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Encyclopedia > Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy

Born August 28, 1828(1828-08-28)
Yasnaya Polyana, Russian Empire
Died November 20, 1910 (aged 82)
Astapovo, Russian Empire
Occupation Novelist
Genres Realist
Notable work(s) War and Peace
Anna Karenina

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, Russian pronunciation: [lʲɛv nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ tɐlˈstoj] listen ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writernovelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. He was the most influential member of the aristocratic Tolstoy family. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (694x900, 128 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lev Tolstoy (Russian: ) is a settlement in the northern part of Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, located at , It is the administrative center of Lev-Tolstovsky District. ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ... Petr Chelčický¹ (ca. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American author and abolitionist, whose novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 – March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Thoreau redirects here. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Edna OBrien (born December 15, 1930) is an Irish novelist and short story writer whose works often revolve around the inner feelings of women, and their problems in relating to men. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... This page is about the novelist. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) (pronounced ) is an American author, best known for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye, as well as for his reclusive nature. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Coronet of a count This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Ru-Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Pacifist redirects here. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Education reform is a plan or movement which attempts to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community or society. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Coat of arms of the Tolstoy family Tolstoy, or Tolstoi (Russian: ) is a prominent family of Russian nobility, descending from one Andrey Kharitonovich Tolstoy (i. ...


As a fiction writer, Tolstoy is widely regarded as one of the greatest of all novelists, particularly noted for his masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina. In their scope, breadth and realistic depiction of 19th-century Russian life, the two books stand at the peak of realist fiction. As a moral philosopher Tolstoy was notable for his ideas on nonviolent resistance through works such as The Kingdom of God is Within You, which in turn influenced such twentieth-century figures as Mohandas K. Gandhi[1] and Martin Luther King, Jr. For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

Leo Tolstoy was born August 28, 1828, Yasnaya Polyana, Central Russia. The Tolstoys are a well-known family of old Russian nobility; Tolstoy was connected to the grandest families of Russian aristocracy; Alexander Pushkin was his fourth cousin. He always remained a class-conscious nobleman who cherished his impeccable French pronunciation and kept aloof from the intelligentsia[citation needed]. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... Pushkin redirects here. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ...


Early life

Tolstoy's childhood was spent between Moscow and Yasnaya Polyana, in a family of three brothers and a sister. He lost his mother when he was two, and his father when he was nine. His subsequent education was in the hands of his aunt, Madame Ergolsky. (His father and mother are respectively the starting points for the characters of Nicholas Rostov and Princess Marya in the same novel.) In 1844, Tolstoy began studying law and Oriental languages at Kazan University, where teachers described him as "both unable and unwilling to learn." He found no meaning in further studies and left the university in the middle of a term. In 1849 he settled down at Yasnaya Polyana, where he attempted to be useful to his peasants but soon discovered the ineffectiveness of his uninformed zeal. From the very beginning, his diary (which is defunct from 1847 on) reveals an insatiable thirst for a rational and moral justification of life, a thirst that forever remained a ruling force in his mind. The same diary was his first experiment in forging a technique of psychological analysis which was to become his principal literary weapon. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Kazan State University is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. ...


Military career and first literary efforts

Stele commemorating Tolstoy's participation in 1854-55 defense of Sevastopol

Tolstoy's first literary effort was a translation of A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy. Sterne's influence on his early works was substantial, although he subsequently denigrated him as "a devious writer". In 1851, he attempted a more ambitious and more definitely creative kind of writing, his first short story "A History of Yesterday". In the same year, sick of his seemingly empty and useless life in Moscow, which brought heavy gambling debts, he went to the Caucasus, where he joined an artillery unit garrisoned in the Cossack part of Chechnya, as a volunteer of private rank, but of noble birth (junker). In 1852 he completed his first novel Childhood and sent it to Nikolai Nekrasov for publication in the Sovremennik. Although Tolstoy was annoyed with the publishing cuts, the story had an immediate success and gave Tolstoy a definite place in Russian literature and popular drinking circles. Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy is a novel by the Irish-born English author Laurence Sterne, written and first published in 1768, as Sterne was facing death. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... This article is in need of attention. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Junker (Юнкер in Russian, or yunker) has several meanings in the Imperial Russia. ... Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov (November 28, 1821 – January 8, 1878 {O.S.: December 28, 1877}) was a Russian poet, best remembered as the long-standing publisher of Современник (The Contemporary) (from 1846 until July 1866, when the journal was shut down by the government in connection with the arrest of its radical... The Title Page of the issue printed after the death of Alexander Pushkin Sovremennik (Russian: , literally: The Contemporary) was a Russian literary, social and political magazine, published in St. ...


