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Encyclopedia > Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein in 1971

Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: ['bɝnstaɪn])[1] (August 25, 1918October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. He was the first conductor born in the United States of America to receive world-wide acclaim, and is known for both his conducting of the New York Philharmonic, including the acclaimed Young People's Concerts series, and his multiple compositions, including West Side Story, Candide and On the Town. He is known to baby boomers primarily as the first classical music conductor to make many television appearances, all between 1954 and 1989. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (564x840, 49 KB) Description: Leonard Bernstein. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (564x840, 49 KB) Description: Leonard Bernstein. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... The Young Peoples Concerts was a series of performances by the New York Philharmonic, designed to open the world of music to children and to encourage youth to be more involved in music. ... For The Games song, see Westside Story (song). ... Candide is a comic operetta by Leonard Bernstein, based on the novella of the same name by Voltaire. ... On the Town is a musical that opened on Broadway at the Adelphi Theatre on December 28, 1944, with music by Leonard Bernstein, book and lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, direction by George Abbott, and choreography by Jerome Robbins. ... A baby boom is defined as a period of increased birth rates relative to surrounding generations. ... This article discusses classical music in the first sense (see below). ...

Contents

Biography

Childhood

Bernstein was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1918 to a Jewish family from Rivne, Ukraine. His grandmother insisted his first name be Louis, but his parents always called him Leonard, as they liked the name better. He had his name changed to Leonard officially when he was fifteen.[2] His father, Sam Bernstein, was a businessman, and initially opposed young Leonard's interest in music. Despite this, the elder Bernstein frequently took him to orchestra concerts. At a very young age, Bernstein heard a piano performance and was immediately captivated; he subsequently began learning the piano. As a child, Bernstein attended the Garrison and Boston Latin School.[3]   Settled: 1655 â€“ Incorporated: 1847 Zip Code(s): 01840 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Rivne (Ukrainian: , Russian: , translit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Motto Sumus Primi Founded April 23, 1635 Head Master Lynne Mooney Teta Affiliation Boston Public Schools Curriculum College-Preparatory Grades 7-12 Enrollment c. ...


University

After graduation from Boston Latin School in 1934 Bernstein attended Harvard University, where he studied music with Walter Piston and was briefly associated with the Harvard Glee Club.[4] After completing his studies at Harvard he enrolled in the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where he received the only "A" grade Fritz Reiner ever awarded in his class on conducting. During his time at Curtis, Bernstein also studied piano with Isabella Vengerova.[5] Motto Sumus Primi Founded April 23, 1635 Head Master Lynne Mooney Teta Affiliation Boston Public Schools Curriculum College-Preparatory Grades 7-12 Enrollment c. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Walter Hamor Piston Jr. ... The Harvard Glee Club is a 60-voice, all-male choral ensemble at Harvard University. ... The Curtis Institute of Music is a conservatory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that offers courses of study leading to a performance Diploma, Bachelor of Music, Master of Music in Opera, and Professional Studies Certificate in Opera. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Adult life

During his young adult years in New York City, Bernstein enjoyed an exuberant social life, mostly in the company of other gay young men. [6] After a long internal struggle and a turbulent on-and-off engagement, he married Chilean actress Felicia Montealegre Cohn on September 9, 1951, reportedly in order to increase his chances of obtaining the chief conducting position with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Dimitri Mitropoulos, conductor of the New York Philharmonic and Bernstein's mentor, advised him that marrying would help counter the gossip about him and appease the conservative BSO board. [7] GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leonard and Felicia had three children, Jamie, Alexander, and Nina. [8] During his married life, Bernstein tried to be as discreet as possible with his extramarital liaisons. But as he grew older, and as the Gay Liberation movement made great strides, Bernstein became more emboldened, eventually leaving Felicia to live with companion Tom Cothran. Some time after, Bernstein learned that his wife was diagnosed with lung cancer. Bernstein moved back in with his wife and cared for her until she died. [9] Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ...


