

Among the works created by Leonardo in the 1500s is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa or “la Gioconda”, the laughing one. The painting is famous, in particular, for the elusive smile on the woman’s face, its mysterious quality brought about perhaps by the fact that the artist has subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called “sfumato” or Leonardo’s smoke. Other characteristics found in this work are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details, the dramatic landscape background in which the world seems to be in a state of flux, the subdued colouring and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils, but laid on much like tempera and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable.[12] Download high resolution version (743x1155, 155 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Leonardo da Vinci Talk:Mona Lisa ... Download high resolution version (743x1155, 155 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Leonardo da Vinci Talk:Mona Lisa ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ... Detail of the face of Mona Lisa showing the use of sfumato, particularly in the shading around the eyes. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ...


In the Virgin and Child with St. Anne the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, and harks back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle. What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely-set figures, superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne. She leans forward to support the Christ Child as he plays (rather roughly) with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice. In the composition of this painting, Leonardo is showing trends which would be adopted in particular by the Venetian painters, Titian and Tintoretto as well as by Andrea del Sarto, Pontormo, and Correggio.[12][37] The Virgin and Child with St Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St Anne, her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... A self portrait. ... Jacopo Carrucci (Pontormo, near Empoli, May 24, 1494 - January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, or simply Pontormo, was a Florentine Mannerist painter and portraitist. ... Correggio is the name of a town in Italy and of a famous painter who was born there. ...


Drawings

Leonardo was not a prolific painter, but he was a most prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi, The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper. His earliest dated drawing is a Landscape of the Arno Valley, 1473, which shows the river, the mountains, Montelupo Castle and the farmlands beyond it in great detail.[39]

Among his famous drawings are the Vitruvian Man, a study of the proportions of the human body, the Head of an Angel, for The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre, a botanical study of Star of Bethlehem and a large drawing (160×100 cm) in black chalk on coloured paper of the The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National Gallery, London. This drawing employs the subtle sfumato technique of shading, in the manner of the Mona Lisa. It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in the Louvre.[39][12] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x842, 118 KB) Leonardo da Vinci File links The following pages link to this file: Cartoon The Virgin and Child with St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x842, 118 KB) Leonardo da Vinci File links The following pages link to this file: Cartoon The Virgin and Child with St. ... The Virgin and Child with St. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... The painting by Leonardo da Vinci The Virgin of the Rocks or The Madonna of the Rocks is a term used to describe one of two different paintings. ... The Virgin and Child with St. ... The Virgin and Child with St Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St Anne, her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus. ...


Other drawings of interest include numerous studies of facial deformities which are frequently referred to as "caricatures", while close examination of the skeletal proportions indicates that the majority are based directly on live models. There are numerous studies of the beautiful young man, Salaino, with his rare and much admired facial feature, the so-called "Grecian profile".[40] He is often depicted in fancy-dress costume. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479 showing the body of Bernado Baroncelli, hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de'Medici, in the Pazzi Conspiracy. With dispassionate integrity Leonardo has registered in neat mirror writing the colours of the robes that Baroncelli was wearing when he died.[39] The Pazzi family were Tuscan nobles who had become bankers in Florence in the 14th century. ...


Leonardo as observer, scientist and inventor

The Vitruvian Man (c.1485) Accademia, Venice
The Vitruvian Man (c.1485) Accademia, Venice
Main article: Leonardo da Vinci - scientist and inventor

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x1250, 147 KB)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x1250, 147 KB)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... Portrait of a young Man with a Book by Lorenzo Lotto (1527) The Accademia is best known now as a museum gallery of pre-1800s art in Venice, Italy. ... Main article: Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the Renaissance Man, displaying skills in many and diverse areas. ...

Journals

Renaissance humanism saw no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are as impressive and innovative as his artistic work, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and natural philosophy (the forerunner of modern science). These notes were made and maintained daily throughout Leonardo's life and travels, as he made continual observations of the world around him.[15] Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ...


