FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky

An official Soviet portrait of Leon Trotsky ImageMetadata File history File links Trockiy2. ...


In office
March 13, 1918 – January 6, 1925
Deputy Ephraim Sklyansky
Preceded by Nikolai Podvoisky
Succeeded by Mikhail Frunze

In office
November 8, 1917 – March 13, 1918
Deputy Georgy Chicherin
Preceded by Mikhail Tereshchenko
Succeeded by Georgy Chicherin

In office
October 8, 1917 – November 8, 1917

Born November 7, 1879(1879-11-07)
Kherson, Russian Empire
Died August 21, 1940 (aged 60)
Mexico, DF, Mexico
Nationality Ukrainian
Political party RSDLP, SDPS, Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Spouse Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, Natalia Sedova
Profession Statesman, editor
Signature Leon Trotsky's signature

Leon Trotsky (Russian: Лeв Давидович Трóцкий , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лeв Давидович Бронштéйн), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He was an influential politician in the early days of the Soviet Union, first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo. // Peoples Commissars: Nikolai Podvoisky 8 November 1917 – 13 March 1918 Leon Trotsky 13 March 1918 – 26 January 1925 Mikhail Frunze 26 January – 31 October 1925 Kliment Voroshilov 6 November 1925 – 20 June 1934 Peoples Commissars: Kliment Voroshilov 20 June 1934 – 7 May 1940 Semyon Timoshenko 7 May 1940... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ephraim Markovich Sklyansky (Russian: Эфраим Маркович Склянский) (August 12 (O.S. July 31), 1892 - August 27, 1925) was a Soviet statesman. ... Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky (Russian: Николай Ильич Подвойский) (February 4 (16), 1880 - July 28, 1948) was a Soviet statesman. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (Russian Михаил Васильевич Фрунзе) (1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: // Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 Ivan Viskovatyi 1549-70 Brothers Vasily and Andrey Shchelkalov 1570-1601 Ivan Gramotin 1605-06, 1610-12, 1618-26, 1634-35 Pyotr Tretyakov 1608-10, 1613-18 Almaz Ivanov 1635-67... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin (Russian: Георгий Чичерин) (1872–1936) was Peoples Commissar of Foreign Affairs in the Soviet government from 1918 to 1930. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Tereshchenko (Russian: ) (March 18, 1886, Kiev – April 1, 1956, Monaco) was a foreign minister of Russia from May 5 of 1917 to October 25 of 1917. ... Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin (Russian: Георгий Чичерин) (1872–1936) was Peoples Commissar of Foreign Affairs in the Soviet government from 1918 to 1930. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, Khersons’ka oblast’ or Херсонщина, Khersonshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Aleksandra Lvovna Sokolovskaya (1872 - ?) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and Leon Trotskys first wife. ... Natalia Sedova Natalia Sedova (1882-1962) is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound for presentation through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications. ... Image File history File links Trotsky_signature. ... Image File history File links Ru-Leon_Trotsky. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


After leading the failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing bureaucratization of the Soviet Union, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union in the Great Purge. As the head of the Fourth International, he continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent.[1] Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a variation of communist theory, which remains a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism. The Left Opposition was a faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1923-1927. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Jaume Ramon Mercader del Rio Hernández (February 7, 1914 – October 18, 1978) was a Catalan Communist who served as a foreign agent of the NKVD during Joseph Stalins time as ruler of the Soviet Union. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ...

Contents

Before the 1917 Revolution

Part of the Politics series on
Trotskyism

Leon Trotsky
Fourth International
For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ...

Marxism
Leninism
Russian Revolution
Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Prominent Trotskyists
James P. Cannon
Tony Cliff
Pierre Frank
Ted Grant
Joseph Hansen
Gerry Healy
C. L. R. James
Pierre Lambert
Livio Maitan
Ernest Mandel
Nahuel Moreno
Max Shachtman
James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Edward (Ted) Grant (born July 9, 1913) is a Trotskyist politician. ... Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was an Anglo-Trinidadian journalist, socialist theorist and writer. ... Pierre Lambert (born June 9, 1920) (real name Pierre Boussel) is a French Trotskyist leader. ... Livio Maitan was an Italian Trotskyist, leader of Assoziazione Bandiera Rossa. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... Nahuel Moreno (April 24, 1924 - January 25, 1987) (real name Hugo Bressano) was a Trotskyist leader from Argentina. ... Max Shachtman (September 10, 1904 - November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. ...


Trotskyist groups
CWI · FI(ICR) · ICFI
IMT · IST · IWL
reunified FI
This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ... The Committee for a Workers International (CWI) is an international association of Trotskyist parties. ... The Fourth International - International Centre of Reconstruction is an international Trotskyist tendency. ... It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... The International Marxist Tendency (IMT) is a Trotskyist tendency based on the ideas of Ted Grant. ... The International Socialist Tendency is an international grouping of organisations around the ideas of Tony Cliff, founder of the Socialist Workers Party in the UK. It has sections across the world, however its strongest presence is in Europe, especially in the UK, Greece and Ireland. ... See also the Workers International League. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fourth_International#From the Fourth World Congress to reunification. ...


Branches
Orthodox Trotskyism
Third camp
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ICFI. (Discuss) Orthodox Trotskyism is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to adhere more closely to the methods and positions of Trotsky and the early Fourth International than other Trotskyists. ... The third camp, also known as third camp socialism or third camp Trotskyism, is a branch of socialism which aims to support neither capitalism nor Stalinism, by supporting the organised working class as a third camp. Leon Trotsky described the Soviet Union as a degenerated workers state which should be...


Communism Portal
This box: view  talk  edit
8 years old Lev Bronstein, 1888
8 years old Lev Bronstein, 1888
Lev Bronstein, 1897
Lev Bronstein, 1897

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (366x636, 36 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leon Trotsky ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (366x636, 36 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leon Trotsky ... Image File history File links Lev Davidovich Bronstein as an 18 year old, 1897 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Lev Davidovich Bronstein as an 18 year old, 1897 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Childhood and family (1879-1896)

Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (alternative English spelling: Bronshtein) on November 7, 1879, in Yanovka, Kherson Province of the Russian Empire (today's Ukraine), a small village 15 miles (24 km) from the nearest post office. He was the fifth child of a wealthy but illiterate Jewish farmer, David Leontyevich Bronstein (1847–1922) and Anna Bronstein (d. 1910). Although the family was ethnically Jewish, it was not religious, and the languages spoken at home were Russian and Ukrainian instead of Yiddish. Trotsky's younger sister, Olga, married Lev Kamenev, a leading Bolshevik. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Subdivisions of Ukraine ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Olga Davidovna Kameneva (1883 (?) - 1941) (nee Bronstein, sometimes translated as Olga Kamenev) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and an early Soviet functionary in the theater field. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ...


When Trotsky was nine, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated and he was enrolled in an historically German school, which became Russified during his years in Odessa, consequent to the Imperial government's policy of Russification[citation needed]. As Deutscher points out in his biography, Odessa was then a bustling cosmopolitan port city, very unlike the typical Russian city of the time. This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook. The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


Although it is stated in his autobiography "My Life" that he was never perfectly fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian, Raymond Molinier wrote that Trotsky spoke fluent French.[2]. Raymond Molinier was a leader of the Bolshevik Leninist or Trotskyist movement in France prior to World War II. At the outbreak of that conflict he was abroad and only returned after the cessation of hostilities. ...


Revolutionary activity and exile (1896-1902)

Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to Nikolayev (now Mykolaiv). At first a narodnik (revolutionary populist), he was introduced to Marxism later that year and was originally opposed to it. But during periods of exile and imprisonment he gradually became a Marxist. Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name 'Lvov' [3], he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets and popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students. Location Map of Ukraine with Mykolaiv highlighted. ... Narodniks was the name for Russian revolutionaries of the 1860s and 1870s. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


In January 1898, over 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested, and he spent the next two years in prison awaiting trial. Two months after his imprisonment, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) was held, and from then on Trotsky considered himself a member of the party. While in prison, he married fellow Marxist Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. While serving his sentence he studied philosophy. In 1900 he was sentenced to four years in exile in Ust-Kut and Verkholensk (see map) in the Irkutsk region of Siberia, where his first two daughters, Nina Nevelson and Zinaida Volkova, were born. The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́ча&#1103... Aleksandra Lvovna Sokolovskaya (1872 - ?) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and Leon Trotskys first wife. ... Ust-Kut (Russian: ) is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, situated on the river Lena. ... Irkutsks location Kazansky Church in Irkutsk Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Nina Nevelson (nee Bronstein) (1902-June 9, 1928) was a Russian Trotskyist and Leon Trotskys younger daughter by Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. ... Zinaida Volkova (nee Bronstein) (1901 - January 5, 1933) was a Russian Marxist. ...


In Siberia Trotsky became aware of the differences within the party, which had been decimated by arrests in 1898 and 1899. Some social democrats known as "economists" argued that the party should focus on helping industrial workers improve their lot in life. Others argued that overthrowing the monarchy was more important and that a well organized and disciplined revolutionary party was essential. The latter were led by the London-based newspaper Iskra, which was founded in 1900. Trotsky quickly sided with the Iskra position. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The first edition of Iskra Iskra (Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants. ...


First emigration and second marriage (1902-1903)

Trotsky escaped from Siberia in the summer of 1902. It is said he adopted the name of a jailer of the Odessa prison in which he had earlier been held[4], and this became his primary revolutionary pseudonym. Once abroad, he moved to London to join Georgy Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov and other editors of Iskra. Under the pen name Pero ("feather" or "pen" in Russian), Trotsky soon became one of the paper's leading authors. G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Julius Martov or L. Martov (Ма́ртов, real name Yuli Osipovich Zederbaum (Russian Ю́лий О́сипович Цедерба́ум)) (November 24, 1873 – April 4, 1923) was born in Constantinople in 1873. ... The first edition of Iskra Iskra (Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ...


Unknown to Trotsky, the six editors of Iskra were evenly split between the "old guard" led by Plekhanov and the "new guard" led by Lenin and Martov. Not only were Plekhanov's supporters older (in their 40s and 50s), but they had also spent the previous 20 years in European exile together. Members of the new guard were in their early 30s and had only recently come from Russia. Lenin, who was trying to establish a permanent majority against Plekhanov within Iskra, expected Trotsky, then 23, to side with the new guard and wrote in March 1903:[5]

I suggest to all the members of the editorial board that they co-opt 'Pero' as a member of the board on the same basis as other members. [...] We very much need a seventh member, both as a convenience in voting (six being an even number), and as an addition to our forces. 'Pero' has been contributing to every issue for several months now; he works in general most energetically for the Iskra; he gives lectures (in which he has been very successful). In the section of articles and notes on the events of the day, he will not only be very useful, but absolutely necessary. Unquestionably a man of rare abilities, he has conviction and energy, and he will go much farther.

Due to Plekhanov's opposition, Trotsky did not become a full member of the board, but from then on participated in its meetings in an advisory capacity, which earned him Plekhanov's enmity.


In late 1902, Trotsky met Natalia Sedova, who soon became his companion and, from 1903 until his death, his wife. They had two children together, Leon Sedov (b. 1906) and Sergei Sedov (b. 1908). As Trotsky later explained,[6] after the 1917 revolution: Natalia Sedova Natalia Sedova (1882-1962) is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary. ... Leon Lvovich Sedov (Russian: Лев Львович Седов; February 1906 - February 16, 1938) was the son of the Russian Communist leader Leon Trotsky and his second wife Natalia Sedova. ... Sergei Sedov (1908 - 1937) was Leon Trotskys youngest son by his second wife, Natalia Sedova, and an engineer. ...

In order not to oblige my sons to change their name, I, for "citizenship" requirements, took on the name of my wife.