In Sevastopol he wrote the battlefield observations Sebastopol Sketches, widely viewed as his first approach to the techniques to be used so effectively in War and Peace. Appearing as they did in the Sovremennik monthly while the siege of Luck Charms was still on, the stories greatly increased the general interest in their author. In fact, the Tsar Alexander II was known to have said in praise of the author of the work, "Guard well the life of that man." Soon after the abandonment of the fortress, Tolstoy went on leave of absence to St. Petersburg and Moscow. The following year he left the army. Sevastopol Sketches (Russian: , Sevastopolskiye rasskazy) are three short stories written by Leo Tolstoy to record his experiences during the Siege of Sevastopol (1854). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ...


Between retirement and marriage

The years 1856–61 were passed between Petersburg, Moscow, Yasnaya, and foreign countries. In 1857 (and again in 1860-61) he traveled abroad and returned disillusioned by the selfishness and materialism of European bourgeois civilization, a feeling expressed in his short story Lucerne and more circuitously in Three Deaths. As he drifted towards a more oriental worldview with Buddhist overtones, Tolstoy learned to feel himself in other living creatures. He started to write Kholstomer, which contains a passage of interior monologue by a horse. Many of his intimate thoughts were repeated by a protagonist of The Cossacks, who reflects, falling on the ground while hunting in a forest: In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Kholstomer, also translated as Strider, is one of the more striking stories in Russian literature. ... A monologue, which comes from the Greek words mono and logos meaning one word, is a speech by one person directly addressing an audience. ... The Cossacks is a short novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ...


'Here am I, Dmitri Olenin, a being quite distinct from every other being, now lying all alone Heaven only knows where – where a stag used to live – an old stag, a beautiful stag who perhaps had never seen a man, and in a place where no human being has ever sat or thought these thoughts. Here I sit, and around me stand old and young trees, one of them festooned with wild grape vines, and pheasants are fluttering, driving one another about and perhaps scenting their murdered brothers.' He felt his pheasants, examined them, and wiped the warm blood off his hand onto his coat. 'Perhaps the jackals scent them and with dissatisfied faces go off in another direction: above me, flying in among the leaves which to them seem enormous islands, mosquitoes hang in the air and buzz: one, two, three, four, a hundred, a thousand, a million mosquitoes, and all of them buzz something or other and each one of them is separate from all else and is just such a separate Dmitri Olenin as I am myself.' He vividly imagined what the mosquitoes buzzed: 'This way, this way, lads! Here's some one we can eat!' They buzzed and stuck to him. And it was clear to him that he was not a Russian nobleman, a member of Moscow society, the friend and relation of so-and-so and so-and-so, but just such a mosquito, or pheasant, or deer, as those that were now living all around him. 'Just as they, just as Uncle Eroshka, I shall live awhile and die, and as he says truly: "grass will grow and nothing more".'


These years after the Crimean War were the only time in Tolstoy's life when he mixed with the literary world. He was welcomed by the litterateurs of Petersburg and Moscow as one of their most eminent fellow craftsmen. As he confessed afterwards, his vanity and pride were greatly flattered by his success. But he did not get on with them. He was too much of an aristocrat to like this semi-Bohemian intelligentsia. All the structure of his mind was against the grain of the progressive Westernizers, epitomized by Ivan Turgenev, who was widely considered the greatest living Russian author of the period. Turgenev, who was in many ways Tolstoy's opposite, was also one of his strongest admirers; he called Tolstoy's 1862 short novel The Cossacks "the best story written in our language". Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́нев, November 9, 1818 - September 3, 1883) was a major Russian novelist and playwright. ...

Tolstoy with granddaughter at Yasnaya Polyana
Tolstoy with granddaughter at Yasnaya Polyana

Tolstoy did not believe in Westernized progress and culture, and liked to tease Turgenev by his outspoken or cynical statements. His lack of sympathy with the literary world culminated in a resounding quarrel with Turgenev in 1861, whom he challenged to a duel but afterwards apologized for doing so. The whole story is very characteristic and revelatory of Tolstoy's character, with its profound impatience of other people's assumed superiority and their perceived lack of intellectual honesty. The only writers with whom he remained friends were the conservative "landlordist" Afanasy Fet and the democratic Slavophile Nikolay Strakhov, both of them entirely out of tune with the main current of contemporary thought. Image File history File links Tanyasukhotina. ... Image File history File links Tanyasukhotina. ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ... Fets portrait by Ilya Repin. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... Nikolay Nikolayevich Strakhov Nikolay Nikolayevich Strakhov, also transliterated as Nikolai Strahov (Russian: Страхов Николай Николаевич) (October 16, 1828 - January 24, 1896) was a Russian philosopher, publicist and literary critic who shared the ideals of pochvennichestvo. ...