The journals are mostly written in mirror-image cursive. The reason may have been more a practical expediency than for reasons of secrecy as is often suggested. Since Leonardo wrote with his left hand, it is probable that it was easier for him to write from right to left.[41]


His notes and drawings display an enormous range of interests and preoccupations, some as mundane as lists of groceries and people who owed him money and some as intriguing as designs for wings and shoes for walking on water. There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirl pools, war machines, helicopters and architecture.[15]

A page from Leonardo's journal showing his study of a foetus in the womb (c.1510) Royal Library, Windsor Castle
A page from Leonardo's journal showing his study of a foetus in the womb (c.1510) Royal Library, Windsor Castle

These notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes, distributed by friends after his death—have found their way into major collections such as the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, the Louvre, the Biblioteca Nacional de España, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, and the Victoria and Albert Museum and British Library in London. The British Library has put a selection from its notebook (BL Arundel MS 263) on the web in the Turning the Pages section.[42] The Codex Leicester is the only major scientific work of Leonardo's in private hands. It is owned by Bill Gates, and is displayed once a year in different cities around the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (567x780, 111 KB) Studies of Embryos by Leonardo da Vinci Date: circa 1510-1513 Technique: Pen over red chalk Dimensions: 12 x 8 (30. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (567x780, 111 KB) Studies of Embryos by Leonardo da Vinci Date: circa 1510-1513 Technique: Pen over red chalk Dimensions: 12 x 8 (30. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... Statue of Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo in the lobby of the Biblioteca Nacional de España The Biblioteca Nacional de España (The National Library of Spain) is a major public library, the largest in Spain. ... Entrance to the Ambrosian Library. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Codex Leicester is a collection of largely scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ...


Leonardo's journals appear to have been intended for publication because many of the sheets have a form and order that would facilitate this. In many cases a single topic, for example, the heart or the human foetus, is covered in detail in both words and pictures, on a single sheet.[43] This method of organisation minimises of loss of data in the case of pages being mixed up or destroyed. Why they were not published within Leonardo's lifetime is unknown.[15]


In January 2005, researchers discovered what some believe to be a hidden laboratory used by Leonardo da Vinci for studies of flight and other pioneering scientific work in previously sealed rooms at a monastery next to the Basilica of the Santissima Annunziata, in the heart of Florence.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hummingbird Female Mallard Duck in midflight A dragonfly in flight Flight is the process by which an object achieves sustained movement either through the air by aerodynamically generating lift or aerostatically using buoyancy, or movement beyond earths atmosphere, in the case of spaceflight. ... Monastery of St. ... Santa Annunziata di Firenze The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata (Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciation) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence and the mother church of the Servite order. ...

Rhombicuboctahedron as published in Pacioli's Divina Proportione.
Rhombicuboctahedron as published in Pacioli's Divina Proportione.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1063, 362 KB) Summary The first ever printed version NOT of the icosidodecahedron, by Leonardo da Vinci as apeared in the Divina Proportione by Luca Pacioli 1509, Venise Correction: This is a rhombicuboctahedron not an icosidodecahedron. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1063, 362 KB) Summary The first ever printed version NOT of the icosidodecahedron, by Leonardo da Vinci as apeared in the Divina Proportione by Luca Pacioli 1509, Venise Correction: This is a rhombicuboctahedron not an icosidodecahedron. ... The rhombicuboctahedron, or small rhombicuboctahedron, is an Archimedean solid with eight triangular and eighteen square faces. ... Painting of Luca Pacioli, attributed to Jacopo de Barbari, 1495 (attribution controversial[1]). Table is filled with geometrical tools: slate, chalk, compass, a dodecahedron model. ...

Scientific studies

Leonardo's approach to science was an observational one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanation. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although he did teach himself Latin. In the 1490s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book Divina Proportione, published in 1509.[15] The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Painting of Luca Pacioli, attributed to Jacopo de Barbari, 1495 (attribution controversial[1]). Table is filled with geometrical tools: slate, chalk, compass, a dodecahedron model. ...


It has also been said that he was planning a series of treatises to be published on a variety of subjects though none survives; it appears he did complete a coherent treatise on anatomy, which was observed during a visit by Cardinal Louis D'Aragon's secretary in 1517.[44] Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Anatomy

Leonardo's formal training in the anatomy of the human body began with his apprenticeship to Andrea del Verrocchio, his teacher insisting that all his pupils learn anatomy. As an artist, he quickly became master of topographic anatomy, drawing many studies of muscles, tendons and other visible anatomical features. Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... Madonna with Sts John the Baptist and Donatus (1475-83), Cathedral of Pistoia. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ...

