FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Lent" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Lent
Cross veiled during Passiontide in Lent (Pfarrkirche St. Martin in Tannheim, Baden Württemberg, Germany).
Cross veiled during Passiontide in Lent (Pfarrkirche St. Martin in Tannheim, Baden Württemberg, Germany).

== Lent can refer to: Lent, in Western Christianity, the period preceding the Christian holy day of Easter Lent, a commune in the Ain département, in France Lent, Maribor, an old part of Maribor, Slovenia Lent, Netherlands, a village in mun. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 779 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 779 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tannheim is next to the Iller. ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density...

Christianity Portal

Lent, in most Christian denominations, is the forty-day liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter.[1] The forty days represent the time Jesus spent in the desert, where, according to the Bible, he endured temptation by Satan.[2] Different churches calculate the forty days differently. Image File history File links Portal. ... List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Ary Scheffers The Temptation of Christ In Christianity, the temptation of Christ refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the three Synoptic Gospels, specifically at: Matthew 4:1-11 Mark 1:12-13 Luke 4:1-13 According to these texts, after... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer—through 'Bold text''''Bold text''''Bold text''''Bold text'Bold text''''''''''prayer, penitence, almsgiving and self-denial—for the annual commemoration during Holy Week of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the events linked to the Passion of Christ and culminates in Easter, the celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Penance (from the Latin Poenitentia, the same root as penitence, which is English means repentence, the desire to be forgiven, see contrition; in many languages only one single word is derived) is the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (formerly called Confession). ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Holy Week (Latin: ) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... According to the New Testament, Jesus was both human and God, so he had the power to lay his life down and to take it up again; thus after Jesus died, he came back to life. ...


In Western Christianity, but with the exception of the Archdiocese of Milan which follows the Ambrosian Rite, Lent lasts from Ash Wednesday through to Holy Saturday.[3] [1] The six Sundays in Lent are not counted among the forty days because each Sunday represents a "mini-Easter", a celebration of Jesus' victory over sin and death.[2] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ...


In those churches which follow the Byzantine tradition (e.g. Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics), the forty days of Lent are calculated differently: the fast begins on Clean Monday, Sundays are included in the count, and it ends on the Friday before Palm Sunday. The days of Lazarus Saturday, Palm Sunday and Holy Week are considered a distinct period of fasting. For more detailed information about the Eastern Christian practice of Lent, see the article Great Lent. The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The domes of an Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the See of Rome. ... Clean Monday (Greek: Καθαρή Δευτέρα), also known as Ash Monday or (in Cyprus only) Green Monday, is the first day of the Eastern Orthodox Christian lent. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... Lazarus Saturday, in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, is the day before Palm Sunday, and is liturgically linked to it. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... Holy Week (Latin: ) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Near East and Eastern Europe. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent...

Contents

Origins

The number forty has many Biblical references: the forty days Moses spent on Mount Sinai with God (Exodus 24:18); the forty days and nights Elijah spent walking to Mount Horeb (1 Kings 19:8); God made it rain for forty days and forty nights in the days of Noah (Genesis 7:4); the Hebrew people wandered forty years traveling to the Promised Land (Numbers 14:33); Jonah in his prophecy of judgment gave the city of Nineveh forty days in which to repent (Jonah 3:4). Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Moses with the Ten Commandments by Rembrandt (1659) Biblical Mount Sinai refers to the place where, according to the Hebrew Bible (Exod. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // In... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... For other places named Mount Sinai, see Mount Sinai (disambiguation) Sunrise on the Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (2,285 meters) is a mountain in the southern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Map of the Land of Israel as defined in the Bible The Promised Land (Hebrew: הארץ המובטחת, translit. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... A judgment or judgement (see spelling note below), in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...