In 1859 he started a school for peasant children at Yasnaya, followed by twelve others, whose ground-breaking libertarian principles Tolstoy described in his 1862 essay, "The School at Yasnaya Polyana". He also authored a great number of stories for peasant children. Tolstoy's educational experiments were short-lived, but as a direct forerunner to A. S. Neill's Summerhill School, the school at Yasnaya Polyana can justifiably be claimed to be the first example of a coherent theory of libertarian education. Alexander Sutherland Neill (October 17, 1883 - September 23, 1973) was a Scottish educationalist recognised as one of the leading pioneers in education. ... Summerhill School Summerhill School, founded in 1921 in Hellerau near Dresden, England by A.S. Neill. ...


In 1862 Tolstoy published a pedagogical magazine, Yasnaya Polyana, in which he contended that it was not the intellectuals who should teach the peasants, but rather the peasants the intellectuals. He came to believe that he was undeserving of his inherited wealth, and gained renown among the peasantry for his generosity. He would frequently return to his country estate with vagrants whom he felt needed a helping hand, and would often dispense large sums of money to street beggars while on trips to the city. In 1861 he accepted the post of Justice of the Peace, a magistrature that had been introduced to supervise the carrying into life of the Emancipation reform of 1861. A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants. ...


Meanwhile his insatiate quest for moral stability continued to torment him. He had now abandoned the wild living of his youth, and thought of marrying. In 1856 he made his first unsuccessful attempt to marry Mlle Arseniev. In 1860 he was profoundly affected by the death of his brother Nicholas. Although he had lost his parents and guardian aunts during his childhood, Tolstoy considered the death of his brother to be his first encounter with the inevitable reality of death. After these reverses, Tolstoy reflected in his diary that at thirty four, no woman could love him, since he was too old and ugly. In 1862, at last, he proposed to Sofia Andreyevna Behrs and was accepted. They were married on 23 September of the same year. is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marriage and family life

Tolstoy's wife, Sofia Andreevna Tolstaya, and daughter Alexandra Tolstaya
Tolstoy's wife, Sofia Andreevna Tolstaya, and daughter Alexandra Tolstaya

His marriage is one of the two most important landmarks in the life of Tolstoy, the other being his conversion. Once he entertained a passionate and hopeless aspiration after that whole and unreflecting "natural" state which he found among the peasants, and especially among the Cossacks in whose villages he had lived in the Caucasus. His marriage provided for him an escape from unrelenting self-questioning. It was the gate towards a more stable and lasting "natural state". Family life, and an unreasoning acceptance of and submission to the life to which he was born, now became his religion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (438x690, 10 KB) Summary Leo Tolstoys wife Sophia Tolstaya and daughter Alexandra Tolstaya. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (438x690, 10 KB) Summary Leo Tolstoys wife Sophia Tolstaya and daughter Alexandra Tolstaya. ...


For the first fifteen years of his married life he lived in a blissful state of confidently satisfied life, whose philosophy is expounded in War and Peace. Sophie Behrs, almost a girl when he married her and 16 years his junior, proved an ideal wife and mother and mistress of the house. On the eve of their marriage, Tolstoy gave her his diaries detailing his sexual relations with female serfs. Together they had twelve children, five of whom died in their childhoods.[2] For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ...


Sophie was, moreover, a devoted help to her husband in his literary work, and the story is well known how she acted as copyist to his War and Peace, copying seven times from beginning to end. The family fortune, owing to Tolstoy's efficient management of his estates and to the sales of his works, was prosperous, making it possible to provide adequately for the increasing family.


Conversion

Church of St. Nicholas in Khamovniki, of which Tolstoy was a parishioner before his excommunication
Church of St. Nicholas in Khamovniki, of which Tolstoy was a parishioner before his excommunication

Tolstoy had always been fundamentally a rationalist. But at the time he wrote his great novels, his rationalism was suffering an eclipse. The philosophy of War and Peace and Anna Karenina (which he formulates in A Confession as "that one should live so as to have the best for oneself and one's family") was a surrender of his rationalism to the inherent irrationality of life. Any notion that one could have control over one's own life and the lives of others was abandoned, in favor of the notion that the sum of the free wills of thousands made for the massive movements of history. Hence the greatest wisdom (according to War and Peace) consisted in accepting without sophistication one's place in life and making the best of it. But already in the last part of Anna Karenina a growing disquietude becomes very apparent. When he was writing it the crisis had already begun that is so memorably recorded in A Confession and from which he was to emerge with a new religious and ethical teaching. Image File history File links Khamovniki2. ... Image File history File links Khamovniki2. ... The church in 1883. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ...