Like many married gay men, he loved his wife with a pure devotion. It has been suggested that Bernstein was actually bisexual (an assertion supported by comments Bernstein himself made about not preferring any particular cuisine, musical genre, or form of sex), and it has been alleged that he was conflicted between his devotion to his family and his gay desires, but Arthur Laurents (Bernstein's collaborator in West Side Story), said that Bernstein was simply "a gay man who got married. He wasn't conflicted about it at all. He was just gay." [10] Shelly Rhoades Perle, another friend of Bernstein’s, said that she thought "he required men sexually and women emotionally." [11] Arthur Laurents (born July 14, 1918) is an American playwright, novelist, screenwriter, librettist and stage director. ... For The Games song, see Westside Story (song). ...


Career

Leonard Bernstein - 1944

Bernstein was very highly regarded as a conductor, composer, and educator, and probably best known to the public as longtime music director of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, for conducting concerts by many of the world's leading orchestras, and for writing the music for West Side Story. He wrote three symphonies, two operas, five musicals, and numerous other pieces. Image File history File links Bernstein,_Leonard_(1918-1990)_-_1944_-_foto_van_Vechten2. ... Image File history File links Bernstein,_Leonard_(1918-1990)_-_1944_-_foto_van_Vechten2. ... The title of music director is used by many symphony orchestras to designate the primary conductor and artistic leader of the orchestra. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... For The Games song, see Westside Story (song). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ...

Bernstein conducting the New York City Symphony (1945)

In 1940, he began his study at the Boston Symphony Orchestra's summer institute, Tanglewood, under the orchestra's conductor, Serge Koussevitzky. Bernstein later became Koussevitzky's conducting assistant.[12] He would later dedicate his Symphony No. 2 to Koussevitzky.[13] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2160x2702, 579 KB) High resolution version from http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2160x2702, 579 KB) High resolution version from http://memory. ... The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the worlds most renowned orchestras. ... Tanglewood Music Shed and lawn. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leonard Bernsteins 2nd Symphony known as The age of anxiety was composed from 1948 to 1949 in the US and Israel. ...


On November 14, 1943, having recently been appointed assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, he made his conducting debut on last minute notification, and without any rehearsal, after Bruno Walter came down with the flu. The next day, The New York Times editorial remarked, "It's a good American success story. The warm, friendly triumph of it filled Carnegie Hall and spread far over the air waves."[14]He was an immediate success and became instantly famous due to the fact that the concert was nationally broadcast. The soloist on that historic day was Joseph Schuster, solo cellist of the New York Philharmonic, who played Richard Strauss's Don Quixote. Since Bernstein had never conducted the work before, Bruno Walter coached him on it prior to the concert. It is possible to hear this remarkable event thanks to a transcription recording made from the CBS radio broadcast that has since been issued on CD. is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Joseph Schuster, cellist Joseph Schuster (1903–1969) was born in Constantinople of Russian descent. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


After World War II Bernstein's career on the international stage began to flourish. In 1949 he conducted the world première of the Turangalîla-Symphonie by Olivier Messiaen, and when Serge Koussevitzky died two years later, Bernstein became head of the orchestral and conducting departments at Tanglewood, holding this position for many years. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Turangalîla-Symphonie is a large-scale piece of orchestral music by Olivier Messiaen. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1951, Bernstein conducted the New York Philharmonic in the world premiere of the Symphony No. 2 of Charles Ives. The composer, old and frail, was unable to attend the concert, but listened to the broadcast on the radio with his wife, Harmony. They both marveled at the enthusiastic reception of his music, which had actually been written between 1897 and 1901, but until then had never been performed. Bernstein did much to promote the music of this American composer throughout his career. Ives died in 1954. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Symphony was written by Charles Ives between 1897 and 1901. ... Charles Edward Ives (October 20, 1874 – May 19, 1954) was an American composer of classical music. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bernstein was named Music Director of the New York Philharmonic in 1957 and began his tenure in that position in 1958, a post he held until 1969, although he continued to conduct and make recordings with that orchestra for the rest of his life. He became a well-known figure in the US through his series of fifty-three televised Young People's Concerts for CBS, which grew out of his Omnibus programs that CBS aired in the early 1950s. His first Young People's Concert was televised only a few weeks after his tenure as principal conductor of the New York Philharmonic began. He became as famous for his educational work in those concerts as for his conducting. Some of his music lectures were released on records, with several of these albums winning Grammy awards. To this day, the Young People's Concerts series remains the longest running group of classical music programs ever shown on commercial television. They ran from 1958 to 1972. More than thirty years later, twenty-five of them were rebroadcast on the now-defunct cable channel Trio, and released on DVD. The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Young Peoples Concerts was a series of performances by the New York Philharmonic, designed to open the world of music to children and to encourage youth to be more involved in music. ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trio (or TRIO) was an American cable and satellite television channel owned by NBC Universal. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