But the name change remained a technicality and he never used the name "Sedov" either privately or publicly. Natalia Sedova sometimes signed her name "Sedova-Trotskaya". Trotsky and his first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, maintained a friendly relationship until she disappeared in 1935 during the Great Purges. The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


Split with Lenin (1903-1904)

In the meantime, after a period of secret police repression and internal confusion that followed the first party Congress in 1898, Iskra succeeded in convening the party's 2nd congress in London in August 1903, and Trotsky and other Iskra editors attended. At first the congress went as planned, with Iskra supporters handily defeating the few "economist" delegates. Then the congress discussed the position of the Jewish Bund, which had co-founded the RSDLP in 1898 but wanted to remain autonomous within the party. In the heat of the debate, Trotsky made a controversial statement to the effect that he and eleven other non-Bund Jewish delegates who had signed an anti-Bund statement A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אלגמײנער ײדישער ארבײטרסבו&#1504... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...

while working in the Russian party, regarded and still do regard themselves also as representatives of the Jewish proletariat.

As Trotsky explained two months later, his statement was just a tactical maneuver made on Lenin's request.[7]


Shortly thereafter, pro-Iskra delegates unexpectedly split into two factions. Lenin and his supporters (known as "Bolsheviks") argued for a smaller but highly organized party. Martov and his supporters (known as "Mensheviks") argued for a larger and less disciplined party. In a surprise development, Trotsky and most of the Iskra editors supported Martov and the Mensheviks while Plekhanov supported Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ...


During 1903 and 1904, many members changed sides in the factions. Plekhanov soon parted ways with the Bolsheviks. Trotsky left the Mensheviks in September 1904 over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks. From then until 1917 he described himself as a "non-factional social democrat".


Trotsky spent much of his time between 1904 and 1917 trying to reconcile different groups within the party, which resulted in many clashes with Lenin and other prominent party members. Trotsky later conceded he had been wrong in opposing Lenin on the issue of the party. During these years Trotsky began developing his theory of permanent revolution, which led to a close working relationship with Alexander Parvus in 1904-1907. Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ... Dr. Helphand (Parvus) Dr. Israel Lazarevich Helphand (last name also spelt as Gelfant), in Russian: Израиль Лазаревич Гельфанд, is known also by his frequently used pseudonym Alexander Parvus. ...


1905 revolution and trial (1905-1906)

Leon Trotsky, 1918
Leon Trotsky, 1918

After the events of Bloody Sunday (1905), Trotsky secretly returned to Russia in February 1905. At first he wrote leaflets for an underground printing press in Kiev, but soon moved to the capital, Saint Petersburg. There he worked with both Bolsheviks like Central Committee member Leonid Krasin, and the local Menshevik committee which he pushed in a more radical direction. But the latter was betrayed by a secret police agent in May, and Trotsky had to flee to rural Finland. There he worked on fleshing out his theory of permanent revolution until October, when a nationwide strike made it possible for him to return to St. Petersburg. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x617, 59 KB) Summary I obtained this image from here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x617, 59 KB) Summary I obtained this image from here. ... Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Krasin Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Russian: , 1870 – 1926) was a Russian Bolshevik leader. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ...


After returning to the capital, Trotsky and Parvus took over the newspaper Russian Gazette and increased its circulation to 500,000. Trotsky also co-founded Nachalo ("The Beginning") with Parvus and the Mensheviks, which proved to be very successful. Dr. Helphand (Parvus) Dr. Israel Lazarevich Helphand (last name also spelt as Gelfant), in Russian: Израиль Лазаревич Гельфанд, is known also by his frequently used pseudonym Alexander Parvus. ...


Just before Trotsky's return, the Mensheviks had independently come up with the same idea that Trotsky had -- an elected non-party revolutionary organization representing the capital's workers, the first Soviet ("Council") of Workers. By the time of Trotsky's arrival, the St. Petersburg Soviet was already functioning headed by Khrustalyov-Nosar (Georgy Nosar, alias Pyotr Khrustalyov), a compromise figure, and proved to be very popular with the workers in spite of the Bolsheviks' original opposition. Trotsky joined the Soviet under the name "Yanovsky" (after the village he was born in, Yanovka) and was elected vice-Chairman. He did much of the actual work at the Soviet and, after Khrustalev-Nosar's arrest on November 26, was elected its chairman. On December 2, the Soviet issued a proclamation which included the following statement about the Tsarist government and its foreign debts:[8] A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... St. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The autocracy never enjoyed the confidence of the people and was never granted any authority by the people. We have therefore decided not to allow the repayment of such loans as have been made by the Czarist government when openly engaged in a war with the entire people.

The following day, December 3, the Soviet was surrounded by troops loyal to the government and the deputies were arrested. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trotsky and other Soviet leaders were tried in 1906 on charges of supporting an armed rebellion. At the trial, Trotsky delivered some of the best speeches of his life and solidified his reputation as an effective public speaker, which he confirmed in 1917-1920. He was convicted and sentenced to deportation.


Second emigration (1907-1914)

En route to deportation to Siberia in January 1907, Trotsky escaped and once again made his way to London, where he attended the 5th Congress of the RSDLP. In October, he moved to Vienna where he often took part in the activities of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and, occasionally, of the German Social Democratic Party, for seven years. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́ча&#1103... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a political party in Austria. ... SPD redirects here. ...


In Vienna, Trotsky became close to Adolph Joffe, his friend for the next 20 years, who introduced him to psychoanalysis.[9] In October 1908 he started a bi-weekly Russian language Social Democratic paper aimed at Russian workers called Pravda ("Truth"), which he co-edited with Joffe, Matvey Skobelev and Victor Kopp and which was smuggled into Russia. The paper avoided factional politics and proved popular with Russian industrial workers. Both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks split multiple times after the failure of the 1905-1907 revolution. When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'. Lev Kamenev, Trotsky's brother-in-law, was added to the editorial board from the Bolsheviks, but the unification attempts failed in August 1910 when Kamenev resigned from the board amid mutual recriminations. Trotsky continued publishing Pravda for another two years until it finally folded in April 1912. Adolph Joffe Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Russian: Адольф Абрамович Иоффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (October 10, 1883, Simferopol – November 16, 1927, Moscow) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Matvey Ivanovich Skobelev (1885 - 1938) was a Russian revolutionary and politician. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ...


The Bolsheviks started a new workers-oriented newspaper in St. Petersburg on April 22, 1912, and also called it Pravda. Trotsky was so upset by what he saw as a usurpation of his newspaper's name that in April 1913 he wrote a letter to Nikolay Chkheidze, a Menshevik leader, bitterly denouncing Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Though he quickly got over the disagreement, the letter was intercepted by the police, and a copy was put into their archives. Shortly after Lenin's death in 1924, the letter was pulled out of the archives and made public by his opponents within the Communist Party, and was used to paint him as Lenin's enemy. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nikolay (Karlo) Chkheidze (1864-1926) was a Georgian revolutionary and politician, one of the founders and leaders of the Social-Democratic (Menshevik) Party of Georgia. ...


This was a period of heightened tension within the RSDLP and led to numerous frictions between Trotsky, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The most serious disagreement that Trotsky and the Mensheviks had with Lenin at the time was over the issue of "expropriations",[10] i.e. armed robberies of banks and other companies by Bolshevik groups to procure money for the Party, which had been banned by the 5th Congress, but continued by the Bolsheviks.


In January 1912, the majority of the Bolshevik faction led by Lenin and a few Mensheviks held a conference in Prague and expelled their opponents from the party. In response, Trotsky organized a "unification" conference of social democratic factions in Vienna in August 1912 (a.k.a. "The August Bloc") and tried to re-unite the party. The attempt was generally unsuccessful. For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


In Vienna, Trotsky continuously published articles in radical Russian and Ukrainian newspapers like Kievskaya Mysl under a variety of pseudonyms, often "Antid Oto". In September 1912 Kievskaya Mysl sent him to the Balkans as its war correspondent, where he covered the two Balkan Wars for the next year and became a close friend of Christian Rakovsky, later a leading Soviet politician and Trotsky's ally in the Soviet Communist Party. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Dr. Christian Georgievich Rakovsky (Кристиян Георгиевич Раковски; Кръстьо Раковски - Krastyo Rakovski in Bulgarian or, in Romanian spelling, Cristian Racovschi; August 13 (August 1, Old Style), 1873 - September 11, 1941) was a socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ...


On August 3, 1914, at the outbreak of World War I which pitted Austria-Hungary against the Russian empire, Trotsky was forced to flee Vienna for neutral Switzerland to avoid arrest as a Russian émigré. is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ...


World War I (1914-1917)

The outbreak of WWI caused a sudden realignment within the RSDLP and other European social democratic parties over the issues of war, revolution, pacifism and internationalism. Within the RSDLP, Lenin, Trotsky and Martov advocated various internationalist anti-war positions, while Plekhanov and other social democrats (both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) supported the Russian government to some extent.


In Switzerland, Trotsky briefly worked within the Swiss Socialist Party, prompting it to adopt an internationalist resolution, and wrote a book against the war, The War and the International. The thrust of the book was against the pro-war position taken by the European social democratic parties, primarily the German party. {The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ...

Leon Trotsky with his daughter Nina in France, 1915
Leon Trotsky with his daughter Nina in France, 1915

Trotsky moved to France on November 19, 1914, as a war correspondent for the Kievskaya Mysl. In January 1915 he began editing (at first with Martov, who soon resigned as the paper moved to the Left) Nashe Slovo ("Our Word"), an internationalist socialist newspaper, in Paris. He adopted the slogan of "peace without indemnities or annexations, peace without conquerors or conquered", which didn't go quite as far as Lenin, who advocated Russia's defeat in the war and demanded a complete break with the Second International. Image File history File links Trotskynina1915. ... Image File history File links Trotskynina1915. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is...


Trotsky attended the Zimmerwald Conference of anti-war socialists in September 1915 and advocated a middle course between those who, like Martov, would stay within the Second International at any cost and those who, like Lenin, would break with the Second International and form a Third International. The conference adopted the middle line proposed by Trotsky. At first opposed to it, in the end Lenin voted[11] for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists. The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. ... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ...


In September 1916, Trotsky was deported from France to Spain for his anti-war activities. Spanish authorities did not let him stay and he was deported to the United States on December 25, 1916. He arrived in New York City on January 13, 1917. In New York, he wrote articles for the local Russian language socialist newspaper Novy Mir and the Yiddish language daily Der Forverts (The Forward) in translation and made speeches to Russian émigrés. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Novy Mir (rus. ... The Forward is a Jewish-American newspaper published in New York. ...


Trotsky was living in New York City when the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew Tzar Nicholas II. He left New York on March 27, but his ship was intercepted by British naval officials in Halifax, Nova Scotia and he spent a month detained at Amherst, Nova Scotia. After initial hesitation, the Russian foreign minister Pavel Milyukov was forced to demand that Trotsky be released, and the British government freed Trotsky on April 29. He finally made his way back to Russia on May 4. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The Nova Scotia Visitor Information Centre, located in Fort Lawrence, 3 kilometres west of Amherst. ... Pavel Nikolayevich Milyukov (Cyrillic: Павел Николаевич Милюков) (1859-1943) was (alongside Vladimir Lenin and Peter Stolypin) the greatest Russian politician of pre-revolutionary years. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Upon his return, Trotsky was in substantive agreement with the Bolshevik position, but did not join them right away. Russian social democrats were split into at least 6 groups and the Bolsheviks were waiting for the next party Congress to determine which factions to merge with. Trotsky temporarily joined the Mezhraiontsy, a regional social democratic organization in St. Petersburg, and became one of its leaders. At the First Congress of Soviets in June, he was elected a member of the first All-Russian Central Executive Committee ("VTsIK") from the Mezhraiontsy faction. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Mezhraiontsy or Mezhraoinka (Russian: межрайонцы), usually translated as the interdistrictites (from the Russian mezh-, i. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1993. ... The term Central Executive Committee refers to governing bodies with executive power of various parties and governments. ...


After an unsuccessful pro-Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd, Trotsky was arrested on August 7, 1917, but was released 40 days later in the aftermath of the failed counter-revolutionary uprising by Lavr Kornilov. After the Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet, Trotsky was elected Chairman on October 8. He sided with Lenin against Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev when the Bolshevik Central Committee discussed staging an armed uprising and he led the efforts to overthrow the Provisional Government headed by Aleksandr Kerensky. is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Kornilov Affair (Russian: Корниловщина, Kornilovshchina) was a confused struggle between Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, General Lavr Kornilov and Aleksandr Kerensky in August/September, 1917, in between the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the October Revolution. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky ( Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) ( April 22, 1881 ( May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the...