Tolstoy's rationalism found satisfaction in the admirably constructed system of his doctrine. But the irrational Tolstoy remained alive beneath the hardened crust of crystallized dogma. Tolstoy's diaries reveal that the desires of the flesh were active in him until an unusually advanced age; and the desire for expansion, the desire that gave life to War and Peace, the desire for the fullness of life with all its pleasure and beauty, never died in him. We catch few glimpses of this in his writings, for he subjected them to a strict and narrow discipline. He wrote as effortlessly as ever in his late years and produced admirable works of art, such as Hadji Murad, one of many pieces that appeared posthumously. It became increasingly apparent that, in the words of Vladimir Nabokov, there were only two subjects that Tolstoy was really interested in and thought worth writing about – and that is life and death. The relationship between life and death was examined by him over and over again, with increasing complexity, in the final version of Kholstomer, in War and Peace, in The Death of Ivan Ilyich, in How Much Land Does a Man Need? and in Master and Man. For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Hadji Murat (sometimes written as Murad, but only the given spelling here captures the phoneme of the original Russian) was a short novel written by Leo Tolstoy from 1896-1904 and published after his death, in the year 1912. ... This page is about the novelist. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Death of Ivan Ilych The Death of Ivan Ilyich (Russian: , Smert Ivana Ilyicha), first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy. ... How Much Land Does a Man Need? is an 1886 short story by Leo Tolstoy about a man who, in his lust for land, forfeits everything, including his own life. ... Master and Man (Russian: ) is a short story by Leo Tolstoy (1895). ...


Later life

Soon after A Confession became known, Tolstoy began, at first against his will, to attract disciples. The first of these was Vladimir Chertkov, an ex-officer of the Horse Guards and founder of the Tolstoyans, described by D.S. Mirsky as a "narrow fanatic and a hard, despotic man, who exercised an enormous practical influence on Tolstoy and became a sort of grand vizier of the new community". Tolstoy also established contact with certain sects of Christian communists and anarchists, like the Dukhobors. Despite his unorthodox views and support for Thoreau's doctrine of civil disobedience, Tolstoy was unmolested by the government, solicitous to avoid negative publicity abroad. Only in 1901 did the Synod excommunicate him. This act, widely but rather unjudiciously resented both at home and abroad, merely registered a matter of common knowledge – that Tolstoy had ceased to be a follower of the Orthodox Church. This article needs to be wikified. ... The adjective Tolstoyan (also spelled Tolstoian) refers to the author Leo Tolstoy. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... The Doukhobors (Duchobozetz, Duchobortzi) (Russian: ) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 - May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was a noted American author and philosopher who is most famous for Walden, his essay on civil disobedience, and his call for the preservation of wilderness. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ...


As his reputation among people of all classes grew immensely, a few Tolstoyan communes formed throughout Russia in order to put into practice Tolstoy's religious doctrines. And, by the last two decades of his life, Tolstoy enjoyed a place in the world's esteem that had not been held by any man of letters since the death of Voltaire.[3] Yasnaya Polyana became a new Ferney – or even more than that, almost a new Jerusalem. Pilgrims from all parts flocked there to see the great old man. But Tolstoy's own family remained hostile to his teaching, with the exception of his youngest daughter Alexandra Tolstaya. His wife especially took up a position of decided opposition to his new ideas. She refused to give up her possessions and asserted her duty to provide for her large family. Tolstoy renounced the copyright of his new works but had to surrender his landed property and the copyright of his earlier works to his wife. The later years of his married life have been described by biographer A. N. Wilson as some of the unhappiest in literary history. The adjective Tolstoyan (also spelled Tolstoian) refers to the author Leo Tolstoy. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Ferney-Voltaire is a town and commune in the Ain département of eastern France, located between the Jura mountains and the Swiss border. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Alexandra Lvovna (1884-1979) was the youngest daughter and secretary of the famous Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer, known for his biographies, novels and works of popular and cultural history. ...


Tolstoy was remarkably healthy for his age, but he fell seriously ill in 1901 and had to live for a long time in Gaspra and Simeiz, Crimea. Still he continued working to the last and never showed the slightest sign of any weakening brain power. Ever more oppressed by the apparent contradiction between his preaching of communism and the easy life he led under the regime of his wife, full of a growing irritation against his family, which was urged on by Chertkov, he finally left Yasnaya, in the company of his daughter Alexandra and his doctor, for an unknown destination. After some restless and aimless wandering he headed for a convent where his sister was the mother superior but had to stop at Astapovo junction. There he was laid up in the stationmaster's house and died, apparently of cold, on November 20, 1910. He was buried in a simple peasant's grave in a wood 500 meters from Yasnaya Polyana. Thousands of peasants lined the streets at his funeral. Gaspra (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a spa town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Simeiz (Симеиз) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Lev Tolstoy (Russian: ) is a settlement in the northern part of Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, located at It is the administrative center of Lev-Tolstovsky District. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Novels and fiction

Tolstoy's grave at Yasnaya Polyana
Tolstoy's grave at Yasnaya Polyana

Tolstoy's fiction realistically conveys the Russian society in which he lived. Matthew Arnold commented that Tolstoy's work is not art, but a piece of life. Arnold's assessment was echoed by Isaak Babel who said that, "if the world could write by itself, it would write like Tolstoy." Virginia Woolf argued that Tolstoy was "the greatest of all novelists." Image File history File links Tolstoy_grave. ... Image File history File links Tolstoy_grave. ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Бабель (July 13 (New Style), 1894 - January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ...