In 1947, Bernstein conducted in Tel Aviv for the first time, beginning a life-long association with Israel. In 1957, he conducted the inaugural concert of the Mann Auditorium in Tel Aviv; he subsequently made many recordings there. In 1967 he conducted a concert on Mt. Scopus to commemorate the reunification of Jerusalem. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Mount Scopus (הר הצופים, Standard Hebrew Har haẒofim, Tiberian Hebrew Har haṣṢôp̄îm; Arabic جبل المشارف Jabal al-Mašārif, جبل المش&#1607... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Bernstein at the piano, making annotations to a musical score

In 1959 he took the New York Philharmonic on a tour of Europe and the Soviet Union, portions of which were filmed by CBS. A major highlight of the tour was Bernstein's performance of Shostakovich's fifth symphony, in the presence of the composer, who came on stage at the end to congratulate Bernstein and the musicians. In October, when Bernstein and the orchestra returned to New York, they recorded the symphony for Columbia. He made two recordings of Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, one with the New York Philharmonic in the 1960s, and another one in 1988 with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the only recording he ever made with them. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3331x2778, 821 KB) High resolution version from http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3331x2778, 821 KB) High resolution version from http://memory. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich (Russian Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович) (September 25, 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Dmitri Shostakovichs Symphony No. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ...


In 1960 Bernstein began the first complete cycle of recordings in stereo of all nine completed symphonies by Gustav Mahler, with the blessings of the composer's widow, Alma. The success of these recordings, along with Bernstein's concert performances, greatly revived interest in Mahler, who had briefly been music director of the New York Philharmonic late in his life. That same year, Bernstein conducted an LP of his own score for the 1944 musical On The Town, in stereo, the first such recording of the score ever made, for Columbia Masterworks Records. Unlike his later recordings of his own musicals, this was originally issued as a single LP rather than a 2-record set. It was later issued on CD. The recording featured several members of the original Broadway cast, including Betty Comden and Adolph Green. This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... On the Town is a musical that opened on Broadway at the Adelphi Theatre on December 28, 1944, with music by Leonard Bernstein, book and lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, direction by George Abbott, and choreography by Jerome Robbins. ... Columbia Masterworks Records is a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... Comden and Green was the writing duo of Betty Comden and Adolph Green. ... Adolph Green (December 2, 1914 – October 23, 2002) was an American lyricist and playwright who, with long-time collaborator Betty Comden, penned the screenplays and songs for some of the most beloved movie musicals, particularly as part of Arthur Freeds production unit at MGM, during the genres heyday. ...


In 1966 he made his debut at the Vienna State Opera conducting Luchino Visconti's productin of Verdi's Falstaff, with Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau as Falstaff. In 1970 he returned to the State Opera for Otto Schenk's production of Beethoven's Fidelio. Sixteen years later, at the State Opera, Bernstein conducted his sequel to Trouble in Tahiti, A Quiet Place. Bernstein's final farewell to the State Opera happened accidentally in 1989: Following a performance of Modest Mussorgsky's Khovanchina he unexpectedly entered the stage and embraced conductor Claudio Abbado in front of a stunned, but cheering audience. Vienna State Opera (German: Wiener Staatsoper), located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important opera companies in Europe. ... Luchino Visconti. ... For other uses, see Falstaff (disambiguation). ... The German baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (born May 28, 1925) is regarded by many as the finest Lieder singer of his generation, if not of the last century. ... Otto Schenk (born June 12, 1930 in Vienna, Austria) is an actor, theater director, and production designer. ... Fidelio (Op. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ...