Anatomical study of the arm, (c.1510)
Anatomical study of the arm, (c.1510)

As a successful artist, he was given permission to dissect human corpses at the hospital Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome. From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre and together they prepared a theoretical work on anatomy for which Leonardo made more than 200 drawings. It was published only in 1680 (161 years after his death) under the heading Treatise on painting.[15][39] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (568x828, 149 KB) Studies of the Arm showing the Movements made by Biceps (c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (568x828, 149 KB) Studies of the Arm showing the Movements made by Biceps (c. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Leonardo drew many studies of the human skeleton and its parts, as well as muscles and sinews, the heart and vascular system, the sex organs, and other internal organs. He made one of the first scientific drawings of a fetus in utero.[39] As an artist, Leonardo closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage. He also drew many models among those who had significant facial deformities or signs of illness.[39][15] A human skeleton The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... “Unborn child” redirects here. ...


He also studied and drew the anatomy of many other animals as well. He dissected cows, birds, monkeys, bears, and frogs, comparing in his drawings their anatomical structure with that of humans. He also made a number of studies of horses.

A design for a flying machine, (c.1488) Institut de France, Paris
A design for a flying machine, (c.1488) Institut de France, Paris

Image File history File links Design_for_a_Flying_Machine. ... Image File history File links Design_for_a_Flying_Machine. ...

Engineering and inventions

Fascinated by the phenomenon of flight, Leonardo produced detailed studies of the flight of birds, and plans for several flying machines, including a helicopter powered by four men (which would not have worked since the body of the craft would have rotated) and a light hang glider which could have flown.[45] On January 3, 1496 he unsuccessfully tested a flying machine he had constructed. A hummingbird Female Mallard Duck in midflight A dragonfly in flight Flight is the process by which an object achieves sustained movement either through the air by aerodynamically generating lift or aerostatically using buoyancy, or movement beyond earths atmosphere, in the case of spaceflight. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During his lifetime Leonardo was valued as an engineer. In a letter to Ludovico il Moro he claimed to be able to create all sorts of machines both for the protection of a city and for siege. When he fled to Venice in 1499 he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack. He also had a scheme for diverting the flow of the Arno River in order to flood Pisa.[9] Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ...


In 1502, Leonardo produced a drawing of a single span 720-foot (240 m) bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II of Istanbul. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosporus known as the Golden Horn. Beyazid did not pursue the project, because he believed that such a construction was impossible. Leonardo's vision was resurrected in 2001 when a smaller bridge based on his design was constructed in Norway. On 17 May 2006, the Turkish government decided to construct Leonardo's bridge to span the Golden Horn.[46] The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Beyazid II Beyazid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Leonardos Golden Horn Bridge is a perfect pressed-bow. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ...


Leonardo the legend

Within Leonardo's own lifetime his fame was such that the King of France carried him away like a trophy, and was claimed to have supported him in his old age and held him in his arms as he died.[47] Vasari, in his "Lives of the Artists" written about thirty years after Leonardo's death, described him as having talents that "transcended nature". Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Giorgio Vasari ...


The interest in Leonardo has never slackened. The crowds still queue to see his most famous artworks, T-shirts bear his most famous drawing and writers, like Vasari, continue to marvel at his genius and speculate about his private life and, particularly, about what one so intelligent actually believed in. T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ...

A statue of Leonardo da Vinci outside the Uffizi, Florence
A statue of Leonardo da Vinci outside the Uffizi, Florence

Giorgio Vasari, in his "Lives of the Artists", in its enlarged edition of 1568[10] introduces his chapter on Leonardo da Vinci with the following words: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1212, 438 KB) Summary Leonardo da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1212, 438 KB) Summary Leonardo da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Giorgio Vasari ...

In the normal course of events many men and women are born with remarkable talents; but occasionally, in a way that transcends nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by Heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such abundance that he leaves other men far behind, all his actions seem inspired and indeed everything he does clearly comes from God rather than from human skill. Everyone acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty, who displayed infinite grace in everything that he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied he solved with ease.