Jesus retreated into the desert, where he fasted for forty days, and was tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:1-2, Mark 1:12-13, Luke 4:1-2). Jesus overcame all three of Satan's temptations by citing scripture to the devil, at which point the devil left him, angels ministered to Jesus, and he began his ministry. Jesus further said that his disciples should fast "when the bridegroom shall be taken from them" (Matthew 9:15), a reference to his Passion. Since, presumably, the Apostles fasted as they mourned the death of Jesus, Christians have traditionally fasted during the annual commemoration of his burial. For the Islamic devil, see Iblis. ... For other uses, see Temptation (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


It is the traditional belief that Jesus lay for 40 hours in the tomb[4] which led to the forty hours of total fast that preceded the Easter celebration in the early Church[5] (the biblical reference to 'three days in the tomb' is understood as spanning three days, from Friday afternoon to early Sunday morning, rather than three 24 hour periods of time). One of the most important ceremonies at Easter was the baptism of the initiates on Easter Eve. The fast was initially undertaken by the catechumens to prepare them for the reception of this sacrament. Later, the period of fasting from Good Friday until Easter Day was extended to six days, to correspond with the six weeks of training, necessary to give the final instruction to those converts who were to be baptized. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Orthodox pilgrims bathing with the Holy Fire in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Holy Saturday. ... In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... Easter is the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, which Christians believe occurred after his death by crucifixion in AD 27-33 (see Good Friday). ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ...


Converts to Christianity followed a strict catechumenate or period of instruction and discipline prior to baptism. In Jerusalem near the close of the fourth century, classes were held throughout Lent for three hours each day. With the legalization of Christianity (by the Edict of Milan) and its later imposition as the state religion of the Roman Empire, its character was endangered by the great influx of new members. In response, the Lenten fast and practices of self-renunciation were required annually of all Christians, both to show solidarity with the catechumens, and for their own spiritual benefit. The less zealous converts were thus brought more securely into the Christian fold. Catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek carijxobucvos, instructed) is an ecclesiastical term applied to those receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Traditionally, on Easter Sunday, Roman Catholics may cease their fasting and start again whatever they gave up for lent, after they attend Mass on Easter Sunday. Other Western denominations have also followed this general principle to a greater or lesser degree.


Name

In the English language, Lent was formerly referred to by the Latin term quadragesima (translation of the original Greek tessarakoste, the "fortieth day" before Easter). This nomenclature is preserved in Romance, Slavic and Celtic languages (for example, Spanish cuaresma, Portuguese quaresma, French carême, Italian quaresima, Croatian korizma, Irish Carghas, and Welsh C(a)rawys). Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For the season known as Quadragesima, see Lent. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


In the late Middle Ages, as sermons began to be given in the vernacular instead of Latin, the English word lent was adopted. This word initially simply meant spring and derives from the Germanic root for long because in the spring the days visibly lengthen. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Customs during the time of Lent

There are traditionally forty days in Lent which are marked by fasting, both from foods and festivities, and by other acts of penance. The three traditional practices to be taken up with renewed vigour during Lent are prayer (justice towards God), fasting (justice towards self), and almsgiving (justice towards neighbour). Today, some people give up a vice of theirs, add something that will bring them closer to God, and often give the time or money spent doing that to charitable purposes or organizations.[6] For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. ... A charitable organization (also known as a charity) is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ...


In many liturgical Christian denominations, Maundy Thursday (also called "Holy Thursday," especially by Roman Catholics), Good Friday, and Holy Saturday form the Easter Triduum. Lent is a season of grief that necessarily ends with a great celebration of Easter. It is known in Eastern Orthodox circles as the season of "Bright Sadness." It is a season of sorrowful reflection which is punctuated by breaks in the fast on Sundays. A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... The Last Supper - museum copy of Master Pauls sculpture, from the main altar in St. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... Easter Triduum, or Holy Triduum, or Paschal Triduum is a term used by some Christian churches, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, and many Anglicans, to denote, collectively, the three days from the evening of Maundy Thursday (or Holy Thursday) to the evening of Easter Sunday. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Look up reflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Lenten semi-fast may have originated for practical reasons: during the era of subsistence agriculture in the West as food stored away in the previous autumn was running out, or had to be used up before it went bad in store, and little or no new food-crop was expected soon (compare the period in Spring which British gardeners call the "hungry gap"). Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... Hunger is applied literally to the need or craving for food; it can also be applied metaphorically to cravings of other sorts. ...