The following summary of Trotsky's Role in 1917 was written by Stalin in Pravda, November 6, 1918. (Although this passage was quoted in Stalin's book "The October Revolution" issued in 1934, it was expunged in Stalin's Works released in 1949.) is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

All practical work in connection with the organization of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet. It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organized. Military Revolutionary Committee also known as the MILREVCOM (Russian: ) was the name for military organs under soviet (council)s during the period of the Russian Revolution. ...

After the success of the uprising on 7-8 November, Trotsky led the efforts to repel a counter-attack by Cossacks under General Pyotr Krasnov and other troops still loyal to the overthrown Provisional Government at Gatchina. Allied with Lenin, he successfully defeated attempts by other Bolshevik Central Committee members (Zinoviev, Kamenev, Alexei Rykov, etc) to share power with other socialist parties. Kerensky-Krasnov uprising is the term used in Soviet historiography to denote an attempt of Alexander Kerensky to retake power from Bolsheviks. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Ataman Pyotr Krasnov Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Петр Николаевич Краснов in Russian) (September 22 (10 O.S.), 1869 — January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counterrevolutionary White movement afterwards. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (Russian: Алексей Иванович Рыков, Aleksej Ivanovič Rykov; February 25 [O.S. February 13] 1881 – March 15, 1938) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and Soviet politician. ...


By the end of 1917, Trotsky was unquestionably the second man in the Bolshevik Party after Lenin, overshadowing the ambitious Zinoviev, who had been Lenin's top lieutenant over the previous decade, but whose star appeared to be fading. This turnaround led to enmity between the two Bolshevik leaders which lasted until 1926 and did much to destroy them both.


After the Russian Revolution

Trotsky with troops at the Polish front, 1919

Trotsky in his military uniform walking with soldiers. ... Trotsky in his military uniform walking with soldiers. ...

Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Brest-Litovsk (1917-1918)

After the Bolsheviks came to power, Trotsky became the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and published the secret treaties previously signed by the Triple Entente that detailed plans for post-war reallocation of colonies and redrawing state borders. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Trotsky led the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk from December 22, 1917 to February 10, 1918. At that time the Soviet government was split on the issue. Left Communists, led by Nikolai Bukharin, continued to believe that there could be no peace between a Soviet republic and a capitalist country and that only a revolutionary war leading to a pan-European Soviet republic would bring a durable peace. They cited the successes of the newly formed (January 15, 1918) voluntary Red Army against Polish forces of Gen. Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus, White forces in the Don region, and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used. They did not mind holding talks with the Germans as a means of exposing German imperial ambitions (territorial gains, reparations, etc) in hopes of accelerating the hoped−for Soviet revolution in the West, but they were dead set against signing any peace treaty. In case of a German ultimatum, they advocated proclaiming a revolutionary war against Germany in order to inspire Russian and European workers to fight for socialism. This opinion was shared by Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who were then the Bolsheviks' junior partners in a coalition government. For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Józef Dowbor-MuÅ›nicki Józef Dowbor-MuÅ›nicki (sometimes also Dowbór-MuÅ›nicki, 25 October 1867-26 October 1937) was first a tsarist Lieutenant-General, who served in Manchuria in 1904/05. ... White Army redirects here. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Asymmetric warfare is a military term to describe warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or accustomed methods of engagement such that the militarily diasadvantaged power must press its special advantages or effectively exploit its enemys particular weaknesses if they are to have any... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... In 1917, Russia the Socialist-Revolutionary Party split between those who supported the Provisional Government, established after the February revolution, and those who supported the Bolsheviks who favoured a communist insurrection. ...

1918 Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as St. George slaying the reactionary dragon. The image of St. George and the dragon comes from the Moscow Coat of Arms.
1918 Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as St. George slaying the reactionary dragon. The image of St. George and the dragon comes from the Moscow Coat of Arms.

Lenin, who had earlier hoped for a speedy Soviet revolution in Germany and other parts of Europe, quickly decided that the imperial government of Germany was still firmly in control and that, without a strong Russian military, an armed conflict with Germany would lead to a collapse of the Soviet government in Russia. He agreed with the Left Communists that ultimately a pan-European Soviet revolution would solve all problems, but until then the Bolsheviks had to stay in power. Lenin did not mind prolonging the negotiating process for maximum propaganda effect, but, from January 1918 on, advocated signing a separate peace treaty if faced with a German ultimatum. Download high resolution version (619x712, 171 KB)Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the dragon of counter-revolution, 1918. ... Download high resolution version (619x712, 171 KB)Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the dragon of counter-revolution, 1918. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... Modern emblem of Moscow The Coat of Arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a dragon. ...


Trotsky's position was between these two Bolshevik factions. Like Lenin, he admitted that the old Russian military, inherited from the monarchy and the Provisional Government and in advanced stages of decomposition, was unable to fight:[12]

That we could no longer fight was perfectly clear to me and that the newly formed Red Guard and Red Army detachments were too small and poorly trained to resist the Germans. The term Red Guards may refer to one of the following. ...

But he agreed with the Left Communists that a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible moral and material blow to the Soviet government, negate all its military and political successes of 1917 and 1918, resurrect the notion that the Bolsheviks secretly allied with the German government, and cause an upsurge of internal resistance. He argued that any German ultimatum should be refused, and that this may well lead to an uprising in Germany, or at least inspire German soldiers to disobey their officers since any German offensive would be a naked grab for territories. He wrote in 1925:[13]

We began peace negotiations in the hope of arousing the workmen's party of Germany and Austria-Hungary as well as of the Entente countries. For this reason we were obliged to delay the negotiations as long as possible to give the European workman time to understand the main fact of the Soviet revolution itself and particularly its peace policy.


But there was the other question: Can the Germans still fight? Are they in a position to begin an attack on the revolution that will explain the cessation of the war? How can we find out the state of mind of the German soldiers, how to fathom it?

White Army propaganda poster. The caption reads, "Peace and Liberty in Sovdepiya".
White Army propaganda poster. The caption reads, "Peace and Liberty in Sovdepiya".

Throughout January and February of 1918, Lenin's position was supported by 7 members of the Bolshevik Central Committee and Bukharin's by 4. Trotsky had 4 votes (his own, Felix Dzerzhinsky's, Nikolai Krestinsky's and Adolph Joffe's) and, since he held the balance of power, he was able to pursue his policy in Brest-Litovsk. When he could no longer delay the negotiations, he withdrew from the talks on February 10, 1918, refusing to sign on Germany's harsh terms. After a brief hiatus, the Central Powers notified the Soviet government that they would no longer observe the truce after February 17. At this point Lenin again argued that the Soviet government had done all it could to explain its position to Western workers and that it was time to accept the terms. Trotsky refused to support Lenin since he was waiting to see whether German workers would rebel and whether German soldiers would refuse to follow orders. Download high resolution version (600x828, 203 KB)Russian Civil War White Army propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as a Jewish devil. ... Download high resolution version (600x828, 203 KB)Russian Civil War White Army propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as a Jewish devil. ... White Army redirects here. ... Sovdepia or Sovdepiya was a derogatory name for Soviet Russia and later Soviet Union by those who were against the Bolshevik rule. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский; September 11, 1877 - July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police... Krestinsky Nikolai Nikolaevich Krestinsky (Николай Николаевич Крестинский) (October 13, 1883 - March 15, 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... Adolph Joffe Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Russian: Адольф Абрамович Иоффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (October 10, 1883, Simferopol – November 16, 1927, Moscow) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Germany resumed military operations on February 18. Within a day, it became clear that the German army was capable of conducting offensive operations and that Red Army detachments, which were relatively small, poorly organized and poorly led, were no match for it. In the evening of February 18, 1918, Trotsky and his supporters in the committee abstained and Lenin's proposal was accepted 7-4. The Soviet government sent a telegram to the German side accepting the final Brest-Litovsk peace terms. is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


Germany did not respond for three days, and continued its offensive encountering little resistance. The response arrived on February 21, but the proposed terms were so harsh that even Lenin briefly thought that the Soviet government had no choice but to fight. But in the end, the committee again voted 7-4 on February 23, 1918; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on March 3 and ratified on March 15, 1918. Since he was so closely associated with the policy previously followed by the Soviet delegation at Brest-Litovsk, Trotsky resigned from his position as Commissar for Foreign Affairs in order to remove a potential obstacle to the new policy. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Head of the Red Army (spring 1918)

Trotsky with Lenin and soldiers in Petrograd in 1921
Trotsky with Lenin and soldiers in Petrograd in 1921

The failure of the recently formed Red Army to resist the German offensive in February 1918 revealed its weaknesses: insufficient numbers, lack of knowledgeable officers, and near absence of coordination and subordination. Celebrated and feared Baltic Fleet sailors, one of the bastions of the new regime led by Pavel Dybenko, shamefully fled from the German army at Narva. The notion that the Soviet state could have an effective voluntary or militia type military was seriously undermined. Image File history File links Beschreibung Description: Trotsky and Lenin with soldiers in Petrograd Source: originally uploaded to en. ... Image File history File links Beschreibung Description: Trotsky and Lenin with soldiers in Petrograd Source: originally uploaded to en. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Pavel Dybenko Pavel Yefimovich Dybenko (Russian: Павел Ефимович Дыбенко) (February 16, 1889 - July 29, 1938) was a Russian revolutionary and a leading Soviet officer. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ...


Trotsky was one of the first Bolshevik leaders to recognize the problem and he pushed for the formation of a military council of former Russian generals that would function as an advisory body. Lenin and the Bolshevik Central Committee agreed on March 4 to create the Supreme Military Council, headed by former chief of the imperial General Staff Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich. But the entire Bolshevik leadership of the Red Army, including People's Commissar (defense minister) Nikolai Podvoisky and commander-in-chief Nikolai Krylenko, protested vigorously and eventually resigned. They believed that the Red Army should consist only of dedicated revolutionaries, rely on propaganda and force, and have elected officers. They viewed former imperial officers and generals as potential traitors who should be kept out of the new military, much less put in charge of it. Their views continued to be popular with many Bolsheviks throughout most of the Russian Civil War and their supporters, including Podvoisky, who became one of Trotsky's deputies, were a constant thorn in Trotsky's side. The discontent with Trotsky's policies of strict discipline, conscription and reliance on carefully supervised non-Communist military experts eventually led to the Military Opposition, which was active within the Communist Party in late 1918-1919. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic or Revvoyensoviet (Революционный Военный Совет, Реввоенсовет) was the supreme military authority of Soviet Russia. ... Mikhail Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich (Михаил Дмитриевич Бонч-Бруевич 1870—1956) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet military commander, Lieutenant General (1944). ... Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky (Russian: Николай Ильич Подвойский) (February 4 (16), 1880 - July 28, 1948) was a Soviet statesman. ... Nikolai Krylenko Nikolai Vasilyevich Krylenko (Russian: Николай Васильевич Крыленко) (May 2, 1885, Bekhteevo (Бехтеево), Smolensk region, Russian Empire – July 29, 1938, Moscow) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


On March 13, 1918 Trotsky's resignation as Commissar for Foreign Affairs was officially accepted and he was appointed People's Commissar of Army and Navy Affairs - in place of Podvoisky - and chairman of the Supreme Military Council. The post of commander-in-chief was abolished, and Trotsky gained full control of the Red Army, responsible only to the Communist Party leadership, whose Left Socialist Revolutionary allies had left the government over Brest-Litovsk. With the help of his faithful deputy Ephraim Sklyansky, Trotsky spent the rest of the Civil War transforming the Red Army from a ragtag network of small and fiercely independent detachments into a large and disciplined military machine, through forced conscription, party controlled blocking squads, compulsory obedience and officers chosen by the leadership instead of the rank and file. He defended these positions throughout his life. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Ephraim Markovich Sklyansky (Russian: Эфраим Маркович Склянский) (August 12 (O.S. July 31), 1892 - August 27, 1925) was a Soviet statesman. ...