Beginning in 1970, Bernstein conducted the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, with which he re-recorded many of the pieces that he had previously taped with the New York Philharmonic, including sets of the complete symphonies of Beethoven, Mahler, Brahms and Schumann. The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820 Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a composer and one of the pillars of European classical music. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


Later that year, Bernstein wrote and narrated a ninety-minute program filmed on location in and around Vienna, featuring the Vienna Philharmonic with such artists as Placido Domingo, who in his first television appearance performed as the tenor soloist in Beethoven's Ninth. The program, first telecast in 1970 on Austrian and British television, and then on CBS on Christmas Eve 1971, was intended as a celebration of Ludwig van Beethoven's 200th birthday. The show made extensive use of the rehearsals and finished performance of the Otto Schenk production of Fidelio. Originally entitled Beethoven's Birthday: A Celebration in Vienna, the show, which won an Emmy, was telecast only once on U.S. commercial television, and remained in CBS's vaults, until it resurfaced on A&E shortly after Bernstein's death - under the new title Bernstein on Beethoven: A Celebration in Vienna. It was immediately issued on VHS under that title, and in 2005 was issued on DVD. Plácido Domingo (born January 21, 1941) is a world-renowned opera singer, conductor, and general manager. ... The Symphony No. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820 Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a composer and one of the pillars of European classical music. ... An Emmy Award. ... Biography is one of A&Es longest-running and most popular programs. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS is a recording and playing standard for analog video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by Victor Company of Japan, Limited (JVC) and launched... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


Bernstein was invited in 1973 to the Charles Eliot Norton Chair as Professor of Poetry at his alma mater, Harvard University, to deliver a series of 6 lectures on music. Borrowing the title from a Charles Ives' work, he called the series "The Unanswered Question"; it is a set of interdisciplinary lectures in which he borrows terminology from contemporary linguistics to analyze and compare musical construction to language. Three years later, in 1976, the entire series of videotaped lectures was telecast on PBS. The lectures survive both in book and DVD form today. Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... The brothers Charles Benjamin Norton, Frank Henry Norton, and Charles Eliot Norton, between 1853-1855. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1978, the Otto Schenk Fidelio, with Bernstein still conducting, but featuring a different cast, was filmed by Unitel. Like the program, Bernstein on Beethoven, it also was shown on A&E after his death and subsequently issued on VHS. Although the video has since long been out-of-print, it was released for the first time on DVD by Deutsche Grammophon in late 2006. Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In 1979 Bernstein conducted the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra for the first and only time, in two charity concerts. The performance, of Mahler's Ninth Symphony, was broadcast on radio, and posthumously released on CD. The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... The Symphony No. ...


He received the Kennedy Center Honors award in 1980. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


On PBS in the 1980s, he was the conductor and commentator for a special series on Beethoven's music, which featured the Vienna Philharmonic playing all nine Beethoven symphonies, several of his overtures, and the Missa Solemnis. Actor Maximilian Schell was also featured on the program, reading from Beethoven's letters. Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is the best known orchestra in Austria and one of Europes major ensembles. ... Missa Solemnis is Latin for solemn mass, and is a name which has been applied to a number of musical settings of the mass, especially particularly serious or large-scale ones. ... Maximilian Schell (left) in the film Judgment at Nuremberg Maximilian Schell (born December 8, 1930) is a Swiss-Austrian actor. ...


In 1985, he conducted a complete recording of his score for West Side Story for the first and only time. The recording, much criticized for featuring what critics felt were miscast opera singers such as Kiri te Kanawa, Jose Carreras, and Tatiana Troyanos in the leading roles, was nevertheless a national bestseller. Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Dame Kiri Janette Te Kanawa IPA: , ONZ, AC, DBE, (born March 6, 1944) is an internationally famous New Zealand opera singer. ... The Catalan tenor Josep Carreras (born December 5, 1946) is a famous opera singer much admired for his Verdi and Puccini roles. ... Tatiana Troyanos (September 12, 1938 – August 21, 1993) was an American mezzo-soprano of Greek extraction. ...