In the Roman Catholic Mass, Lutheran Divine Service, and Anglican Eucharist, the Gloria in Excelsis Deo is not sung during the Lenten season, disappearing on Ash Wednesday and not returning until the moment of the Resurrection during the Easter Vigil. On major feast days, the Gloria in Excelsis Deo is recited, but this in no way diminishes the penitential character of the season; it simply reflects the joyful character of the Mass of the day in question. It is also used on Maundy Thursday. Likewise, the Alleluia is not sung during Lent; it is replaced before the Gospel reading by a seasonal acclamation. For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Divine Service (German: Gottesdienst) is the liturgy of the Lutheran Church which is used during the celebration of the Eucharist. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God in the highest) is the title and beginning of the Great Doxology used in the Roman Catholic Mass, Divine Service of the Lutheran Church and in the services of many other [1] Christian churches. ... The Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in many Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (יָהּ)). It is found mainly in the book of Psalms. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Politics An acclamation is a form of election not using a ballot. ...


Prior to 1970, the last two weeks of Lent were known as Passiontide, which began on Passion Sunday. All statues (and in England paintings as well) in the church were veiled in purple. This was in accordance with the Passion Sunday Gospel (John 8:46-59) in which Jesus “hid himself” from the people. The veils were removed at the singing of the Gloria during the Easter Vigil. Following Vatican II, and in the Reformed Kalendar of 1970, Passiontide was discontinued. Passion Sunday is now the Fifth Sunday in Lent and religious images are no longer veiled. Traditionalist Catholics and Anglo-Catholics continue to observe Passiontide. Passiontide, in the Christian liturgical year, is a name for the last two weeks of Lent, beginning on Passion Sunday and ending on Holy Saturday. ... Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God in the highest) is the title and beginning of the Great Doxology used in the Roman Catholic Mass, Divine Service of the Lutheran Church and in the services of many other [1] Christian churches. ... The Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in many Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ...


Traditionally, the Alleluia was omitted at Mass beginning at Septuagesima, but in the Missal of Paul VI (1969) promulgated after the Second Vatican Council it is retained until Ash Wednesday. The older practise is retained in the Missal of John XXIII (1962) which is attended by traditionalists. Septuagesima (in full, Septuagesima Sunday) is the name given to the third from the last Sunday before Lent in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ...


In the Byzantine rites, the Gloria (Great Doxology) continues to be used in its normal place in the Matins service, and the Alleluia appears all the more frequently, replacing "God is the Lord" at Matins. The Great Doxology is an ancient hymn of praise to the Trinity which is chanted or read daily in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ...


Pre-Lenten festivals

Main articles: Carnival, Mardi Gras, Fastnacht, and Maslenitsa
Lent personified at a Carnival celebration. Detail of 1559 painting "The Battle between Carnival and Lent" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder.
Lent personified at a Carnival celebration. Detail of 1559 painting "The Battle between Carnival and Lent" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder.
Pile of straw with a fir tree and a "witch" doll attached to it, for the traditional "Funken" bonfire on the First Sunday of lent in Herdwangen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Pile of straw with a fir tree and a "witch" doll attached to it, for the traditional "Funken" bonfire on the First Sunday of lent in Herdwangen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The "Funken" set ablaze.
The "Funken" set ablaze.