Civil War (1918-1920)

Main article: Russian Civil War

Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...

1918

Trotsky's managerial and organization-building skills with the Soviet military were soon tested. In May-June 1918, the Czechoslovak Legions en route from European Russia to Vladivostok rose against the Soviet government. This left the Bolsheviks with the loss of most of the country's territory, an increasingly well organized resistance by Russian anti-Communist forces (usually referred to as the White Army after their best known component) and widespread defection by the military experts that Trotsky relied on. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... White Army redirects here. ...


Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilization, which increased the size of the Red Army from less than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army. The latter were responsible for ensuring the loyalty of military experts (who were mostly former officers in the imperial army) and co-signing their orders. This article describes military mobilization. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ...


Facing military defeats in mid-1918, Trotsky introduced increasingly severe penalties for desertion, insubordination, and retreat. As he later wrote in his autobiography:[14]

An army cannot be built without reprisals. Masses of men cannot be led to death unless the army command has the death-penalty in its arsenal. So long as those malicious tailless apes that are so proud of their technical achievements—the animals that we call men—will build armies and wage wars, the command will always be obliged to place the soldiers between the possible death in the front and the inevitable one in the rear. And yet armies are not built on fear. The Czar’s army fell to pieces not because of any lack of reprisals. In his attempt to save it by restoring the death-penalty, Kerensky only finished it. Upon the ashes of the great war, the Bolsheviks created a new army. These facts demand no explanation for any one who has even the slightest knowledge of the language of history. The strongest cement in the new army was the ideas of the October revolution, and the train supplied the front with this cement.

Reprisals included the death penalty for deserters and traitors, and the use of former officers' families as hostages against possible defections:

[...]I ordered you to establish the family status of former officers among command personnel and to inform each of them by signed receipt that treachery or treason will cause the arrest of their families and that, therefore, they are each taking upon themselves responsibility for their families. That order is still in force. Since then there have been a number of cases of treason by former officers, yet not in a single case, as far as I know, has the family of the traitor been arrested, as the registration of former officers has evidently not been carried out at all. Such a negligent approach to so important a matter is totally impermissible.[15]

Trotsky also threatened to execute unit commanders and commissars whose units either deserted or retreated without permission.[citation needed] (Trotsky later argued that these threats were either taken out of context or were used to scare his subordinates into action and were not necessarily meant to be carried out.) Since Red Army commissars were often prominent Bolsheviks, it sometimes led to clashes between them and Trotsky.[citation needed]


Trotsky continued to insist that former officers should be used as military experts within the Red Army and, in the summer of 1918, was able to convince Lenin and the Bolshevik leadership not only to continue the policy in the face of mass defections, but also give these experts more direct operational control of the military. In this he differed sharply from Stalin who was, from May through October 1918, the top commissar in the South of Russia. Stalin and his future defense minister, Kliment Voroshilov, went so far as to refuse to accept former general Andrei Snesarev who had been sent to them by Trotsky. Stalin's stubborn opposition to Trotsky's military policies foreshadowed a continuing acute conflict between the two Bolsheviks over the policies and direction of the Soviet Union, culminating 10 years later in Trotsky's expulsion from the Soviet Union and then his assassination.   (Russian: ), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Russian: ) (February 4 [O.S. January 23] 1881 – December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and politician. ...


In September 1918, the government, facing continuous military difficulties, declared what amounted to martial law and reorganized the Red Army. The Supreme Military Council was abolished and the position of commander-in-chief was restored, filled by the commander of the Red Latvian Rifleman Ioakim Vatsetis (aka Jukums Vācietis), who had formerly led the Eastern Front against the Czechoslovak Legions. Vatsetis was put in charge of day-to-day operations of the army while Trotsky became chairman of the newly formed Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic and retained overall control of the military. Trotsky and Vatsetis had clashed earlier in 1918 while Vatsetis and Trotsky's adviser Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich were also on unfriendly terms. Nevertheless, Trotsky eventually established a working relationship with the often prickly Vatsetis. Monument to the Red Latvian Riflemen in Riga, Latvia Latvian riflemen (Latvian: LatvieÅ¡u strÄ“lnieki, Russian: Латышские стрелки) were military formations assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among... Jukums Vācietis (November 11, 1873—July 28, 1938) (Russian (language): Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис (Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis)) was a Soviet military commander of Latvian descent. ... Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic or Revvoyensoviet (Революционный Военный Совет, Реввоенсовет) was the supreme military authority...


The reorganization caused yet another conflict between Trotsky and Stalin in late September. Trotsky appointed former imperial general Pavel Sytin to command the Southern Front, but in early October 1918 Stalin refused to accept him and so was recalled from the front. Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov tried to make Trotsky and Stalin reconcile, but their meeting was unsuccessful. Yakov Sverdlov Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov (Russian: Я́ков Миха́йлович Свердло́в), born Yankel Movshevich Eiman (Russian: Я́нкель Мовшевич Эйман); known under pseudonyms Andrey, Mikhalych, Max, Smirnov, Permyakov (June 3 [O.S. May 22] 1885 – March 16, 1919) was a Bolshevik party leader and an official of pre-Soviet Union Soviet Russia. ...


1919

Throughout late 1918 and early 1919, there were a number of attacks on Trotsky's leadership of the Red Army, including veiled accusations in newspaper articles inspired by Stalin and a direct attack by the Military Opposition at the VIIIth Party Congress in March 1919. On the surface, he weathered them successfully and was elected one of only five full members of the first Politburo after the Congress. But he later wrote:[16] Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...

It is no wonder that my military work created so many enemies for me. I did not look to the side, I elbowed away those who interfered with military success, or in the haste of the work trod on the toes of the unheeding and was too busy even to apologize. Some people remember such things. The dissatisfied and those whose feelings had been hurt found their way to Stalin or Zinoviev, for these two also nourished hurts.

In mid-1919 the dissatisfied had an opportunity to mount a serious challenge to Trotsky's leadership. The Red Army had defeated the White Army's spring offensive in the east and was about to cross the Ural mountains and enter Siberia in pursuit of Admiral Alexander Kolchak's forces. But in the south, General Anton Denikin's White Russian forces advanced, and the situation deteriorated rapidly. On June 6 commander-in-chief Vatsetis ordered the Eastern Front to stop the offensive so that he could use its forces in the south. But the leadership of the Eastern Front, including its commander Sergei Kamenev (a colonel in the imperial army, not to be confused with the Politburo member Lev Kamenev), and Eastern Front Revolutionary Military Council members Ivar Smilga, Mikhail Lashevich and Sergei Gusev vigorously protested and wanted to keep emphasis on the Eastern Front. They insisted that it was vital to capture Siberia before the onset of winter and that once Kolchak's forces were broken, many more divisions would be freed up for the Southern Front. Trotsky, who had earlier had conflicts with the leadership of the Eastern Front, including a temporary removal of Kamenev in May 1919, supported Vatsetis. Ural may refer to one of the following: Ural Mountains Ural (region) Ural River Urals Federal District IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle Ural automobile Ural, Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban settlement in Russia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 - February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ivar Smilga (Ivar Tenisovich Smilga) (1892-1937/38?) was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader in Russia, and member of the Left Opposition. ... Sergei Gusev (born July 31, 1975 in Nizhniy Tagil, Russia is a professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League for the Dallas Stars and the Tampa Bay Lightning. ...


At the 3-4 July Central Committee meeting, after a heated exchange the majority supported Kamenev and Smilga against Vatsetis and Trotsky. Trotsky's plan was rejected and he was much criticized for various alleged shortcomings in his leadership style, much of it of a personal nature. Stalin used this opportunity to pressure Lenin[17] to dismiss Trotsky from his post. But when, on July 5, Trotsky offered his resignation, the Politburo and the Orgburo of the Central Committee unanimously rejected it. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Existence of Orgburo The Orgburo existed from 1919 to 1952, until the 19th Congress, when the Orgburo was abolished and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat. ...


Yet, a number of significant changes to the leadership of the Red Army were made. Trotsky was temporarily sent to the Southern Front, while the work in Moscow was informally coordinated by Smilga. Most members of the bloated Revolutionary Military Council who were not involved in its day to day operations, were relieved of their duties on July 8, while new members including Smilga were added. The same day, while Trotsky was already in the south, Vatsetis was suddenly arrested by the Cheka on suspicion of involvement in an anti-Soviet plot, and replaced by Sergei Kamenev. is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ...


After a few weeks in the south, Trotsky returned to Moscow and resumed control of the Red Army. A year later, Smilga and Tukhachevsky were defeated during the Miracle at the Vistula, but Trotsky refused this opportunity to pay Smilga back, which earned him Smilga's friendship and later support during the intra-Party battles of the 1920s.[18] Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 13 to August 25, 1920 Place near Warsaw, Poland Result Decisive Polish victory The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War (also...


By October 1919 the government was in the worst crisis of the Civil War: Denikin's troops approached Tula and Moscow from the south, and General Nikolay Yudenich's troops approached Petrograd from the west. Lenin decided that since it was more important to defend Moscow, Petrograd would have to be abandoned. Trotsky argued[19] that Petrograd needed to be defended, at least in part to prevent Estonia and Finland from intervening. In a rare reversal, Trotsky was supported by Stalin and Zinoviev and prevailed against Lenin in the Central Committee. He immediately went to Petrograd, whose leadership headed by Zinoviev he found demoralized, and organized its defense, sometimes personally stopping fleeing soldiers. By October 22 the Red Army was on the offensive and in early November Yudenich's troops were driven back to Estonia, where they were disarmed and interned. Trotsky was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for his actions in Petrograd. , For other uses, see Tula (disambiguation). ... Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (1862–1933), Infantry General (1915), leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet government of Russia established the Order of the Battle Red Banner, better-known as the Order of the Red Banner (in Russian: Орден Крaсного Знамени Orden Krasnogo Znameni) on September 16, 1918 during the Russian Civil War. ...


1920

With the defeat of Denikin and Yudenich in late 1919, the Soviet government's emphasis shifted to economic work and Trotsky spent the winter of 1919-1920 in the Urals region trying to re-start its economy. Based on his experiences there, he proposed abandoning the policies of War Communism,[20] which included confiscating grain from peasants, and partially restoring the grain market. But Lenin was still committed to War Communism and the proposal was rejected. Instead, Trotsky was put in charge of the country's railroads (while retaining overall control of the Red Army), which he tried to militarize in the spirit of War Communism. It wasn't until early 1921 that economic collapse and uprisings would force Lenin and the rest of the Bolshevik leadership to abandon War Communism in favor of the New Economic Policy. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Meanwhile, in early 1920 Soviet-Polish tensions eventually led to the Polish-Soviet War. In the run-up and during the war, Trotsky argued[21] that the Red Army was exhausted and the Soviet government should sign a peace treaty with Poland as soon as possible. He also did not believe that the Red Army would find much support in Poland proper. Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders thought that the Red Army's successes in the Russian Civil War and against the Poles meant that, as Lenin said later:[22] Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000...

The defensive period of the war with worldwide imperialism was over, and we could, and had the obligation to, exploit the military situation to launch an offensive war.

But the Red Army offensive was turned back during the Battle of Warsaw in August 1920, in part because of Stalin's failure to obey Trotsky's orders in the run-up to the decisive engagements. Back in Moscow, Trotsky again argued for a peace treaty and this time prevailed. The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ...


Trade union debate (1920-1921)

Serrati and Trotsky.
Serrati and Trotsky.

In late 1920, after the Bolsheviks won the Civil War and before the Eighth and Ninth Congress of Soviets, the Communist Party had a heated and increasingly acrimonious debate over the role of trade unions in the Soviet state. The discussion split the party into many "platforms" (factions), including Lenin's, Trotsky's and Bukharin's; Bukharin eventually merged his with Trotsky's. Smaller, more radical factions like the Workers' Opposition (headed by Alexander Shlyapnikov) and the Group of Democratic Centralism were particularly active. Image File history File links Serratitrotzki. ... Image File history File links Serratitrotzki. ... Serrati and Trotsky. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... The Workers Opposition was a faction of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that emerged in 1920 as a response to the perceived over-bureaucratisation that was occurring in the Soviet Union. ... Alexander Gavrilovich Shlyapnikov (in Russian, Александр Гаврилович Шляпников) (1885-1937) was a Russian communist. ... The Group of Democratic Centralism was a dissenting faction within the Soviet Communist Party in the early 1920s. ...