The continued admiration that Leonardo commanded from painters, critics and historians is reflected in many other written tributes. Baldassare Castiglione, author of Il Cortegiano ("The Courtier"), wrote in 1528: "… Another of the greatest painters in this world looks down on this art in which he is unequalled …"[48] while the biographer known as "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote, c. 1540: "His genius was so rare and universal that it can be said that nature worked a miracle on his behalf …"[49] Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... i love orange pekoe tea!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ...


The 19th century brought a particular admiration for Leonardo's genius, causing H. Fuseli to write in 1801: "Such was the dawn of modern art, when Leonardo da Vinci broke forth with a splendour that distanced former excellence: made up of all the elements that constitute the essence of genius …"[50] This is echoed by A. E. Rio who wrote in 1861: "He towered above all other artists through the strength and the nobility of his talents."[51]


By the 19th century, the scope of Leonardo's notebooks was known, as well as his paintings. H. Taine wrote in 1866: "There may not be in the world an example of another genius so universal, so incapable of fulfilment, so full of yearning for the infinite, so naturally refined, so far ahead of his own century and the following centuries."[52]


The famous art historian Bernard Berenson wrote in 1896: "Leonardo is the one artist of whom it may be said with perfect literalness: Nothing that he touched but turned into a thing of eternal beauty. Whether it be the cross section of a skull, the structure of a weed, or a study of muscles, he, with his feeling for line and for light and shade, forever transmuted it into life-communicating values."[53] Bernard Berenson in the garden of his estate Villa I Tatti in 1911 Bernard Berenson (born Bernhard Valvrojenski, June 26, 1865 – October 6, 1959), was an American art historian. ...


The interest in Leonardo's genius has continued unabated; experts study and translate his writings, analyse his paintings using scientific techniques, argue over attributions and search for works which have been recorded but never found.[54] Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, says: "Because of the multiplicity of interests that spurred him to pursue every field of knowledge, … Leonardo can be considered, quite rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. Man is as uncomfortable today, faced with a genius, as he was in the 16th century. Five centuries have passed, yet we still view Leonardo with awe."[9]


List of paintings

The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (c. 1510) — Louvre, Paris, is a masterly figure composition.
The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (c. 1510) — Louvre, Paris, is a masterly figure composition.
The Madonna of the Carnation, (1478–1480) - Alte Pinakothek, Munich
The Madonna of the Carnation, (1478–1480) - Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Leda and the Swan, copy by Cesare Sesto, 1515-1520, Wilton House, England.

None of Leonardo's paintings are signed. Certain works still in existence are cited by Vasari or are referred to in contracts.[55] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2344, 270 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leonardo da Vinci ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2344, 270 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leonardo da Vinci ... The Virgin and Child with St Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St Anne, her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (603x800, 194 KB) Madonna of the carnation The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (603x800, 194 KB) Madonna of the carnation The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100... The Alte Pinakothek (Old Pinakothek) is an art museum situated in the Kunstareal in Munich, Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (894x939, 152 KB) Ginevra The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (894x939, 152 KB) Ginevra The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Ginevra de Benci was a lady of the aristocratic class in 15th century Florence, admired for her intelligence by Florentine contemporaries. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (531x696, 82 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leda and the Swan User:Markaci/Nudity User:Hopiakuta/ ¡¿ &image ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (531x696, 82 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leda and the Swan User:Markaci/Nudity User:Hopiakuta/ ¡¿ &image ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Jones and de Causs South Front and the Palladian Bridge (1736/7), in a view of circa 1820 Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. ...

Entirely by Leonardo[56]
Leonardo with other hands
  • The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475) — Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Cited by Vasari as by Verrocchio, with the angel on the left-hand side by Leonardo.[10] It is generally considered that Leonardo also painted the background landscape and the torso of Christ. One of Leornardo's earliest extant works.[57]
  • Virgin of the Rocks, National Gallery, London, generally accepted as postdating the version in the Louvre, possibly 1505–1508, with collaboration of de Predis and perhaps others.[58]
Accepted attributions
Attribution dependent upon each other