His first publications were three autobiographical novels, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852 – 1856). They tell of a rich landowner's son and his slow realization of the differences between him and his peasants. Although in later life Tolstoy rejected these books as sentimental, a great deal of his own life is revealed, and the books still have relevance for their telling of the universal story of growing up. This Side Of Paradise by F. Scott Fitzgerald, a famous example of an autobiographical novel An autobiographical novel is a novel based on the life of the author. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the...


Tolstoy served as a second lieutenant in an artillery regiment during the Crimean War, recounted in his Sevastapol Sketches. His experiences in battle helped develop his pacifism, and gave him material for realistic depiction of the horrors of war in his later work. Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Sevastapol Sketches (Russian: ) are three short stories stemmed from Leo Tolstoys military experience during the Crimean War. ... Pacifist redirects here. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


The Cossacks (1863) is an unfinished novel which describes the Cossack life and people through a story of Dmitri Olenin, a Russian aristocrat in love with a Cossack girl. This text was acclaimed by Ivan Bunin as one of the finest in the language. The magic of Tolstoy's language is naturally lost in translation, but the following excerpt may give some idea as to the lush, sensuous, pulsing texture of the original: the cossacks who never escape mention through out his epic war and peace were a class of people who served under the generals,regiment commanders in the 18-19 century russian military. ... The Russian writer Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (October 10, 1870 - November 8, 1953), born in Voronezh, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1933. ...


'Along the surface of the water floated black shadows, in which the experienced eyes of the Cossack detected trees carried down by the current. Only very rarely sheet-lightning, mirrored in the water as in a black glass, disclosed the sloping bank opposite. The rhythmic sounds of night — the rustling of the reeds, the snoring of the Cossacks, the hum of mosquitoes, and the rushing water, were every now and then broken by a shot fired in the distance, or by the gurgling of water when a piece of bank slipped down, the splash of a big fish, or the crashing of an animal breaking through the thick undergrowth in the wood. Once an owl flew past along the Terek, flapping one wing against the other rhythmically at every second beat.'


War and Peace (1869) is generally thought to be one of the greatest novels ever written, remarkable for its breadth and unity. Its vast canvas includes 580 characters, many historical, others fictional. The story moves from family life to the headquarters of Napoleon, from the court of Alexander I of Russia to the battlefields of Austerlitz and Borodino. The novel explores Tolstoy's theory of history, and in particular the insignificance of individuals such as Napoleon and Alexander. But more importantly, Tolstoy's imagination created a world that seems to be so believable, so real, that it is not easy to realize that most of his characters actually never existed and that Tolstoy never witnessed the epoch described in the novel. For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... The Battle of Borodino (September 7, 1812 (August 26 in the Old Style Russian calendar)), also called the Battle of the Moskova, was the largest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars and arguably the greatest battle in human history up to that date, involving nearly quarter a million soldiers. ...


Somewhat surprisingly, Tolstoy did not consider War and Peace to be a novel (nor did he consider many of the great Russian fictions written at that time to be novels). It was to him an epic in prose. Anna Karenina (1877), which Tolstoy regarded as his first true novel, was one of his most impeccably constructed and compositionally sophisticated works. It tells parallel stories of an adulterous woman trapped by the conventions and falsities of society and of a philosophical landowner (much like Tolstoy) who works alongside the peasants in the fields and seeks to reform their lives. His last novel was Resurrection, published in 1899, which told the story of a nobleman seeking redemption for a sin committed years earlier and incorporated many of Tolstoy's refashioned views on life. An additional short novel, Hadji Murat, was published posthumously in 1912. For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ... Resurrection, first published in 1899, was the third and last novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ...


Tolstoy's later work is often criticized as being overly didactic and patchily written, but derives a passion and verve from the depth of his austere moral views. The sequence of the temptation of Sergius in Father Sergius, for example, is among his later triumphs. Gorky relates how Tolstoy once read this passage before himself and Chekhov and that Tolstoy was moved to tears by the end of the reading. Other later passages of rare power include the crises of self faced by the protagonists of After the Ball and Master and Man, where the main character (in After the Ball) or the reader (in Master and Man) is made aware of the foolishness of the protagonists' lives. The Death of Ivan Ilyich is perhaps the greatest fictional meditation on death ever written. Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ...