Trotsky's position formed while he led a special commission on the Soviet transportation system, Tsektran. He was appointed there to rebuild the rail system ruined by the Civil War. Being the Commissar of War and a revolutionary military leader, he saw a need to create a militarized "production atmosphere" by incorporating trade unions directly into the State apparatus. His unyielding stance was that in a worker's state the workers should have nothing to fear from the state, and the State should fully control the unions. In the Ninth Party Congress he argued for "such a regime under which each worker feels himself to be a soldier of labor who cannot freely dispose of himself; if he is ordered transferred, he must execute that order; if he does not do so, he will be a deserter who should be punished. Who will execute this? The trade union. It will create a new regime. That is the militarization of the working class."[citation needed]


Lenin sharply criticised Trotsky and accused him of "bureaucratically nagging the trade unions" and of staging "factional attacks." His view did not focus on State control as much as the concern that a new relationship was needed between the State and the rank-and-file workers. He said, "Introduction of genuine labor discipline is conceived only if the whole mass of participants in productions take a conscious part in the fulfillment of these tasks. This cannot be achieved by bureaucratic methods and orders from above." This was a debate that Lenin thought the party could not afford. His frustration with Trotsky was used by Stalin and Zinoviev with their support for Lenin's position, to improve their standing within the Bolshevik leadership at Trotsky's expense.


Disagreements threatened to get out of hand and many Bolsheviks, including Lenin, feared that the party would splinter. The Central Committee was split almost evenly between Lenin's and Trotsky's supporters, with all three Secretaries of the Central Committee (Krestinky, Yevgeny Preobrazhensky and Leonid Serebryakov) supporting Trotsky. Yevgeni Alekseyevich Preobrazhensky (1886-1937) was an Old Bolshevik, an economist and a member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik faction and, its successor, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


At a meeting of his faction at the Tenth Party Congress in March 1921, Lenin's faction won a decisive victory and a number of Trotsky's supporters (including all three secretaries of the Central Committee) lost their leadership positions. Krestinsky was replaced as a member of the Politburo by Zinoviev, who had supported Lenin. Krestinsky's place in the secretariat was taken by Vyacheslav Molotov. The congress also adopted a secret resolution on "Party unity", which banned factions within the Party except during pre-Congress discussions. The resolution was later published and used by Stalin against Trotsky and other opponents. For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ...


At the end of the Tenth Congress, after peace negotiations had failed, Trotsky gave the order for the suppression of the Kronstadt Rebellion, the last major revolt against Bolshevik rule.[23] Years later, Anarchist Emma Goldman and others criticized Trotsky's actions as Commissar for War for his role in the suppression of the rebellion, and argued that he ordered unjustified incarcerations and executions of political opponents such as anarchists, although Trotsky did not participate in the actual suppression.[24][25] The claim that the Kronstadt rebels were counterrevolutionary has been supported by evidence of White army and French government support for the Kronstadt sailors' March rebellion.[26] Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Lithuanian-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ...


Fall from power (1922-1928)

Lenin's illness (1922-1923)

In late 1921 Lenin's health deteriorated, he was absent from Moscow for even longer periods, and eventually had three strokes between May 26, 1922 and March 10, 1923, which caused paralysis, loss of speech and finally death on January 21, 1924. With Lenin increasingly sidelined throughout 1922, Stalin (elevated to the newly created position of the Central Committee General Secretary[27] earlier in the year), Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev [28] formed a troika (triumvirate) to ensure that Trotsky, publicly the number two man in the country and Lenin's heir presumptive, would not succeed Lenin. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... A general meaning of the Russian word troika (Cyrillic alphabet: тройка) is threesome, a collection of three of any kind. ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ...


The rest of the recently expanded Politburo (Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky, Bukharin) was at first uncommitted, but eventually joined the troika. Stalin's power of patronage[29] in his capacity as General Secretary clearly played a role, but Trotsky and his supporters later concluded that a more fundamental reason was the process of slow bureaucratization of the Soviet regime once the extreme conditions of the Civil War were over: much of the Bolshevik elite wanted 'normalcy' while Trotsky was personally and politically personified as representing a turbulent revolutionary period that they would much rather leave behind. Mikhail Tomsky (1880-1936) was a factory worker, trade unionist and Bolshevik leader. ...


Although the exact sequence of events is unclear, evidence suggests that at first the troika nominated Trotsky to head second rate government departments (e.g., Gokhran, the State Depository for Valuables[30]) and then, when Trotsky predictably refused, they tried to use it as an excuse to oust him.


When, in mid-July 1922, Kamenev wrote a letter to the recovering Lenin to the effect that "(the Central Committee) is throwing or is ready to throw a good cannon overboard", Lenin was shocked and responded:[31]

Throwing Trotsky overboard - surely you are hinting at that, it is impossible to interpret it otherwise - is the height of stupidity. If you do not consider me already hopelessly foolish, how can you think of that????

From then until his final stroke, Lenin spent much of his time trying to devise a way to prevent a split within the Communist Party leadership, which was reflected in Lenin's Testament. As part of this effort, on September 11, 1922 Lenin proposed that Trotsky become his deputy at the Sovnarkom. The Politburo approved the proposal, but Trotsky "categorically refused".[32] Lenins Testament is the name given to a document written by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In late 1922, Lenin's relationship with Stalin deteriorated over Stalin's heavy-handed and chauvinistic handling of the issue of merging Soviet republics into one federal state, the USSR. At that point, according to Trotsky's autobiography,[33] Lenin offered Trotsky an alliance against Soviet bureaucracy in general and Stalin in particular. The alliance proved effective on the issue of foreign trade [34], but it was complicated by Lenin's progressing illness. In January 1923 the relationship between Lenin and Stalin completely broke down when Stalin rudely insulted Lenin's wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya. At that point Lenin amended his Testament suggesting that Stalin should be replaced as the party's General Secretary, although the thrust of his argument was somewhat weakened by the fact that he also mildly criticized other Bolshevik leaders, including Trotsky. In March 1923, days before his third stroke, Lenin prepared a frontal assault on Stalin's "Great-Russian nationalistic campaign" against the Georgian Communist Party (the so-called Georgian Affair) and asked Trotsky to deliver the blow at the XIIth Party Congress. With Lenin no longer active, Trotsky did not raise the issue at the Congress.[35] Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... Nadezhda Krupskaya Nadezhda K. Krupskaya ( February 26, 1869 - February 27, 1939) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary. ... The Georgian Affair of 1922 was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was to be achieved in the Georgian SSR. The dispute over Georgia, which arose shortly after the forcible Sovietization of the country and peaked in the latter part...


At the XIIth Party Congress in April 1923, just after Lenin's final stroke, the key Central Committee reports on organizational and nationalities questions were delivered by Stalin and not by Trotsky, while Zinoviev delivered the political report of the Central Committee, traditionally Lenin's prerogative.[36] Stalin's power of appointment had allowed him to gradually replace local party secretaries with loyal functionaries and thus control most regional delegations at the congress, which enabled him to pack the Central Committee with his supporters, mostly at the expense of Zinoviev and Kamenev's backers.[37]


At the congress, Trotsky made a speech about intra-party democracy, among other things, but avoided a direct confrontation with the troika. The delegates, most of whom were unaware of the divisions within the Politburo, gave Trotsky a standing ovation, which couldn't help but upset the troika. The troika was further infuriated by Karl Radek's article Leon Trotsky — Organizer of Victory [38] published in Pravda on March 14, 1923, which seemed to anoint Trotsky as Lenin's successor. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Karl Radek Karl Radek Karl Berngardovich Radek (October 31 [O.S. October 19] 1885 - May 19, 1939) was a Bolshevik and an international Communist leader. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The resolutions adopted by the XIIth Congress called, in general terms, for greater democracy within the Party, but were vague and remained unimplemented. In an important test of strength in mid-1923, the troika was able to neutralize Trotsky's friend and supporter Christian Rakovsky by removing him from his post as head of the Ukrainian government (Sovnarkom) and sending him to London as Soviet ambassador. When regional Party secretaries in Ukraine protested against Rakovsky's reassignment, they too were reassigned to various posts all over the Soviet Union. Dr. Christian Georgievich Rakovsky (Кристиян Георгиевич Раковски; Кръстьо Раковски - Krastyo Rakovski in Bulgarian or, in Romanian spelling, Cristian Racovschi; August 13 (August 1, Old Style), 1873 - September 11, 1941) was a socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ...


Left opposition (1923-1924)

Starting in mid-1923, the Soviet economy ran into significant difficulties, which led to numerous strikes countrywide. Two secret groups within the Communist Party, Workers' Truth and Workers' Group, were uncovered and suppressed by the Soviet secret police. Then, in September-October, the much anticipated Communist revolution in Germany ended in defeat. “November Revolution” redirects here. ...


On October 8, 1923 Trotsky sent a letter to the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission, attributing these difficulties to lack of intra-Party democracy. Trotsky wrote: is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Central Auditing Commission (CAC), (Russian: Центральная Контрольная Комиссия (ЦКК), Centralnaya Kontrolnaya Komissiya) was a supervisory organ within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...

In the fiercest moment of War Communism, the system of appointment within the party did not have one tenth of the extent that it has now. Appointment of the secretaries of provincial committees is now the rule. That creates for the secretary a position essentially independent of the local organization. [...] The bureaucratization of the party apparatus has developed to unheard-of proportions by means of the method of secretarial selection. There has been created a very broad stratum of party workers, entering into the apparatus of the government of the party, who completely renounce their own party opinion, at least the open expression of it, as though assuming that the secretarial hierarchy is the apparatus which creates party opinion and party decisions. Beneath this stratum, abstaining from their own opinions, there lays the broad mass of the party, before whom every decision stands in the form of a summons or a command.

Other senior communists who had similar concerns sent The Declaration of 46 to the Central Committee on October 15, in which they wrote: The Declaration of 46 was a secret letter sent by a group of 46 leading Soviet Communists to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party on October 15, 1923. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

[...] we observe an ever progressing, barely disguised division of the party into a secretarial hierarchy and into "laymen", into professional party functionaries, chosen from above, and the other party masses, who take no part in social life. [...] free discussion within the party has virtually disappeared, party public opinion has been stifled. [...] it is the secretarial hierarchy, the party hierarchy which to an ever greater degree chooses the delegates to the conferences and congresses, which to an ever greater degree are becoming the executive conferences of this hierarchy.

Although the text of these letters remained secret at the time, they had a significant effect on the Party leadership and prompted a partial retreat by the troika and its supporters on the issue of intra-Party democracy, notably in Zinoviev's Pravda article published on November 7. Throughout November, the troika tried to come up with a compromise to placate, or at least temporarily neutralize, Trotsky and his supporters. (Their task was made easier by the fact that Trotsky was sick in November and December.) The first draft of the resolution was rejected by Trotsky, which led to the formation of a special group consisting of Stalin, Trotsky and Kamenev, which was charged with drafting a mutually acceptable compromise. On December 5, the Politburo and the Central Control Commission unanimously adopted the group's final draft as its resolution. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 8, Trotsky published an open letter, in which he expounded on the recently adopted resolution's ideas. The troika used his letter as an excuse to launch a campaign against Trotsky, accusing him of factionalism, setting "the youth against the fundamental generation of old revolutionary Bolsheviks"[39] and other sins. Trotsky defended his position in a series of seven letters which were collected as The New Course in January 1924. The illusion of a "monolithic Bolshevik leadership" was thus shattered and a lively intra-Party discussion ensued, both in local Party organizations and in the pages of Pravda. The discussion lasted most of December and January until the XIIIth Party Conference of January 16, 17 and 18, 1924. Those who opposed the Central Committee's position in the debate were thereafter referred to as members of the Left Opposition. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Left Opposition was a faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1923-1927. ...