In 1989, Bernstein again conducted and recorded another complete album of one of his musicals, again featuring opera singers rather than Broadway stars. This time it was Candide, and due to the fact that the show was always intended to be an operetta, the recording was much more warmly received. It starred Jerry Hadley, June Anderson, Adolph Green, and Christa Ludwig in the leading roles. The Candide recording, unlike the West Side Story one, also included previously discarded numbers from the show. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Operetta (literally, little opera) is a performance art-form similar to opera, though it generally deals with less serious topics. ... Jerry Hadley (June 16, 1952 – July 18, 2007) was an American operatic tenor, who was a protegé of the famous soprano, Dame Joan Sutherland, and her husband, conductor Richard Bonynge. ... June Anderson (born December 30, 1952) is an American coloratura soprano. ... Christa Ludwig (born March 16, 1928) is a distinguished German mezzo-soprano, known both for her opera performances and her singing of Lieder. ...


A TV documentary of the West Side Story recording sessions was made, and the Candide recording was made live, in concert. This concert was eventually telecast posthumously.


On Christmas Day, 25 December 1989, Bernstein conducted the Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in East Berlin's Schauspielhaus (Playhouse) as part of a celebration of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The concert was broadcast live in more than twenty countries to an estimated audience of 100 million people. For the occasion, Bernstein reworded Friedrich Schiller's text of the Ode to Joy, substituting the word Freiheit (freedom) for Freude (joy).[15] Bernstein, in the introduction to the program, said that they had "taken the liberty" of doing this because of a "most likely phony" story, apparently believed in some quarters, that Schiller wrote an "Ode to Freedom" that is now presumed lost. Bernstein's comment was, 'I'm sure that Beethoven would have given us his blessing." December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement...


Bernstein was highly-regarded as a conductor among many musicians, including the members of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, evidenced by his honorary membership, the London Symphony Orchestra, of which he was President, and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, with whom he appeared regularly as guest conductor. He was considered especially accomplished with the works of Gustav Mahler, Aaron Copland, Johannes Brahms, Dmitri Shostakovich, George Gershwin (especially the Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris), and of course with the performances of his own works. Unfortunately, Bernstein never conducted a performance of Gershwin's Piano Concerto in F, nor did he ever conduct Porgy and Bess. However, he did discuss Porgy in his article, Why Don't You Run Upstairs and Write a Nice Gershwin Tune?, originally published in the New York Times and later reprinted in his 1959 book The Joy of Music. The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... Fredric R. Mann Auditorum (he:Hichal Hatarbot), home of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The Leonard Bernstein Plaza in front of the Mann Auditorum The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisreelit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel, and one of the top orchestras... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue. ... An American in Paris is a symphonic composition by American composer George Gershwin which debuted in 1928. ... Among the piano concertos in the key of F are: The Piano Concerto No. ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


He had a gift for rehearsing an entire Mahler symphony by acting out every phrase for the orchestra to convey the precise meaning, and of emitting a vocal manifestation of the effect required, with a subtly professional ear that missed nothing.


Bernstein influenced many conductors who are performing now, such as Seiji Ozawa, Michael Tilson Thomas, and Carl St. Clair. Ozawa made his first network television debut as guest conductor on one of the Young People's Concerts. Seiji Ozawa , born September 1, 1935) is a Japanese conductor. ... Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is an American conductor, pianist and composer. ... Look up debut in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Bernstein conducted his final performance at Tanglewood on August 19, 1990, with the Boston Symphony playing Benjamin Britten's "Four Sea Interludes" and Beethoven's Seventh Symphony.[16] He suffered a coughing fit in the middle of the Beethoven performance which almost caused the concert to break down. The concert was later issued on CD by Deutsche Grammophon. Tanglewood Music Shed and lawn. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820 Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a composer and one of the pillars of European classical music. ... Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ...


He died just five days after retiring. A longtime heavy smoker, he had battled emphysema from his mid-20s. Bernstein is buried in Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York. The Chapel at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn NY Green-Wood Cemetery was founded in 1838 as a rural cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, it was granted National Historic Landmark status in 2006 by the U.S. Department of the Interior. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ...