These two paintings are almost certainly by the same artist, generally accepted to be Leonardo, but not without critics. The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ... Santa Maria delle Grazie is a Renaissance church in Milan built by Guiniforte Solari between 1466 and 1490 on a commission by Dominican monks. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Adoration of the Magi (2007) is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... The Virgin and Child with St Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St Anne, her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus. ... The Virgin of the Rocks and Madonna of the Rocks are terms used to describe two different paintings with almost identical compositions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Virgin and Child with St. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Baptism of Christ is a painting finished around 1475 by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio and his workshop. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The Virgin of the Rocks and Madonna of the Rocks are terms used to describe two different paintings with almost identical compositions. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Annunciation by Leonardo da Vinci, ca 1472-75. ... The Benois Madonna Madonna and Child with Flowers, otherwise known as the Benois Madonna, could be one of two Madonnas started by Leonardo da Vinci, as he remarked himself, in October 1478. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Alte Pinakothek (Old Pinakothek) is an art museum situated in the Kunstareal in Munich, Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Leonardo da Vinci. ...

Disputed

Of the following paintings, the first two are cited by Angela Ottino della Chiesa as having more general acceptance than the others. All have been claimed at some time to be Leonardos.[12] Ginevra de Benci was a lady of the aristocratic class in 15th century Florence, admired for her intelligence by Florentine contemporaries. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Lady with an Ermine, Czartoryski Museum, Kraków | title=Lady with an Ermine | artist=Leonardo da Vinci | year=1485 | type=oil on wood panel | height=54 | width=39 | museum=Czartoryski Museum]], Kraków}} The Lady with an Ermine is a 1485 painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Entry to Czartoryski Museum, Kraków, early June 2005 The Czartoryski Museum was founded in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska to preserve Polish heritage in keeping with the Princess motto: The Past to the Future. The first objects in the so-called Temple of Memory were trophies commemorating the victory... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ...

  • La belle Ferronière (1495–1498) — Louvre, Paris, France
  • Portrait of a Musician (c. 1490) — Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy
  • Madonna Litta (1490–91) — Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia, thought perhaps to be by Marco d'Oggiono
  • Madonna of the Yarnwinder 1501, perhaps an assistant's copy or painting from a lost drawing. Stolen.
  • The Dreyfus Madonna, previously attributed to Verrocchio or Lorenzo di Credi. (The anatomy of the Christ Child is so poor as to discourage firm attribution).
  • Bacchus (or St. John in the Wilderness) (1515) — Louvre, Paris, France (attribution disputed) is generally considered to be a pastiche.
Recent attribution
  • The Holy Infants Embracing c. 1486–1490 private collection.[65]
  • Madonna and Child with St Joseph, Borghese Gallery, previously attributed to Fra Bartolomeo. After recent cleaning, the gallery sought attribution as a work of Leonardo's youth, based on the presence of a fingerprint similar to one that appears in The Lady with the Ermine. Result of investigation not available.[66]
  • Mary Magdalene, recently attributed as a Leonardo by Carlo Pedretti. Previously regarded as the work of Giampietrino who painted a number of similar Magdalenes.[67] This attribution is not accepted by other scholars, eg Carlo Bertelli, (former director of the Brera Art Gallery in Milan), who said this painting is not by Leonardo and that the subject could be a Lucretia with the knife removed.[68]
  • Christ Carrying the Cross, date unknown, private collection. Attribution by Carlo Pedretti.[69]
Known only as a copy

La belle Ferronière (Portrait of an Unknown Woman). ... Leonardo da Vinci. ... Entrance to the Ambrosian Library. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Madonna Litta is one of the great paintings by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Pala dei Tre Arcangeli. ... The Madonna of the Yarnwinder (c. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1435 births | 1488 deaths | Italian painters | Italian sculptors ... Lorenzo di Credi (1459-1537) was a Florentine painter and sculptor. ... Bacchus is a painting often said to be by Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. ... Detail of the Holy Children, Jesus and John the Baptist, embracing. ... The Villa Borghese Pinciana (begun 1605) houses the Galleria Borghese. ... The Vision of St. ... Giampietrino, actually Giovanni Pietro Rizzoli, (documented from 1495 to 1549), was an Italian painter of the Lombardic school and the Leonardo circle. ... Christ Carrying the Cross, c. ... Leda and the Swan is a motif from Greek mythology, in which Zeus came to Leda in the form of a swan. ... The Villa Borghese Pinciana (begun 1605) houses the Galleria Borghese. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Jones and de Causs South Front and the Palladian Bridge (1736/7), in a view of circa 1820 Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. ...