Since the troika controlled the Party apparatus through Stalin's Secretariat as well as Pravda through its editor Bukharin, it was able to direct the discussion and the process of delegate selection. Although Trotsky's position prevailed within the Red Army and Moscow universities and received about half the votes in the Moscow Party organization, it was defeated elsewhere, and the Conference was packed with pro-troika delegates. In the end, only three delegates voted for Trotsky's position and the Conference denounced "Trotskyism"[40] as a "petty bourgeois deviation". After the Conference, a number of Trotsky's supporters, especially in the Red Army's Political Directorate, were removed from leading positions or reassigned. Nonetheless, Trotsky kept all of his posts and the troika was careful to emphasize that the debate was limited to Trotsky's "mistakes" and that removing Trotsky from the leadership was out of the question. In reality, Trotsky had already been cut off from the decision making process.


Immediately after the Conference, Trotsky left for a Caucasian resort to recover from his prolonged illness. On his way, he learned about Lenin's death on January 21, 1924. He was about to return when a follow up telegram from Stalin arrived, giving an incorrect date of the scheduled funeral, which would have made it impossible for Trotsky to return in time. Many commentators speculated after the fact that Trotsky's absence from Moscow in the days following Lenin's death contributed to his eventual loss to Stalin, although Trotsky generally discounted the significance of his absence. The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map This article concerns the geographic region. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


After Lenin's death (1924)

There was little overt political disagreement within the Soviet leadership throughout most of 1924. On the surface, Trotsky remained the most prominent and popular Bolshevik leader, although his "mistakes" were often alluded to by troika partisans. Behind the scenes, he was completely cut off from the decision making process. Politburo meetings were pure formalities since all key decisions were made ahead of time by the troika and its supporters. Trotsky's control over the military was undermined by reassigning his deputy, Ephraim Sklyansky, and appointing Mikhail Frunze, who was being groomed to take Trotsky's place. Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (Russian Михаил Васильевич Фрунзе) (1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917. ...


At the XIIIth Party Congress in May, Trotsky delivered a conciliatory speech:[41]

None of us desires or is able to dispute the will of the Party. Clearly, the Party is always right.... We can only be right with and by the Party, for history has provided no other way of being in the right. The English have a saying, "My country, right or wrong," whether it is in the right or in the wrong, it is my country. We have much better historical justification in saying whether it is right or wrong in certain individual concrete cases, it is my party.... And if the Party adopts a decision which one or other of us thinks unjust, he will say, just or unjust, it is my party, and I shall support the consequences of the decision to the end.

The attempt at reconciliation, however, did not stop troika supporters from taking potshots at him.


In the meantime, the Left Opposition, which had coagulated somewhat unexpectedly in late 1923 and lacked a definite platform aside from general dissatisfaction with the intra-Party "regime", began to crystallize. It lost some less dedicated members to the harassment by the troika, but it also began formulating a program. Economically, the Left Opposition and its theoretician Yevgeny Preobrazhensky came out against further development of capitalist elements in the Soviet economy and in favor of faster industrialization. That put them at odds with Bukharin and Rykov, the "Right" group within the Party, who supported troika at the time. On the question of world revolution, Trotsky and Karl Radek saw a period of stability in Europe while Stalin and Zinoviev confidently predicted an "acceleration" of revolution in Western Europe in 1924. On the theoretical plane, Trotsky remained committed to the Bolshevik idea that the Soviet Union could not create a true socialist society in the absence of the world revolution, while Stalin gradually came up with a policy of building 'Socialism in One Country'. These ideological divisions provided much of the intellectual basis for the political divide between Trotsky and the Left Opposition on the one hand and Stalin and his allies on the other. Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Nikolai Bukharin. ...


At the XIIIth Congress Kamenev and Zinoviev helped Stalin defuse Lenin's Testament, which belatedly came to the surface. But just after the congress, the troika, always an alliance of convenience, showed signs of weakness. Stalin began making poorly veiled accusations about Zinoviev and Kamenev. Yet in October 1924, Trotsky published The Lessons of October, an extensive summary of the events of the 1917 revolution. In it, he described Zinoviev's and Kamenev's opposition to the Bolshevik seizure of power in 1917, something that the two would have preferred left unmentioned. This started a new round of intra-party struggle, which became known as the Literary Discussion, with Zinoviev and Kamenev again allied with Stalin against Trotsky. Their criticism of Trotsky was concentrated in three areas:

  • Trotsky's disagreements and conflicts with Lenin and the Bolsheviks prior to 1917
  • Trotsky's alleged distortion of the events of 1917 in order to emphasize his role and diminish the roles played by other Bolsheviks
  • Trotsky's harsh treatment of his subordinates and other alleged mistakes during the Russian Civil War

Trotsky was again sick and unable to respond while his opponents mobilized all of their resources to denounce him. They succeeded in damaging his military reputation so much that he was forced to resign as People's Commissar of Army and Fleet Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council on January 6, 1925. Zinoviev demanded Trotsky's expulsion from the Communist Party, but Stalin refused to go along and skillfully played the role of a moderate. Trotsky kept his Politburo seat, but was effectively put on probation. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A year in the wilderness (1925)

1925 was a difficult year for Trotsky. After the bruising Literary Discussion and losing his Red Army posts, he was effectively unemployed throughout the winter and spring. In May 1925, he was given three posts: chairman of the Concessions Committee, head of the electro-technical board, and chairman of the scientific-technical board of industry. Trotsky wrote in My Life[42] that he "was taking a rest from politics" and "naturally plunged into his new line of work up to my ears", but some contemporary accounts paint a picture of a remote and distracted man.[43] Later in the year, Trotsky resigned his two technical positions (claiming Stalin-instigated interference and sabotage) and concentrated on his work in the Concessions Committee.


In one of the few political developments that affected Trotsky in 1925, the circumstances surrounding the controversy around Lenin's Testament were described by American Marxist Max Eastman in his book Since Lenin Died (1925). The Soviet leadership denounced Eastman's account and used party discipline to force Trotsky to write an article denying Eastman's version of the events.[citation needed] Max Eastman in Moscow (1922) Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883–March 25, 1969) was a socialist American writer and patron of the Harlem Renaissance, later known for being an anti-leftist. ... Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ...


In the meantime, the troika finally broke up. Bukharin and Rykov sided with Stalin while Krupskaya and Soviet Commissar of Finance Grigory Sokolnikov aligned with Zinoviev and Kamenev. The struggle became open at the September 1925 meeting of the Central Committee and came to a head at the XIVth Party Congress in December 1925. With only the Leningrad Party organization behind them, Zinoviev and Kamenev, dubbed The New Opposition, were thoroughly defeated while Trotsky refused to get involved in the fight and didn't speak at the Congress. Grigory Sokolnikov (1888 - 1939) was a Bolshevik, and a friend of Leon Trotsky. ...


United opposition (1926-1927)

During a lull in the intra-party fighting in the spring of 1926, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters in the New Opposition gravitated closer to Trotsky's supporters and the two groups soon formed an alliance, which also incorporated some smaller opposition groups within the Communist Party. The alliance became known as the United Opposition.


The United Opposition was repeatedly threatened with sanctions by the Stalinist leadership of the Communist Party and Trotsky had to agree to tactical retreats, mostly to preserve his alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev. The opposition remained united against Stalin throughout 1926 and 1927, especially on the issue of the Chinese Revolution. The methods used by the Stalinists against the Opposition became more and more extreme. At the XVth Party Conference in October 1926 Trotsky could barely speak due to interruptions and catcalls, and at the end of the Conference he lost his Politburo seat. In 1927 Stalin started using the GPU (Soviet secret police) to infiltrate and discredit the opposition. Rank and file oppositionists were increasingly harassed, sometimes expelled from the Party and even arrested. The Chinese Revolution may refer to: The Xinhai Revolution of 1911-1912, which led to the founding of the Republic of China, also known as the Republican Revolution. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Administration was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ...


Defeat and exile (1927-1928)

In October 1927, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Central Committee. When the United Opposition tried to organize independent demonstrations commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Bolshevik seizure of power in November 1927, the demonstrators were dispersed by force and Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party on November 12. Their leading supporters, from Kamenev down, were expelled in December 1927 by the XVth Party Congress, which paved the way for mass expulsions of rank and file oppositionists as well as internal exile of opposition leaders in early 1928. is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the XVth Party Congress made Opposition views incompatible with membership in the Communist Party, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters capitulated and renounced their alliance with the Left Opposition. Trotsky and most of his followers, on the other hand, refused to surrender and stayed the course.

Trotsky's house on the island of Büyükada, Istanbul, as it appears today.
Trotsky's house on the island of Büyükada, Istanbul, as it appears today.

Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata (now in Kazakhstan) on January 31, 1928. He was expelled from the Soviet Union in February 1929, accompanied by his wife Natalia Sedova and his son Leon Sedov. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (2516 × 1752 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (2516 × 1752 pixel, file size: 3. ... Büyüd Ada (Big Island - Pringipos, Πρίγκιπος in Greek) is the largest of the nine islands consisting the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea, close to Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Alma-Ata Pioneers palace Russian Orthodox Cathedral Night city. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Natalia Sedova Natalia Sedova (1882-1962) is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary. ... Leon Lvovich Sedov (Russian: Лев Львович Седов; February 1906 - February 16, 1938) was the son of the Russian Communist leader Leon Trotsky and his second wife Natalia Sedova. ...


After Trotsky's expulsion from the country, exiled Trotskyists began to waver and, between 1929 and 1934, most of the leading members of the Opposition surrendered to Stalin, "admitted their mistakes" and were reinstated in the Communist Party. Christian Rakovsky, who served as an inspiration for Trotsky between 1929 and 1934 while he was in Siberian exile, was the last prominent Trotskyist to capitulate. Almost all of them perished in the Great Purges just a few years later. The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


Last exile (1929-1940)

Trotsky reading The Militant.
Trotsky reading The Militant.

Trotsky was deported from the Soviet Union in February 1929. His first station in exile was at Büyükada off the coast of Istanbul, where he stayed for the next four years. There were many former White Army officers in Istanbul, which put Trotsky's life in danger, but a number of Trotsky's European supporters volunteered to serve as bodyguards and assured his safety. Image File history File links Trotsky_militant. ... Image File history File links Trotsky_militant. ... The Militant is an international socialist newsweekly connected to the Socialist Workers Party (SWP). ... Büyüd Ada (Big Island - Pringipos, Πρίγκιπος in Greek) is the largest of the nine islands consisting the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea, close to Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


In 1933 Trotsky was offered asylum in France by Daladier. He stayed first at Royan, then at Barbizon. He was not allowed to visit Paris. In 1935 he was given to understand he was no longer welcome in France. After weighing alternatives, he moved to Norway, where he got permission from then Justice minister Trygve Lie to enter the country, Trotsky was a guest of Konrad Knudsen near Oslo. After two years, allegedly under influence from the Soviet Union, he was put under house arrest. After consultations with Norwegian officials, his transfer to Mexico on a freighter was arranged. Mexican President Lázaro Cárdenas welcomed him warmly, even arranging a special train to bring him to Mexico City from the port of Tampico. French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Royan is a small town and commune of the Charente-Maritime département, in western France. ... Barbizon is a village near Fontainebleau Forest, France for which the Barbizon school of painters is named. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Trygve Halvdan Lie (July 16, 1896 – December 30, 1968) was a Norwegian politician. ... Konrad Gustav Knudsen (19 August 1890 - 16 June 1959) was a Norwegian painter, journalist, and parliamentarian. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... This article is about Gen. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ...


In Mexico, he lived at one point at the home of the painter Diego Rivera, and at another at that of Rivera's wife & fellow painter, Frida Kahlo (whom he had an affair with). He remained a prolific writer in exile, penning several key works, including his History of the Russian Revolution (1930) and The Revolution Betrayed (1936), a critique of the Soviet Union under Stalinism. Trotsky argued that the Soviet state had become a degenerated workers' state controlled by an undemocratic bureaucracy, which would eventually either be overthrown via a political revolution establishing workers' democracy, or degenerate into a capitalist class. Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957; full name Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez was a world-famous Mexican painter influenced by Cézanne - and also a communist. ... Frida Kahlo[1](July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ... History of the Russian Revolution, by Leon Trotsky, is a 3 volume book on the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Revolution Betrayed is a book by the Russian Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky, published in 1937, analyzing and critizising Stalinism and the post-Lenin development in the Soviet Union. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ... In the Trotskyist movement, the term political revolution refers to an unpheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. ...