Recordings

Bernstein recorded extensively from the 1950s through the 1980s. Aside from a few early recordings for RCA Victor, Bernstein recorded primarily for Columbia Masterworks Records, especially when he was music director of the New York Philharmonic. Many of these performances have been digitally remastered and reissued by Sony as part of the "Royal Edition" and "Bernstein Century" series. His later recordings (1976 onwards) were mostly made for Deutsche Grammophon, though he would occasionally return to the Columbia Masterworks label. Notable exceptions include recordings of Berlioz' Symphonie Fantastique (1976) for EMI and Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (1981) for Philips Records, a label joint with Deutsche Grammophon as PolyGram at that time. Sony BMG Music Entertainment is the result of a 50/50 joint venture between Sony Music Entertainment (part of Sony) and BMG Entertainment (part of Bertelsmann AG) completed in August 2004. ... Columbia Masterworks Records is a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Opus 14, is a symphony written by French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Kensington in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based in New York. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Strassburg, which in turn was based on the story of Tristan and Iseult as told in French by Thomas of... Philips Records is a record label that was founded by Dutch electronics giant Philips. ... PolyGram was the name from 1972 of the major label recording company started by Philips as a holding company for its music interests in 1945. ...


Awards and recognitions

Further information: List of Grammy and Tony Awards for Leonard Bernstein

Leonard Bernstein, an American composer and conductor, won several Grammy Awards and Tony Awards over his lifetime. ... The Ditson Conductors Award was first made in 1945. ... The Léonie Sonning Music Prize, or Sonning Award, which is recognized as Denmarks highest musical honor, is given annually to an international musician. ... The George Peabody Medal is the highest honour the Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University bestows. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The Grammy Award for Best Album for Children has been awarded since 1959. ... The Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance has been awarded since 1959. ... The Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance has been awarded since 1961. ... The Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording has been awarded since 1961. ... The Grammy Award for Best Classical Vocal Performance has been awarded since 1959. ... The Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra) has been awarded since 1959. ... The Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition was first awarded in 1961. ... The Grammy Award for Best Classical Album has been awarded since 1962. ... The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to performers who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording [1]. This award is distinct from the Grammy Hall of Fame Award, which honors specific recordings rather than individuals, and... // 1940s 1949 Kiss Me, Kate - Music and lyrics by Cole Porter, book by Bella and Samuel Spewack. ... Special Tony Award includes Lifetime Achievement Award: // 1947 Dora Chamberlain for unfailing courtesy as treasurer of the Martin Beck Theatre 1947 Mr. ...

Principal works

Musical theatre

On the Town is a musical that opened on Broadway at the Adelphi Theatre on December 28, 1944, with music by Leonard Bernstein, book and lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, direction by George Abbott, and choreography by Jerome Robbins. ... Statue of Peter Pan in Bowring Park, St. ... Trouble in Tahiti is a short opera written by Leonard Bernstein in 1952. ... Logo for the 2003 Broadway revival of Wonderful Town Wonderful Town is a musical with lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green and music by Leonard Bernstein. ... On the Waterfront is an Oscar-winning American 1954 film about mob violence and corruption among longshoremen, and it has become a standard of its kind. ... LAlouette (The Lark) is a play by Jean Anouilh about Joan of Arc. ... Candide is a comic operetta by Leonard Bernstein, based on the novella of the same name by Voltaire. ... For The Games song, see Westside Story (song). ... Christopher Fry (born December 18, 1907; died June 30, 2005) was an English playwright. ... MASS (formally, MASS: A Theatre Piece for Singers, Players, and Dancers) is a musical piece composed by Leonard Bernstein. ... 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue was a legendary Broadway flop in 1976, running only seven performances at the Mark Hellinger Theatre. ... A Quiet Place is a 1983 an opera by Leonard Bernstein. ... The Race to Urga started out as a 1968 Stephen Sondheim adaptation of the Bertolt Brecht play The Exception and the Rule. ...