Although originally of pagan content, the traditional carnival celebrations which precede Lent in many cultures have become associated with the season of fasting if only because they are a last opportunity for excess before Lent begins. The most famous of pre-Lenten carnivals in the West is Shrove Tuesday or Mardi Gras. This article describes the festival season. ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... Fastnacht or Fasnacht is the carnival in Alemannic folklore, in Switzerland, southern Germany, Alsace and western Austria. ... Boris Kustodiev Maslenitsa tuesday Maslenitsa or Pancake week (Russian: , also called Pancake week) is a Russian folk holiday that dates back to the pagan times. ... Lent personified at a Carnival celebration. ... Lent personified at a Carnival celebration. ... This article describes the festival season. ... Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. ... Species See text. ... For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... This article describes the festival season. ... Occident redirects here. ... Pancakes with strawberry syrup and black currants Shrove Tuesday is the term used in the United Kingdom,[1] Ireland,[2] and Australia[3] to refer to the day after Shrove Monday (or the more old fashioned Collop Monday) and before Ash Wednesday (the liturgical season of Lent begins on Ash... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ...


Fasting and abstinence

Fasting during Lent was more severe in ancient times than today. Socrates Scholasticus reports that in some places, all animal products were strictly forbidden, while others will permit fish, others permit fish and fowl, others prohibit fruit and eggs, and still others eat only bread. In some places, believers abstained from food for an entire day; others took only one meal each day, while others abstained from all food until 3 o'clock. In most places, however, the practice was to abstain from eating until the evening, when a small meal without meat or alcohol was eaten. Socrates Scholasticus was a Greek Christian church historian; born at Constantinople c. ...


During the early Middle Ages, meat, eggs and dairy products were generally proscribed. Thomas Aquinas argued that "they afford greater pleasure as food [than fish], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their consumption there results a greater surplus available for seminal matter, which when abundant becomes a great incentive to lust."[7] Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


However, dispensations for dairy products were given, frequently for a donation, from which several churches are popularly believed to have been built, including the "Butter Tower" of the Rouen Cathedral. In Spain, the bull of the Holy Crusade (renewed periodically after 1492) allowed the consumption of dairy products[8] and eggs during Lent in exchange for a contribution to the war against Islam. Dispensation is the act of distributing goods or services, especially those that are regulated, as in the practice of pharmacists. ... Rouen Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen) is a Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales reports that "in Germany and the arctic regions," "great and religious persons," classified the tail of beavers as "fish" because of its superficial resemblance to a fish and their relative abundance. Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ...


Today, in the West, the practice is considerably relaxed, though in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches abstinence from the above-mentioned food products is still commonly practiced, meaning only vegetarian meals are consumed during this time in many Eastern countries. Lenten practices (as well as various other liturgical practices) are more common in Protestant circles than they once were. In the Roman Catholic Church it is tradition to abstain from meat from Ungulates (meaning roughly "being hooved" or "hooved animal") every Friday for the duration of Lent, although dairy products are still permitted. On Ash Wednesday it is customary to fast for the day, with no meat, eating only one full meal, and if necessary, two small meals also.[9] The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... Rear hooves of a horse Rear hoof of a giraffe A hoof (plural: hooves) is the foot of an ungulate, all of which walk more or less on their toes and have toes with a horny (keratin) covering. ...


Current fasting practice in the Roman Catholic Church binds persons over the age of 18 and younger than fifty-nine (Canon 1252). Pursuant to Canon 1253, days of fasting and abstinence are set by the national Episcopal conference. On days of fasting, one eats only one full meal, but may eat two smaller meals as necessary to keep up one's strength. The two small meals together must sum to less than the one full meal. Parallel to the fasting laws are the laws of abstinence. These bind those over the age of fourteen. On days of abstinence, the person must not eat meat or poultry. According to canon law, all Fridays of the year, Ash Wednesday and several other days are days of abstinence, though in most countries, the strict requirements of abstinence have been limited by the bishops (in accordance with Canon 1253) to the Fridays of Lent and Ash Wednesday. On other abstinence days, the faithful are invited to perform some other act of penance. Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the practice of abstinence in general. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, an Episcopal Conference, Conference of Bishops, or National Conference of Bishops is a conference consisting of all the bishops within a given territory. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ...