See also

Main article: Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the Renaissance Man, displaying skills in many and diverse areas. ... Leonardo da Vinci, the Italian Renaissance artist and genius, has appeared in many fictional works, such as novels, television shows and movies, and various characters have been named after him. ... Leonardo da Vinci, (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519), is regarded as the archetypal Renaissance Man. ... Painting of Luca Pacioli, attributed to Jacopo de Barbari, 1495 (attribution controversial[1]). Table is filled with geometrical tools: slate, chalk, compass, a dodecahedron model. ... Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), also known as Fiumicino International Airport, is Italys largest airport, with over 30 million passengers in the year 2006. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Leonardo da Vinci Art Institute was an Italian art institute located in Cairo, Egypt during World War II. It was named after Leonardo da Vinci. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The following list is an incomplete list of painters. ... Famous Italian painters (in alphabetical order): Francesco Albani,(1578-1660) Mariotto Albertinelli, (1474-1515) Fra Angelico, (1387-1445) Fra Bartolommeo, (1472-1517) Gentile Bellini, (c. ... This is a list of Italians or Italian-speaking/writing people that are famous. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ This drawing in red chalk is widely (though not universally) accepted as an original self-portrait. The main reason for hesitation in accepting it as a portrait of Leonardo is that the subject is apparently of a greater age than Leonardo ever achieved. But it is possible that he drew this picture of himself deliberately aged, specifically for Raphael's portrait of him in the School of Athens.
  2. ^ a b Helen Gardner, Art through the Ages, (1970) Harcourt, Brace and World
  3. ^ Vasari, Boltraffio, Castiglione, "Anonimo" Gaddiano, Berensen, Taine, Fuseli, Rio, Bortolon, etc. See specific quotations under heading "Leonardo, the legend".
  4. ^ There are 15 significant artworks which are ascribed, either in whole or in large part, to Leonardo by most art historians. This number is made up principally of paintings on panel but includes a mural, a large drawing on paper and two works which are in the early stages of preparation. As well as these works there are a number of others that have been variously attributed to Leonardo.
  5. ^ Modern scientific approaches to metallurgy and engineering were only in their infancy during the Renaissance.
  6. ^ A number of Leonardo's most practical inventions are displayed at the Museum of Vinci.
  7. ^ Brigstoke, Hugh (2001). The Oxford Companion the Western Art. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198662033. 
  8. ^ Birth recorded in the diary of his paternal Grandfather, Ser Antonio.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Liana Bortolon, The Life and Times of Leonardo, Paul Hamlyn, London, 1967, ISBN
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, 1568; this edition Penguin Classics, trans. George Bull 1965, ISBN 0-14-044-164-6
  11. ^ a b Andrew Martindale, The Rise of the Artist, Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-5000-56006-4
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Angela Ottino della Chiesa, The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci, 1967, Penguin, ISBN 0-1400-8649-8
  13. ^ See Donatello's David
  14. ^ Now in the Uffizi drawing collection, no. 8P.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, (1997) Konecky & Konecky, ISBN 1 56852 1987
  16. ^ This is deduced from the record of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca is the company's register, Libro Rosso A, 1472-1520, Accademia di Belle Arti. cited by della Chiesa
  17. ^ Homosexual acts were illegal in Florence at the time.
  18. ^ Abbott, Elizabeth (2001), A History of Celibacy, Da Capo Press, pp. 340, ISBN 0306810417.
  19. ^ Priwer, Shana & Cynthia Phillips (2006), The Everything Da Vinci Book: Explore the Life and Times of the Ultimate Renaissance Man, Adams Media, pp. 245, ISBN 1598691015.
  20. ^ Rossi, Paolo (2001). The Birth of Modern Science. Blackwell Publishing, 33. ISBN 0631227113. 
  21. ^ Leonardo's Letter to Ludovico Sforza. Leonardo-history. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  22. ^ Codex II, 95 r, Victoria and Albbert Museum, as cited by della Chiesa
  23. ^ Gaetano Milanesi, Epistolario Buonarroti, Florence (1875). as cited by della Chiesa
  24. ^ D'Oggione made contemporary copies of the Last Supper
  25. ^ Clos Luce, also called "Cloux" is now a public museum
  26. ^ King François cannot have been presen because the day after Leonardo's death, a royal edict was issued by the King at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a two day journey distant from Clos Luce.
  27. ^ Leonardo's will. Leonardo-history. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  28. ^ a b c d Frederich Hartt, A History of Italian Renaissance Art, (1970) Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0500231362