Trotsky with American comrades in Mexico, shortly before his assassination, 1940.
Trotsky with American comrades in Mexico, shortly before his assassination, 1940.

While in Mexico, Trotsky also worked closely with James P. Cannon, Joseph Hansen, and Farrell Dobbs of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, and other supporters. Image File history File links Beschreibung Description: Leo Trotzki with Harry De Boer and James H. Bartlett and their spouses in Mexiko in 1940 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Beschreibung Description: Leo Trotzki with Harry De Boer and James H. Bartlett and their spouses in Mexiko in 1940 Source: http://www. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Farrell Dobbs (July 25, 1907 – October 31, 1983) was an American Trotskyist politician and trade unionist. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a small communist political party in the United States. ...


Cannon, a long-time leading member of the American communist movement, had supported Trotsky in the struggle against Stalinism since he first read Trotsky's criticisms of the Soviet Union in 1928. Trotsky's critique of the Stalinist regime, though banned, was distributed to leaders of the Comintern. Among his other supporters was Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist party. For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ...


Moscow show trials

In August 1936, the first Moscow show trial of the so-called "Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Center" was staged in front of an international audience. During the trial, Zinoviev, Kamenev and 14 other accused, most of them prominent Old Bolsheviks, confessed to having plotted with Trotsky to kill Stalin and other members of the Soviet leadership. The court found everybody guilty and sentenced the defendants to death, Trotsky in absentia. The second show trial of Karl Radek, Grigory Sokolnikov, Yuri Pyatakov and 14 others took place in January 1937, with even more alleged conspiracies and crimes linked to Trotsky. In April 1937, an independent "Commission of Inquiry" into the charges made against Trotsky and others at the "Moscow Trials" was held in Coyoacan, with John Dewey as chairman [1]. The findings were published in the book Not Guilty.[44] The Moscow Trials were a series of trials of political opponents of Joseph Stalin during the Great Purge. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... Karl Radek Karl Radek Karl Berngardovich Radek (October 31 [O.S. October 19] 1885 - May 19, 1939) was a Bolshevik and an international Communist leader. ... Grigory Sokolnikov (1888 - 1939) was a Bolshevik, and a friend of Leon Trotsky. ... Pyatakov Georgy (Yury) Leonidovich Pyatakov (August 6, 1890–1937) was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader during the Russian revolution, and member of the Left Opposition. ... Categories: Stub | Mexico City delegacions ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ...


Fourth International

Main article: Fourth International
James Cannon and Felix Morrow, with a bust of Trotsky.
James Cannon and Felix Morrow, with a bust of Trotsky.

At first Trotsky was opposed to the idea of establishing parallel Communist Parties or a parallel international Communist organization that would compete with the Third International for fear of splitting the Communist movement. However, he changed his mind in mid-1933 after the Nazi takeover in Germany and the Comintern's response to it, when he proclaimed that: For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Trotskycannon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Trotskycannon. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... Felix Morrow (1906 - 1988) US politician, Communist. ... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...

An organization which was not roused by the thunder of fascism and which submits docilely to such outrageous acts of the bureaucracy demonstrates thereby that it is dead and that nothing can ever revive it. ... In all our subsequent work it is necessary to take as our point of departure the historical collapse of the official Communist International.[45]

In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International, which was intended to be a revolutionary and internationalist alternative to the Stalinist Comintern. For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ...


Dies Committee

Towards the end of 1939 Trotsky agreed to go to the United States to appear as a witness before the Dies Committee of the House of Representatives, a forerunner of the House Un-American Activities Committee. Representative Martin Dies, chairman of the committee, demanded the suppression of the American Communist Party. Trotsky intended to use the forum to expose the NKVD's activities against him and his followers. He made it clear that he also intended to argue against the suppression of the American Communist Party, and to use the committee as a platform for a call to transform the world war into a world revolution. Many of his supporters argued against his appearance. When the committee learned the nature of the testimony Trotsky intended to present, it refused to hear him, and he was denied a visa to enter the United States. On hearing about it, the Stalinists immediately accused Trotsky of being in the pay of the oil magnates and the FBI.[46] Martin Dies, Jr. ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Martin Dies, Jr. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Final months

After quarreling with Diego Rivera, in 1939 Trotsky moved into his own residence in Coyoacán, a neighborhood in Mexico City. He was very ill, suffering from high blood pressure, and feared that he would suffer a cerebral hemorrhage. He even prepared himself for the possibility of ending his life through suicide.[47] Location of Coyoacán within the Mexican Federal District Jardín Centenario with the fountain depicting the drinking coyotes that gave the town its name Plaza Hidalgo Coyoacán is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ...


On 27 February 1940, Trotsky wrote a document known as "Trotsky's Testament", in which he expressed his final thoughts and feelings for posterity. After forcefully denying Stalin's accusations that he had betrayed the working class, he thanked his friends, and above all his wife and dear companion, Natalia Sedova, for their loyal support: is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Natalia Sedova Natalia Sedova (1882-1962) is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary. ...

In addition to the happiness of being a fighter for the cause of socialism, fate gave me the happiness of being her husband. During the almost forty years of our life together she remained an inexhaustible source of love, magnanimity, and tenderness. She underwent great sufferings, especially in the last period of our lives. But I find some comfort in the fact that she also knew days of happiness.


For forty-three years of my conscious life I have remained a revolutionist; for forty-two of them I have fought under the banner of Marxism. If I had to begin all over again I would of course try to avoid this or that mistake, but the main course of my life would remain unchanged. I shall die a proletarian revolutionist, a Marxist, a dialectical materialist, and, consequently, an irreconcilable atheist. My faith in the communist future of mankind is not less ardent, indeed it is firmer today, than it was in the days of my youth. According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


Natasha has just come up to the window from the courtyard and opened it wider so that the air may enter more freely into my room. I can see the bright green strip of grass beneath the wall, and the clear blue sky above the wall, and sunlight everywhere. Life is beautiful. Let the future generations cleanse it of all evil, oppression and violence, and enjoy it to the full.


L. Trotsky
February 27, 1940
Coiyoacan.[47]

On May 24, 1940, Trotsky survived a raid on his home by Stalinist assassins led by GPU agent Iosif Grigulevich, Mexican painter and Stalinist David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Vittorio Vidale.[citation needed] is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ... Iosif Romualdovich Grigulevich (1913-1988), worked for the NKVD with codenames MAKS and FELIPE. He was one of the most remarkable Soviet illegal operatives (an agent without diplomatic cover) during the 1930s and 1940s. ... David Alfaro Siquerios (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... Vittorio Vidale (aka Enea Sormenti, Jacobo Hurwitz Zender, Carlos Contreras, Comandante Carlos) was a stalinist assassin and what is commonly called a communist agent. ...


Assassination

Study where the attack on Leon Trotsky took place.
Study where the attack on Leon Trotsky took place.

On August 20, 1940, Trotsky was successfully attacked in his home by a NKVD agent, Ramón Mercader, who drove the pick of an ice axe into Trotsky's skull.[48] Image File history File links Leon Trotskys last study where the fatal attack took place. ... Image File history File links Leon Trotskys last study where the fatal attack took place. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Jaume Ramon Mercader del Rio Hernández (February 7, 1914 – October 18, 1978) was a Catalan Communist who served as a foreign agent of the NKVD during Joseph Stalins time as ruler of the Soviet Union. ... Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ...


The blow was poorly delivered, however, and failed to kill Trotsky instantly, as Mercader had intended. Witnesses stated that Trotsky spat on Mercader and began struggling fiercely with him. Hearing the commotion, Trotsky's bodyguards burst into the room and nearly killed Mercader, but Trotsky stopped them, shouting, "Do not kill him! This man has a story to tell."[49] Trotsky was taken to a hospital, operated on, and survived for more than a day, dying at the age of 60 on August 21, 1940 as a result of severe brain damage.[50] Mercader later testified at his trial: is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I laid my raincoat on the table in such a way as to be able to remove the ice axe which was in the pocket. I decided not to miss the wonderful opportunity that presented itself. The moment Trotsky began reading the article, he gave me my chance; I took out the ice axe from the raincoat, gripped it in my hand and, with my eyes closed, dealt him a terrible blow on the head.[citation needed]

According to James P. Cannon, the secretary of the Socialist Workers Party (USA), Trotsky's last words were "I will not survive this attack. Stalin has finally accomplished the task he attempted unsuccessfully before."[51] James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...

Leon Trotsky's grave in Coyoacán, where his ashes are buried.
Leon Trotsky's grave in Coyoacán, where his ashes are buried.

Image File history File links Leon Trotskys grave at his Coyoacan home-museum. ... Image File history File links Leon Trotskys grave at his Coyoacan home-museum. ... Location of Coyoacán within the Mexican Federal District Jardín Centenario with the fountain depicting the drinking coyotes that gave the town its name Plaza Hidalgo Coyoacán is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ...

Epilogue

Trotsky's house in Coyoacán was preserved in much the same condition as it was on the day of the assassination and is now a museum run by a board which includes his grandson Esteban Volkov. The current director of the museum is Dr. Carlos Ramirez Sandoval under whose supervision the museum has improved considerably after years of neglect. Trotsky's grave is located on its grounds. Note: This page is very long. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Trotsky was never formally rehabilitated by the Soviet government, despite the Glasnost-era rehabilitation of most other Old Bolsheviks killed during the Great Purges. But in 1987, under President Gorbachev, Trotsky was called "a hero and martyr", and was featured on a commemorative postage stamp.[2] His son, Sergei Sedov, killed in 1937, was rehabilitated in 1988, as was Nikolai Bukharin. Above all, beginning in 1989, Trotsky's books, forbidden until 1987, were finally published in the Soviet Union. //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Old Bolshevik (Russian: ) is an unofficial designation for a member of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp issued to honor or commemorate a place, event or person. ... Sergei Sedov (1908 - 1937) was Leon Trotskys youngest son by his second wife, Natalia Sedova, and an engineer. ... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ...


Trotsky's great-granddaughter, Nora Volkow (daughter of Esteban Volkov), is currently head of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Nora Volkow is director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ...


Contributions to theory

Main article: Trotskyism

Trotsky considered himself a "Bolshevik-Leninist", arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. He considered himself an advocate of orthodox Marxism. His politics differed in many respects from those of Stalin or Mao, most importantly in his rejection of the theory of Socialism in One Country and his declaring the need for an international "permanent revolution". Numerous Fourth Internationalist groups around the world continue to describe themselves as Trotskyist and see themselves as standing in this tradition, although they have different interpretations of the conclusions to be drawn from this. Supporters of the Fourth International echo Trotsky's opposition to Stalinist totalitarianism, advocating political revolution, arguing that socialism cannot sustain itself without democracy. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... A vanguard party is a political party or grassroot organization at the forefront of a mass action, movement, or revolution. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Nikolai Bukharin. ... Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... In the Trotskyist movement, the term political revolution refers to an unpheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


Permanent Revolution

Main article: Permanent Revolution

Permanent Revolution is the theory that the bourgeois democratic tasks in countries with delayed bourgeois democratic development can only be accomplished through the establishment of a workers' state, and that the creation of a workers' state would inevitably involve inroads against capitalist property. Thus, the accomplishment of bourgeois democratic tasks passes over into proletarian tasks. Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ...


Although most closely associated with Leon Trotsky, the call for Permanent Revolution is first found in the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in March 1850, in the aftermath of the 1848 Revolution, in their Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League: Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Engels redirects here. ... (Redirected from 1848 Revolution) —Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ...

It is our interest and our task to make the revolution permanent until all the more or less propertied classes have been driven from their ruling positions, until the proletariat has conquered state power and until the association of the proletarians has progressed sufficiently far - not only in one country but in all the leading countries of the world - that competition between the proletarians of these countries ceases and at least the decisive forces of production are concentrated in the hands of the workers. ... Their battle-cry must be: "The Permanent Revolution."