Many modern Protestants consider the observation of Lent to be a choice, rather than an obligation. They may decide to give up a favorite food or drink (e.g. chocolate, alcohol) or activity (e.g. going to the movies, playing video games) for Lent, or they may instead decide to take on a Lenten discipline such as devotions, volunteering for charity work, and so forth. Roman Catholics may also observe Lent in this way, in addition to the dietary restrictions outlined above, though observation is no longer mandatory under the threat of mortal sin. Many Christians who choose not to follow the dietary restrictions cite 1 Timothy 4:1-5 which warns of doctrines that "forbid people to marry and order them to abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and who know the truth." Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... Children cart dirt and debris away during a community clean-up day in Yaoundé, Cameroon. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... According to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ... (Redirected from 1 Timothy) This article or section should be merged with Second Epistle to Timothy The First Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ...

Liturgical year
Western
Eastern

When observing fasting or abstinence during Lent, regard must be paid to the fact that Sundays are Feast Days, so the fast or abstinence may be broken. If one counts the days from Ash Wednesday to the day before Easter Sunday, excluding the Sundays, one will see that there are 40 of them, equating with the number of days Christ spent in the wilderness. The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... Easter Triduum, or Holy Triduum, or Paschal Triduum is a term used by some Christian churches, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, and many Anglicans, to denote, collectively, the three days from the evening of Maundy Thursday (or Holy Thursday) to the evening of Easter Sunday. ... Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and continues until Pentecost in the Christian liturgical calendar, thus spanning a total of seven weeks. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... … The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... Ordinary Time is a season of the Christian (especially the Catholic) liturgical calendar. ... Eastern Orthodox Icon of the Exaltation of the Cross In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different feasts known as Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. ... The Nativity Fast, practiced by the Eastern Orthodox Church, is believed to enable participants to draw closer to God by denying the body of worldly pleasure in preparation for celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ, which is held on December 25th (Julian Calendar). ... For the Nativity of Jesus, see Nativity of Jesus. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... This article is about the Christian festival. ... … The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... The upper part of The Transfiguration (1520) by Raphael, depicting Christ miraculously discoursing with Moses and Elijah The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ... Dormition of the Virgin redirects here. ... The Intercession of Our Most Holy Lady Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary (Russian Pokrov, Покров) is one of the most important Russian Orthodoxy feasts (maybe the most important after the Twelve Great Feasts). ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ...


Holy Days

There are several holy days within the season of Lent.

  • Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent in Western Christianity.
  • Clean Monday (or "Ash Monday") is the first day in Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
  • The fourth Lenten Sunday, which marks the halfway point between Ash Wednesday and Easter, is sometimes referred to as Laetare Sunday, particularly by Roman Catholics.
  • The fifth Lenten Sunday, also known as Passion Sunday (however, that term is also applied to Palm Sunday) marks the beginning of Passiontide.
  • The sixth Lenten Sunday, commonly called Palm Sunday, marks the beginning of Holy Week, the final week of Lent immediately preceding Easter.
  • Wednesday of Holy Week is known as Spy Wednesday to commemorate the days on which Judas spied on Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane before betraying him.
  • Thursday is known as Maundy Thursday, or Holy Thursday, and is a day Christians commemorate the Last Supper shared by Christ with his disciples.
  • Good Friday follows the next day, on which Christians remember His crucifixion and burial.
In the Roman Catholic Church, Mass is a three day event called the Easter Triduum that begins with the opening song of the Holy Thursday celebration. After the Holy Thursday celebration, the communion bread and wine is taken from the altar with no formal closing. Instead, the parish is invited to worship the holy Body of Christ. The next day is the official commemoration of The Passion of Jesus Christ and is usually celebrated at 3 PM local time though some parishes usually change the time due to work schedules. This commemoration is part of the Triduum Mass which the opening is just a prayer followed by the day's readings. The service usually ends with a shortened communion involving only the Body of Christ and a post communion prayer before the service ends without dismissal. The Easter Vigil is the start of the end of the Triduum mass and usually starts with a fire service before the readings which explore the history of mankind. The service also includes baptism and confirmation services which are usually celebrated after the homily. The Easter Vigil and Triduum Mass ends in the usual way with full communion.