  29. ^ a b c d Gene A. Brucker, Renaissance Florence, 1969, Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0-471-11370-0
  30. ^ a b c d Ilan Rachum, The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia, Octopus, ISBN 0-7064-0857-8
  31. ^ Hugh Ross Williamson,Lorenzo the Magnificent, (1974) Michael joseph, ISBN 07181 12040
  32. ^ Oreno website (Italian). Oreno. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  33. ^ Gross, Tom. Mona Lisa Goes Topless. Paintingsdirect.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  34. ^ Although this comment has been interpreted, by Freud and others as representing a loathing of physical contact, it may simply represent Leonardo's close awareness of human bodily function, reproduction and disease through his dissection of corpses.
  35. ^ Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p.298
  36. ^ a b Luciano Berti, The Uffzi, (1971) Scala
  37. ^ a b c Jack Wasserman, Leonardo da Vinci, 1975 Abrams, ISBN 0-8109-0262-1
  38. ^ The Mysterious Virgin. National Gallery, London. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  39. ^ a b c d e f A.E. Popham, The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, (1946) Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0 224 60462 7
  40. ^ The "Grecian profile" has a continuous straight line from forehead to nose-tip, the bridge of the nose being exceptionally high. It is a feature of many Classical Greek statues.
  41. ^ Left-handed writers using a split nib or quill pen experience difficulty pushing the pen from left to right across the page.
  42. ^ Sketches by Leonardo. Turning the Pages. British Library. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  43. ^ Windsor Castle, Royal Library, sheets RL 19073v-19074v and RL 19102 respectively.
  44. ^ O'Malley & Saunders, Leonardo on the Human Body, 1982, Dover Publications New York
  45. ^ The U.S. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), aired in October 2005, a television programme called "Leonardo's Dream Machines", about the building and successful flight of a glider based on Leonardo's design
  46. ^ Levy, Daniel S.. "Dream of the Master", Time Magazine, 4 October 1999. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  47. ^ see reference to this in section "Old age".
  48. ^ Baldassare Castiglione, Il Cortegiano, 1528
  49. ^ "Anonimo Gaddiani", elaborating on Libro di Antonio Billi, 1537–1542
  50. ^ H. Fuseli, Lectures, II, 1801
  51. ^ A.E.Rio, L'art chrétien, 1861
  52. ^ H. Taine, Voyage en Italie, 1866
  53. ^ Bernard Berenson, The Italian Painters of the Renaissace, 1896
  54. ^ ArtNews article about current studies into Leonardo's life and worksU.S.A
  55. ^ All notes in this section are drawn from the analysis of opinions of various scholars by Angela Ottino della Chiesa, The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci, (1967) Penguin Classics of World Art series, ISBN 0-14-00-8649-8
  56. ^ According to della Chiesa (see above) The authorship of all these paintings and drawings is accepted universally.
  57. ^ Accepted by Guthman, McCurdy, Wasserman and others. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  58. ^ While the date is not universally agreed, the collaboration of workshop is. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  59. ^ The work was traditionally attributed to Verrocchio until 1869. It is now almost universally attributed to Leonardo. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  60. ^ Most critics believ that it coincides with a Madonna mentioned by Leonardo in 1478. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  61. ^ It is generally accepted as a Leonardo, but has some overpainting possibly by a Flemish artist. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  62. ^ "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote that Leonardo panted a St. John. This is generally considered Leonardo's last masterpiece. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  63. ^ Early 20th century scholars were vociferous in their disagreement, but most current critics accept both the authorship and the identity of the sitter. A.O.della Chiesa (see above)
  64. ^ This painting has been subject to continued disagreement since it was first published as a Leonardo in 1889. The attribution of the "Ginevra de' Benci" has supported the attribution of this painting. A.O. della Chiesa (see above)
  65. ^ Details of this attibution not available.
  66. ^ Arie, Sophie. "Fingerprint puts Leonardo in the frame", The Guardian, 16 February 2005. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  67. ^ A lost Leonardo? Top art historian says maybe. Universal Leonardo. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  68. ^ Bertelli, Carlo. "Due allievi non fanno un Leonardo", Il Corriere della Sera, November 19, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. (Italian) 
  69. ^ Stephanie Fitch, Leonardo's Fingerprints, Forbes Magazine, December 22 2003