Tolstoy had an abiding interest in children and children's literature and wrote tales and fables. Some of his fables are free adaptations of fables from Aesop and from Hindu tradition. Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Reputation

Tolstoy's contemporaries paid him lofty tributes: Fyodor Dostoyevsky thought him the greatest of all living writers and Gustave Flaubert, on reading War and Peace for the first time in translation, compared him to Shakespeare and gushed: "What an artist and what a psychologist!". Ivan Turgenev called Tolstoy a "great writer of the Russian land"[4] and on his deathbed implored Tolstoy not to abandon literature . Anton Chekhov, who often visited Tolstoy at his country estate, wrote: "When literature possesses a Tolstoy, it is easy and pleasant to be a writer; even when you know you have achieved nothing yourself and are still achieving nothing, this is not as terrible as it might otherwise be, because Tolstoy achieves for everyone. What he does serves to justify all the hopes and aspirations invested in literature." Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ...


Later critics and novelists continue to bear testaments to his art: Virginia Woolf went on to declare him "greatest of all novelists", and James Joyce, defending him from criticism, noted: "He is never dull, never stupid, never tired, never pedantic, never theatrical". Thomas Mann wrote of his seemingly guileless artistry — "Seldom did art work so much like nature" — sentiments shared in part by many others, including Marcel Proust and William Faulkner. Vladimir Nabokov, himself a Russian and an infamously harsh critic, placed him above all other Russian fiction writers, even Gogol, and equalled him with Pushkin among Russian writers. For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Proust redirects here. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (born William Falkner), (September 25, 1897–July 6, 1962) was an American author. ... This page is about the novelist. ... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: Николай Васильевич Гоголь) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a navigational...


Religious and political beliefs

Leo Tolstoy, by Repin (1887)
Leo Tolstoy, by Repin (1887)

At about age 50, Tolstoy experienced a spiritual crisis, at which point he was so agonized about discovering life's meaning as to seriously contemplate ending his life. He relates the story of this spiritual crisis in A Confession, and the conclusions of his studies in My Religion, The Kingdom of God is Within You and The Gospels in Brief. Download high resolution version (482x689, 17 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (482x689, 17 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Self-portrait Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... A Confession is a short work on questions of religion by Leo Tolstoy. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ...


Social Christianity

The teaching of mature Tolstoy concentrated exclusively on the moral teaching of the Gospels. Tolstoy's Christian beliefs were based on the Sermon on the Mount, and particularly on the phrase "turn the other cheek", which he saw as a justification for pacifism, nonviolence and nonresistance. Of the moral teaching of Christ, the words "Resist not evil" were taken to be the principle out of which all the rest follows. He condemned the State, which sanctioned violence and corruption, and rejected the authority of the Church, which sanctioned the State. His condemnation of every form of compulsion authorizes many to classify Tolstoy's later teachings, in its political aspect, as Christian anarchism. The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Sermon on the Mount in the Christian New Testament. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ...


Christian anarchism

Main article: Christian anarchism

Although he did not call himself an anarchist because he applied the term to those who wanted to change society through violence,[5] Tolstoy is commonly regarded as an anarchist. His doctrine of nonresistance (nonviolence) when faced by conflict is another distinct attribute of his philosophy based on Christ's teachings. By directly influencing Mahatma Gandhi with this idea through his work The Kingdom of God is Within You, Tolstoy has had a huge influence on the nonviolent resistance movement to this day. He opposed private property and the institution of marriage and valued the ideals of chastity and sexual abstinence (as discussed in Father Sergius and his preface to The Kreutzer Sonata), ideals also held by the young Gandhi. Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... The Kreutzer Sonata is a novella by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1889 and promptly censored by the Russian authorities. ...

Tolstoy Plowing, by Repin

In hundreds of essays over the last twenty years of his life, Tolstoy reiterated the anarchist critique of the State and recommended books by Kropotkin and Proudhon to his readers, while rejecting anarchism's espousal of violent revolutionary means, writing in the 1900 essay, "On Anarchy": Self-portrait Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeievich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) ( December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communist... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ...

The Anarchists are right in everything; in the negation of the existing order, and in the assertion that, without Authority, there could not be worse violence than that of Authority under existing conditions. They are mistaken only in thinking that Anarchy can be instituted by a revolution. But it will be instituted only by there being more and more people who do not require the protection of governmental power…There can be only one permanent revolution - a moral one: the regeneration of the inner man.