Orchestral

  • Symphony No. 1, Jeremiah, 1942
  • Fancy Free and Three Dance Variations from "Fancy Free,", concert premiere 1946
  • Three Dance Episodes from "On the Town," concert premiere 1947
  • Symphony No. 2, The Age of Anxiety, (after W. H. Auden) for Piano and Orchestra, 1949 (revised in 1965)
  • Serenade (after Plato's "Symposium") for Solo Violin, Strings, Harp and Percussion, 1954
  • Prelude, Fugue and Riffs for Solo Clarinet and Jazz Ensemble, 1949
  • Symphonic Suite from "On the Waterfront", 1955
  • Symphonic Dances from "West Side Story", 1961
  • Symphony No. 3, Kaddish, for Orchestra, Mixed Chorus, Boys' Choir, Speaker and Soprano Solo, 1963 (revised in 1977)
  • Dybbuk, Suites No. 1 and 2 for Orchestra, concert premieres 1975
  • Songfest: A Cycle of American Poems for Six Singers and Orchestra, 1977
  • Three Meditations from "Mass" for Violoncello and Orchestra, 1977
  • Slava!: A Political Overture for Orchestra, 1977
  • Divertimento for Orchestra, 1980
  • Halil, nocturne for Solo Flute, Piccolo, Alto Flute, Percussion, Harp and Strings, 1981
  • Concerto for Orchestra, 1989 (Originally Jubilee Games from 1986, revised in 1989)

Leonard Bernsteins First Symphony known as Jeremiah was composed in 1942. ... Leonard Bernsteins 2nd Symphony known as The age of anxiety was composed from 1948 to 1949 in the US and Israel. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) (IPA: ; first syllable of Auden rhymes with law), who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kaddish is the third symphony of Leonard Bernstein. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ...

Choral

  • Hashkiveinu for Solo Tenor, Mixed Chorus and Organ, 1945
  • Missa Brevis for Mixed Chorus and Countertenor Solo, with Percussion, 1988
  • Chichester Psalms for Boy Soprano (or Countertenor), Mixed Chorus, Organ, Harp and Percussion, 1965

Score of page 1, Movement I of The Chichester Psalms, Boosey & Hawkes edition. ...

Chamber music

Leonard Bernsteins Sonata for Clarinet and Piano was published in 1942, and was Bernsteins first published piece. ...

Vocal music

  • I Hate Music: A cycle of Five Kids Songs for Soprano and Piano, 1943
  • La Bonne Cuisine: Four Recipes for Voice and Piano, 1948
  • Arias and Barcarolles for Mezzo-Soprano, Baritone and Piano four-hands, 1988
  • A Song Album, 1988

Other music

  • Various piano pieces
  • Other occasional works, written as gifts and other forms of memorial and tribute
  • "The Skin of Our Teeth": An aborted work from which Bernstein took material to use in his "Chichester Psalms"

Bibliography

By Bernstein

  • Bernstein, Leonard [1982] (1993). Findings. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 038542437X. 
  • Bernstein, Leonard [1966] (1993). The Infinite Variety of Music. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0385424388. 
  • Bernstein, Leonard [1959] (2004). The Joy of Music. Pompton Plains, New Jersey: Amadeus Press. ISBN 1574671049. 
  • Bernstein, Leonard (1976). The Unanswered Question. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674920007. 
  • Bernstein, Leonard [1962] (2006). Young People's Concerts. Milwaukee; Cambridge: Amadeus Press. ISBN 1574671022. 

About Bernstein

  • Burton, Humphrey (1994). Leonard Bernstein. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385423454. 
  • Gottlieb, Jack (ed.) (1992). Leonard Bernstein's Young People's Concerts, (revised), New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0385424353. 

Videography

  • The Unanswered Question: Six Talks at Harvard. West Long Branch, NJ: Kultur Video. VHS ISBN 1561275700. DVD ISBN 0769715702. (film of the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures given at Harvard in 1973.)
  • Leonard Bernstein's Young People's Concerts with the New York Philharmonic. West Long Branch, NJ: Kultur Video. DVD ISBN 0769715036.

Lectures held at Harvard University by distinguished academics. ...

In popular culture

  • The Seinfeld character Maestro often refers to ideas that he learned from Leonard Bernstein.
  • The film The Assassination of Richard Nixon depicts the character Sam Bicke, who idolizes the person and music of Leonard Bernstein, and mails Bernstein tapes explaining his disappointment in America and his justification for his planned destruction of the White House: "Mr Bernstein: I have the utmost respect for you. Your music is both pure and honest and that is why I have chosen you to present the truth about me to the world."
  • In the song "It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" by R.E.M., "Leonard Bernstein" is shouted when everyone stops during the last verse.
  • Tom Wolfe's essay "Radical Chic", published in the book "Radical Chic" and "Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers", deals with a meeting Bernstein held in his apartment to raise money for the Black Panther Party, and the subsequent public response.