Self Portrait is a 1970 double album by Bob Dylan. ... The painting School of Athens (italian: La scuola di Atene) its a fresco from Raphael Sanzio that shows renaissance thinkers who are situated with Greek and Roman scholars. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Donatellos David Donatellos bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is notable as the first unsupported standing work in bronze cast since classical times. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... The mansion Clos Lucé and garden The mansion at Clos Lucé, Amboise, France is located 500 meters from the Royal Chateau Amboise and are connected by an underground passageway. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a suggested outline for the article, please amend. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PBS” redirects here. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... i love orange pekoe tea!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... Bernard Berenson in the garden of his estate Villa I Tatti in 1911 Bernard Berenson (born Bernhard Valvrojenski, June 26, 1865 – October 6, 1959), was an American art historian. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Daniel Arasse (1997). Leonardo da Vinci. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1 56852 1987. 
  • Fred Bérence (1965). Léonard de Vinci, L'homme et son oeuvre. Somogy. Dépot légal 4° trimestre 1965. 
  • Liana Bortolon (1967). The Life and Times of Leonardo. Paul Hamlyn, London. 
  • Hugh Brigstoke (2001). The Oxford Companion the Western Art. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198662033. 
  • Gene A. Brucker (1969). Renaissance Florence. Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0 471 11370 0. 
  • Angela Ottino della Chiesa (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. Penguin Classics of World Art series. ISBN 0-14-00-8649-8. 
  • Simona Cremante (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor. Giunti. ISBN 88-09-03891-6 (hardback). 
  • Frederich Hartt (1970). A History of Italian Renaissance Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0500231362. 
  • Michael H. Hart (1992). The 100. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1350-0 (paperback). 
  • John N. Lupia. The Secret Revealed: How to Look at Italian Renaissance Painting. Medieval and Renaissance Times, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer, 1994): 6–17. ISSN 1075-2110. 
  • Andrew Martindale (1972). The Rise of the Artist. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-5000-56006. 
  • O'Malley & Saunders (1982). Leonardo on the Human Body. Dover Publications, New York. 
  • Charles Nicholl (2005). Leonardo da Vinci, The Flights of the mind. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-029681-6. 
  • Sherwin B. Nuland (2001). Leonardo Da Vinci. Phoenix Press. ISBN 0-7538-1269. 
  • A.E. Popham (1946). The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0 224 60462 7. 
  • Shana Priwer & Cynthia Phillips (2006). The Everything Da Vinci Book: Explore the Life and Times of the Ultimate Renaissance Man. Adams Media. ISBN 1598691015. 
  • Ilan Rachum (1979). The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia. Octopus. ISBN 0-7064-0857-8. 
  • Jean Paul Richter (1970). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Dover. ISBN 0-486-22572-0 and ISBN 0-486-22573-9 (paperback).  2 volumes. A reprint of the original 1883 edition.
  • Paolo Rossi (2001). The Birth of Modern Science. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631227113. 
  • Jack Wasserman (1975). Leonardo da Vinci. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-0262-1. 
  • Giorgio Vasari (1568). Lives of the Artists. Penguin Classics, trans. George Bull 1965. ISBN 0-14-044-164-6. 
  • Frank Zollner & Johannes Nathan (2003). Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-1734-1 (hardback). 

The cover of the 1992 edition. ... Jean Paul Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – November 14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ...

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Persondata
NAME Leonardo da Vinci
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Italian artist and polymath
DATE OF BIRTH April 15, 1452(1452-04-15)
PLACE OF BIRTH Anchiano by Vinci, Italy
DATE OF DEATH May 2, 1519
PLACE OF DEATH Clos Lucé, France

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Anchiano is 3 km (2 miles) from Vinci, Italy. ... Vinci is a town and comune of Firenze province in the Italian region of Tuscany, at 26 m (85 ft) above sea level. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... The mansion Clos Lucé and garden Clos Lucé is a mansion in Amboise, France, located 500 meters from the Royal Château dAmboise, to which it is connected by an underground passageway. ...


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