Pacifism

Tolstoy's room at Yasnaya Polyana
Tolstoy's room at Yasnaya Polyana

Despite his misgivings about anarchist violence, Tolstoy took risks to circulate the prohibited publications of anarchist thinkers in Russia, and corrected the proofs of Peter Kropotkin's "Words of a Rebel", illegally published in St Petersburg in 1906. Two years earlier, during the Russo-Japanese War, Tolstoy publicly condemned the war and wrote to the Japanese Buddhist priest Soyen Shaku in a failed attempt to make a joint pacifist statement. Image File history File links Tolstoy_room. ... Image File history File links Tolstoy_room. ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... Belligerents Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... The Buddha in Kamakura (1252). ... Soyen Shaku (1859 – 1919; sometimes written as Soen Shaku or Kogaku So’en Shaku) was the first Zen Buddhist master to teach in the United States. ...


A letter Tolstoy wrote in 1908 to an Indian newspaper entitled "Letter to a Hindu" resulted in intense correspondence with Mohandas Gandhi, who was in South Africa at the time and was beginning to become an activist. Reading "The Kingdom of God is Within You" made a strong impression on Gandhi in terms of his public commitment to nonviolent resistance, a debt Gandhi acknowledged in his autobiography, calling Tolstoy "the greatest apostle of non-violence that the present age has produced". The correspondence between Tolstoy and Gandhi would only last a year, from October 1909 until Tolstoy's death in November 1910, but led Gandhi to give the name the Tolstoy Colony to his second ashram in South Africa. Besides non-violent resistance, the two men shared a common belief in the merits of vegetarianism, the subject of several of Tolstoy's essays (see Christian vegetarianism). Letter to a Hindu was a letter written by Count Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy in 1908 to an Indian Newspaper which sparked a relationship between the pacifist and another well-known anti-violence father figure, Mohandas Gandhi who was stationed in South Africa at the time and just beginning his life... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Christian vegetarianism is based on extending the compassionate teachings of Jesus, the twelve apostles and the early church to all living beings through vegetarianism or veganism. ...


Along with his growing idealism, Tolstoy also became a major supporter of the Esperanto movement. Tolstoy was impressed by the pacifist beliefs of the Doukhobors and brought their persecution to the attention of the international community, after they burned their weapons in peaceful protest in 1895. He aided the Doukhobors in migrating to Canada. In 1908, he was also the founding president of the International Union of Vegetarian Esperantists (Internacia Vegetarana Unuiĝo).[6] This article is about the language. ... The Doukhobors (Duchobozetz, Duchobortzi) (Russian: ) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...


References

This article incorporates text from D.S. Mirsky's "A History of Russian Literature" (1926-27), a publication now in the public domain. Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  1. ^ Martin E. Hellman, Resist Not Evil in World Without Violence (Arun Gandhi ed.), M.K. Gandhi Institute, 1994, retrieved on 14 December 2006]
  2. ^ Feuer,Kathryn B. Tolstoy and the Genesis of War and Peace, Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8014-1902-6
  3. ^ D. S. Mirsky. A History of Russian Literature. Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-1679-0. Page 324.
  4. ^ Victor Terras ed., Handbook of Russian Literature, p. 476-480, Yale University Press, 1985 (retrieved on 14 December 2006 from this website)
  5. ^ Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements, Broadview Press, 2004, p. 185
  6. ^ "TEVA: The Esperantist Vegetarian Movement celebrates its 90th year"

Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ...

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Biographies and critiques

Leo Tolstoy in the media Masterpiece Theatre is a long-running anthology television series produced by WGBH which premiered on PBS on January 10, 1971. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...

  • Leo Tolstoy at the Internet Movie Database
  • Portrayed by Bill Jones in the film Lives and Deaths of the Poets (2009)
  • ALEXANDER II AND HIS TIMES: A Narrative History of Russia in the Age of Alexander II, Tolstoy, and Dostoevsky
Persondata
NAME Tolstoy, Leo
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Tolstoy, Lev Nikolayevich; Tolstoi, Leo; Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Russian novelist
DATE OF BIRTH August 28, 1828(1828-08-28)
PLACE OF BIRTH Yasnaya Polyana, Russia
DATE OF DEATH November 20, 1910
PLACE OF DEATH Astapovo, Russia