Trotsky's conception of Permanent Revolution is based on his understanding, drawing on the work of the founder of Russian Marxism Georgy Plekhanov, that in 'backward' countries the tasks of the Bourgeois Democratic Revolution could not be achieved by the bourgeoisie itself. This conception was first developed by Trotsky in collaboration with Alexander Parvus in late 1904 - 1905. The relevant articles were later collected in Trotsky's books 1905 and in Permanent Revolution, which also contains his essay "Results and Prospects". G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ... Dr. Helphand (Parvus) Dr. Israel Lazarevich Helphand (last name also spelt as Gelfant), in Russian: Израиль Лазаревич Гельфанд, is known also by his frequently used pseudonym Alexander Parvus. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The murder weapon was a hidden cut-down ice axe, not an ice pick. Many history and reference books have confused the two. See Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-507132-8, p.418 for a detailed account
  2. ^ On Meeting with Trotsky
  3. ^ See chapter III of his autobiography, 'My Life'
  4. ^ cf, for instance, The Columbia Encyclopedia
  5. ^ Quoted in chapter XII of 'My Life'
  6. ^ See Trotsky's 'Thermidor and anti-Semitism' (1937)
  7. ^ See Israel Getzler. Martov: A Political Biography of a Russian Social Democrat, Cambridge University Press, 2003 (first edition 1967), ISBN 0-521-52602-7 p.76
  8. ^ Quoted in Chapter XIV of My Life'(zhizen)'
  9. ^ See Chapter XVII of 'My Life'
  10. ^ See Chapter XVI of 'My Life'
  11. ^ See Christian Rakovsky's biography by Gus Fagan for details
  12. ^ See the "Brest-Litovsk" chapter in Trotsky's 1925 book Lenin
  13. ^ See Lenin
  14. ^ See Chapter XXXIV of My Life
  15. ^ an excerpt from Trotsky's war cable, quoted from Volkogonov, Trotsky, the Eternal Revolutionary, p 178.
  16. ^ See Chapter XXXVI of My Life
  17. ^ See Chapter XXXVII of My Life
  18. ^ See Isai Abramovich's memoirs re: the Smilga episode. Abramovich (1900-1985), a friend of Smilga's, was one of the few Trotskyists who survived the Great Purges and returned from Stalin's camps in the late 1950s.
  19. ^ See Chapter XXXV of My Life
  20. ^ See Chapter XXXVIII of My Life
  21. ^ See Chapter XXXVII of My Life
  22. ^ See Political Report of the Central Committee of the RKP(b) to the Ninth All-Russian Conference of the Communist Party delivered by Lenin on September 20, 1920, Document 59 in The Unknown Lenin, ed. Richard Pipes, Yale University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-300-06919-7
  23. ^ "More on the Suppression of Kronstadt" by Leon Trotsky
  24. ^ "Hue and Cry Over Kronstadt" by Leon Trotsky
  25. ^ "Trotsky Protests too Much" by Emma Goldman
  26. ^ "Kronstadt - A Tragic Necessity" - by Abbie Bakan
  27. ^ Yakov Sverdlov was the Central Committee's senior secretary responsible for personnel affairs from 1917 and until his death in March 1919. He was replaced by Elena Stasova, and in November 1919 by Nikolai Krestinsky. After Krestinsky's ouster in March 1921, Vyacheslav Molotov became the senior secretary, but he lacked Krestinsky's authority since he was not a full Politburo member. The position was taken over by Stalin and formalized at the XIth Party Congress in April 1922, with Molotov becoming second secretary.
  28. ^ It is not clear why Kamenev, a mild mannered man with few leadership ambitions as well as Trotsky's brother-in-law, sided with Zinoviev and Stalin against Trotsky in 1922. Trotsky later speculated that it may have been due to Kamenev's love of comfort, which Trotsky found "repell[ing]" and let Kamenev know in late 1920 or early 1921:

    Our relations with Kamenev, which were very good in the first period after the insurrection, began to become more distant from that day. Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... Icepick. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ...

  29. ^ The Central Committee's Secretariat became increasingly important during the Civil War and especially in its aftermath as the Party switched from elected officials to appointed ones. The change was prompted by the need to allocate manpower quickly during the Civil War as well as by the transformation of the party from a small group of revolutionaries into the country's ruling party with a corresponding increase in membership. New members included career seekers and former members of banned socialist parties who were viewed with apprehension by Old Bolsheviks. To prevent a possible degeneration of the party, various membership requirements were instituted for party officials and the ultimate power of appointment of local officials was reserved for the Secretariat of the Central Committee. This put enormous power in the General Secretary's hands.
  30. ^ See Document 103 (May 22, 1922) in The Unknown Lenin
  31. ^ See Document 106 in The Unknown Lenin
  32. ^ See Document 109 in The Unknown Lenin
  33. ^ See Chapter XXXIX of My Life
  34. ^ See Lenin's letter to Stalin dictated on December 15, 1922:

    I am sure Trotsky will uphold my views as well as I. is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

    Faced with a united opposition by Lenin and Trotsky, the Central Committee reversed its previous decision and adopted the Lenin-Trotsky proposal.
  35. ^ See Chapter 11 of Trotsky's unfinished book Stalin
  36. ^ Trotsky explained in Chapter 12 of his unfinished book Stalin that he refused to deliver the report because "it seemed to me equivalent to announcing my candidacy for the role of Lenin's successor at a time when Lenin was fighting a grave illness".
  37. ^ See Chapter 12 of Trotsky's Stalin
  38. ^ Radek wrote:

    The need of the hour was for a man who would incarnate the call to struggle, a man who, subordinating himself completely to the requirements of the struggle, would become the ringing summons to arms, the will which exacts from all unconditional submission to a great, sacrificial necessity. Only a man with Trotsky's capacity for work, only a man so unsparing of himself as Trotsky, only a man who knew how to speak to the soldiers as Trotsky did—only such a man could have become the standard bearer of the armed toilers. He was all things rolled into one.

  39. ^ Quoted in Max Shachtman. The Struggle for the New Course, New York, New International Publishing Co., 1943. See chapter The Campaign Against “Trotskyism”
  40. ^ The term "Trotskyism" was first coined by the Russian liberal politician Pavel Milyukov, the first foreign minister in the Provisional Government who, in April 1917, was forced to demand that the British government release Trotsky -- see above.
  41. ^ See Chapter VIII of Boris Souvarine's Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism
  42. ^ See Chapter 42 of My Life
  43. ^ See Nikolai Valentinov-Volsky's account of his work with Trotsky in 1925 in Novaia Ekonomicheskaia Politika i Krizis Partii Posle Smerti Lenina: Gody Raboty v VSNKh vo Vremia NEP, Moscow, Sovremennik, 1991. No English translation currently available.
  44. ^ See Not guilty; report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made Against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials, John Dewey, chairman, New York, London, Harper & brothers, 1938, xv, 422 pp. 2nd edition New York, Monad Press, distributed by Pathfinder Press 1973, c1972 xxiii, 422 pp.
  45. ^ Leon Trotsky. To Build Communist Parties and an International Anew, July 15, 1933.
  46. ^ See Isaac Deutscher. The Prophet Outcast: Trotsky, 1929-1940, London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1963, p.482.
  47. ^ a b "Trotsky's Testament" (27 February 1940) Retrieved August 27, 2007
  48. ^ VENONA Historical Monograph #4: The KGB in San Francisco and Mexico City and the GRU in New York and Washington accessed 2007-07-29
  49. ^ http://www.rotten.com/library/history/assassination/
  50. ^ Walsh, Lynn, The Assassination of Trotsky, Militant International Review, Summer 1980, retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  51. ^ Australian Associated Press, Death of Leon Trotsky, The Age 150th Anniversary edition reprint, 1940-08-23, Retrieved on 2007-03-22.

is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

My Life published by Pathfinder Press My Life - An attempt at an autobiography is the name of the Russian revolutionary Communist leader Leon Trotskys autobiography. ... The Group of Democratic Centralism was a dissenting faction within the Soviet Communist Party in the early 1920s. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Lenin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... This article is about the notion of the labor army in the history of the Soviet Union. ... This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Variations on the Death of Trotsky is a short one act comedy written by David Ives. ...

Selected works

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

References

  • Isaac Deutscher wrote the classic--and largely sympathetic--biography in three volumes:
    • (1954) Trotsky: The Prophet Armed
    • (1959) Trotsky: The Prophet Unarmed
    • (1963) Trotsky: The Prophet Outcast
  • Deutscher, Isaac (1966) Ironies of History.
  • Daniels, Robert V (1991) Trotsky, Stalin & Socialism. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1223-X
  • Gilbert, Helen (2003) Leon Trotsky: His Life and Ideas. Red Letter Press [3] ISBN 0-932323-17-0
  • Hansen, Joseph, ed. (1969) Leon Trotsky: the Man and His Work. Reminiscences and Appraisals. New York: Merit Publishers.
  • Levine, Isaac Don (1960) The Mind of an Assassin. New York: New American Library/Signet Book.
  • Richard Pipes, ed. (1996) The Unknown Lenin. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06919-7
  • Renton, David (2004) Trotsky.
  • Thatcher, Ian D. (2003) Trotsky. ISBN 0-415-23251-1
  • Jean van Heijenoort (1978) With Trotsky in Exile: From Prinkipo to Coyoacan. Harvard University Press.
  • Dimitri Volkogonov (1996) Trotsky, the Eternal Revolutionary. Free Press.
  • Crazy for You references the facial hair of Trotsky.
  • The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, Volume 39, Academic International Press

Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967), British journalist, historian and political activist of Polish-Jewish birth, became well-known as the biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Jean van Heijenoort (prounounced highenort) (July 23, 1912, Creil France - March 29, 1986, Mexico City) was a pioneer historian of mathematical logic. ... The Princes Islands are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... Categories: Stub | Mexico City delegacions ... Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) (22 March 1928, Chita – 6 December 1995, Moscow) was a Russian historian, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of History, Colonel General (1986). ... In the modern age, the free press has taken on multiple meanings. ... Playbill cover and advertising poster. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Preceded by
Mikhail Tereshchenko
(Minister of Foreign Affairs)
People's Comissar for Foreign Affairs
1917–1918
Succeeded by
Georgy Chicherin
Preceded by
Nikolai Podvoisky
People's Commissar for Army and Navy Affairs
1918–1925
Succeeded by
Mikhail Frunze
Persondata
NAME Bronstein, Lew Dawidowitsch
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Lew Dawidowitsch Trotzki
SHORT DESCRIPTION Ukraine-Russian revolutionary, politician and founder of the Red Army
DATE OF BIRTH 7 November 1879(1879-11-07)
PLACE OF BIRTH Janowka, Russia (now in Ukraine)
DATE OF DEATH 21 August 1940
PLACE OF DEATH Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico

Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Coyoacán within the Mexican Federal District Jardín Centenario with the fountain depicting the drinking coyotes that gave the town its name Plaza Hidalgo Coyoacán is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Leon Trotsky (0 words)
Trotsky and the Soviets challenged the power of Nicholas II and attempted to enforce promises made in the October Manifesto such as the freedom of the press, assembly and association.
Trotsky was now seen as one of the most important figures in the Russian revolutionary movement and Vladimir Lenin asked Lev Kamenev to try and persuade him to join the Bolsheviks.
Trotsky himself believed that his greatest significance, his greatest value, consisted not in his physical life, not in his epic deeds, which overshadow those of all heroic figures in history in their sweep and their grandeur-but in what he would leave behind him after the assassins had done their work.
Leon Trotsky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (12379 words)
Trotsky's ideas form the basis of the Communist theory of Trotskyism, and Trotskyism remains a major school of Marxist thought that is theoretically opposed to Stalinism and Maoism.
Trotsky was the head of the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk between December 22, 1917 and February 10, 1918.
Trotsky's conception of Permanent Revolution is based on his understanding, drawing on the work of the founder of Russian Marxism Georgy Plekhanov, that in 'backward' countries the tasks of the Bourgeois Democratic Revolution could not be achieved by the bourgeoisie itself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m