Seinfeld is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998, running a total of 9 seasons. ... The Assassination of Richard Nixon is a 2004 drama film, directed by Niels Mueller. ... Its the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine) is a song by the rock band R.E.M., found on their 1987 album Document and the 1988 compilation Eponymous. ... This article is about the band. ... Thomas Kennerly Wolfe (born March 2, 1931 in Richmond, Virginia), known as Tom Wolfe, is a best-selling American author and journalist. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense with a mission of domination in the United States. ...

Quotations

The trouble with you and me, Ned, is that we want everyone in the world to personally love us, and of course that's impossible: you just don't meet everyone in the world
 
— Leonard Bernstein[17]

A composer is a person who writes music. ... Ned Rorem (born October 23, 1923) is a noted American composer and diarist. ...

References

  1. ^ Karlin, Fred (1994). Listening to Movies (recording), New York City: Schirmer, p. 264.  Bernstein's pronunciation of his own name as he introduces his Peter and the Wolf
  2. ^ Peyser, Joan (1987). Bernstein, a biography. New York: Beech Tree Books, p. 22-23. ISBN 0-688-04918-4. 
  3. ^ Peyser (1987), p. 34
  4. ^ Peyser (1987), p. 39-40
  5. ^ Peyser (1987), p. 38-9
  6. ^ Burton, Leonard Bernstein
  7. ^ Burton, Leonard Bernstein)
  8. ^ Peyser (1987), p. 196, 204, 322
  9. ^ Burton, Leonard Bernstein)
  10. ^ Charles Kaiser, “The Gay Metropolis, New York City: 1940-1996"
  11. ^ Meryle Secrest, “Leonard Bernstein: A Life”
  12. ^ About Bernstein. Leonard Bernstein Official Site. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  13. ^ Leonard Bernstein - Biography. Sony Classical. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  14. ^ Deems Taylor, Pathétique, Music-Appreciation Records, 2007-25-07.
  15. ^ Naxos (2006). Ode To Freedom - Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (NTSC). Naxos.com Classical Music Catalogue. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  16. ^ Garrison Keillor (25 August 2003). The Writer's Almanac. American Public Media. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  17. ^ Lebrecht, Norman (1985). The Book of Musical Anecdotes: From the Paris Diary of Ned Rorem, American edition, New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780029187104. 
  • Chapin, Schuyler (1992). Leonard Bernstein: Notes from a friend. New York: Walker. ISBN 0802712169. 
  • Rozen, Brian D. (1997). The contributions of Leonard Bernstein to music education: an analysis of his 53 Young people's concerts. Thesis (Ph. D.). Rochester, New York: University of Rochester. OCLC 48156751. 

1947 coloring book cover. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Naxos Records is a record label specializing in budget-priced classical music CDs. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Bernstein, Leonard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bernstein, Louis
SHORT DESCRIPTION Composer, conductor, pedagogue, pianist, writer
DATE OF BIRTH August 25, 1918
PLACE OF BIRTH Lawrence, Massachusetts, United States
DATE OF DEATH October 14, 1990
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, New York, USA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leonard Bernstein - definition of Leonard Bernstein in Encyclopedia (738 words)
Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer and orchestra conductor.
Bernstein was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts and studied at Harvard and the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia.
Bernstein's personal life was marked by anguish over the tradeoff between a conductor's glory and a composer's productivity, the criticism invited by his impassioned political activism, the conflict between his devotion to his family and his bisexuality, and bouts of depression suffered in his later years.
Leonard Bernstein - Free Encyclopedia (264 words)
Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 - October 14, 1990) was an Jewish-American composer and orchestra conductor.
Bernstein's politics were decidedly left wing, but unlike some of his contemporaries, he was not fllisted in the 1950s.
Bernstein was a highly-regarded conductor among many musicians, in particular the members of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, of which he was a regular guest conductor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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