For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... This is a list of works by Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). ... The adjective Tolstoyan (also spelled Tolstoian) refers to the author Leo Tolstoy. ... Coat of arms of the Tolstoy family Tolstoy, or Tolstoi (Russian: ) is a prominent family of Russian nobility, descending from one Andrey Kharitonovich Tolstoy (i. ... Childhood (Детство [Detstvo]; 1852) is the first novel in Leo Tolstoys autobiographical trilogy. ... Boyhood (Russian: Отрочество]; 1854) is the second novel in Leo Tolstoys autobiographical trilogy. ... Youth (Russian: Юность [Yunost]; 1856) is the third novel in Leo Tolstoys autobiographical trilogy, following Childhood and Boyhood. ... Family Happiness is an 1859 novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ... The Cossacks is a short novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Death of Ivan Ilych The Death of Ivan Ilyich (Russian: , Smert Ivana Ilyicha), first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy. ... Resurrection, first published in 1899, was the third and last novel written by Leo Tolstoy. ... Hadji Murat (sometimes written as Murad, but only the given spelling here captures the phoneme of the original Russian) was a short novel written by Leo Tolstoy from 1896-1904 and published after his death, in the year 1912. ... A Confession is a short work on questions of religion by Leo Tolstoy. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... What Is Art? (1897) is a nonfictional essay by Leo Tolstoy in which he argues against numerous aesthetic theories which define art in terms of the good, truth, and especially beauty. ... A Calendar of Wisdom (Russian: Путь Жизни, Put Zhizni), is a collection of insights and wisdom compiled by Leo Tolstoy between 1903 and 1910 published in 1910. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Power of Darkness The Power of Darkness (original Russian title Власть тьмы, Vlast tmy) also known as The Dominion of Darkness is a five-act dramatic play by Leo Tolstoy, written in 1886. ... The Living Corpse (original Russian title Живой труп [Zhivoi trup], also known in English as Redemption and as Reparation) is a play by Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910). ... Alyosha the Pot is a short story by Leo Tolstoy (1905). ... Croesus and Fate is a short story by Leo Tolstoy that is a retelling of a Greek legend about the king Croesus. ... Father Sergius (Отец Сергий) is a short fictional story authored by Leo Tolstoy in 1873. ... God Sees the Truth, But Waits (also translated as The Confessed Crime) is a short story written by Russian author Leo Tolstoy. ... The Grain, sometimes also translated as A Grain as Big as a Hens Egg, is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy written in 1886. ... Ivan the Fool (also known as Ivan the Fool and his Two Brothers) is an 1886 short story (in fact, a literary fairy tale) by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1886. ... How Much Land Does a Man Need? is an 1886 short story by Leo Tolstoy about a man who, in his lust for land, forfeits everything, including his own life. ... Kholstomer, also translated as Strider, is one of the more striking stories in Russian literature. ... The Kreutzer Sonata is a novella by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1889 and promptly censored by the Russian authorities. ... Master and Man (Russian: ) is a short story by Leo Tolstoy (1895). ... Promoting a Devil (also translated as The Imp and the Crust) is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1886. ... Quench the Spark (also translated as A Spark Neglected Burns the House Down) is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1885. ... Repentance is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1886. ... Sevastopol Sketches (Russian: , Sevastopolskiye rasskazy) are three short stories written by Leo Tolstoy to record his experiences during the Siege of Sevastopol (1854). ... Three Deaths: A Tale is an short story by Leo Tolstoy originally published in 1859. ... The Three Questions is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1885 as part of the collection What Men Live By, and other tales. ... Too Dear! is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1897. ... What Men Live By (Čím človÄ›k žije in Czech) is an opera in one act by Bohuslav Martinu to a Czech libretto by the composer, based on the story by Leo Tolstoy. ... Wisdom of Children (also translated as Little Girls Wiser than Men) is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1885. ... Work, Death, and Sickness, sometimes also translated as The Right Way, is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy written in 1903. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lev Tolstoy (Russian: ) is a settlement in the northern part of Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, located at , It is the administrative center of Lev-Tolstovsky District. ...


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Leo Tolstoy - Biography and Works (4991 words)
Leo’s paternal grandfather Count Ilya Andreyevich Tolstoy (d.1820) had been an overly generous and trusting man; by the time Leo was born the Tolstoy fortunes had dwindled and the newlyweds settled at the Volkonsky family estate ‘Yasnaya Polyana’ (meaning ‘Clear Glade’) located in Tula Region, Shchekino District of central Russia.
Leo had a hard time accepting this inevitability of life; the loss of his father was a profound experience to such a young boy and as he watched his beloved grandmother Pelageya (who died two years later) suffer through her grief, he had his first spiritual questionings.
Tolstoy and the Cult of Simplicity by Gilbert Keith Chesterton
Leo Tolstoy.Leo Tolstoy | Sevastopol,Crimea,Ukraine (774 words)
Tolstoy is widely regarded as one of the greatest of all novelists, particularly noted for his masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina; in their scope, breadth and realistic depiction of Russian life, the two books stand at the peak of realistic fiction.
Tolstoy served as a second lieutenant in an artillery regiment during the Crimean War, recounted in his Sevastapol Sketches.
Without naming himself an anarchist, Leo Tolstoy, took the anarchist position as regards the state and property rights, deducing his conclusions from the general spirit of the teachings of Jesus and from the necessary dictates of reason.
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