Holy Week and the season of Lent, depending on denomination and local custom, end with Easter Vigil at sundown on Holy Saturday or on the morning of Easter Sunday. It is custom for some churches to hold sunrise services which include open air celebrations in some places. In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... Clean Monday (Greek: Καθαρή Δευτέρα), also known as Ash Monday or (in Cyprus only) Green Monday, is the first day of the Eastern Orthodox Christian lent. ... Laetare Sunday (from the Latin verb laetari, meaning to be joyful) is a name formerly often used, and less commonly used today, to denote the fourth Sunday of the season of Lent in the Christian liturgical calendar. ... Passion Sunday is a term formerly used to denote the fifth Sunday of Lent in the Christian liturgical calendar; since 1970, when the new church calendar approved by the Second Vatican Council went into effect, the term has been applied to the following Sunday, until then officially called Palm Sunday... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... Passiontide, in the Christian liturgical year, is a name for the last two weeks of Lent, beginning on Passion Sunday and ending on Holy Saturday. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... Wednesday is the day of the week between Tuesday and Thursday. ... Judas (Greek: Ιούδας) is the anglicized Greek rendering of the Hebrew name Yehudah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה), also rendered in English as Judah. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... The Last Supper - museum copy of Master Pauls sculpture, from the main altar in St. ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Easter Triduum, or Holy Triduum, or Paschal Triduum is a term used by some Christian churches, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, and many Anglicans, to denote, collectively, the three days from the evening of Maundy Thursday (or Holy Thursday) to the evening of Easter Sunday. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in many Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... confirmed redirects here. ... Look up denomination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Custom has a number of meanings: A custom is a common practice among a group of people, especially depending on country, culture, time, and religion. ...


In the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Anglican traditions, the altar linens and priest's vestments are violet during the season of Lent. However, during the holy days the linens often change. See Liturgical colours. Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ... Linens are fabric household goods, such as pillowcases and towels. ... Liturgical colours are colours of vestments and paraments within a Christian liturgy. ...


There are some Christian denominations that do not practice Lent and see it as an obscure tradition that the Church practices without Biblical merit.[10] List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ...


References

  1. ^ a b The Liturgical Year. The Anglican Catholic Church. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  2. ^ a b What is Lent and why does it last forty days?. The United Methodist Church. Retrieved on [[= = 2007-08-24]].
  3. ^ Thurston, Herbert (1910), "Lent", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. IX, New York: Robert Appleton Company, <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09152a.htm>. Retrieved on 2008-02-15
  4. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia - Lent See paragraph: Duration of the Fast
  5. ^ Lent & Beyond: Dr. Peter Toon—From Septuagesima to Quadragesima
  6. ^ Spirit Home: Lent—disciplines and practices
  7. ^ Summa Theologica Q147a8.
  8. ^ Implicaciones económicas del miedo religioso en dos instituciones del Antiguo Régimen: la Inquisición y la Bula de Cruzada., Alejandro Torres Gutiérrez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Millennium:Fear and Religion.
  9. ^ Colin B. Donovan, Fast and Abstinence. Accessed 2007-12-28.
  10. ^ The Restored Church of God: The True Meaning of Lent

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Look up Lent in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... This article describes the festival season. ... Clean Monday (Greek: Καθαρή Δευτέρα), also known as Ash Monday or (in Cyprus only) Green Monday, is the first day of the Eastern Orthodox Christian lent. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Seafood is a popular staple of Catholics during Fridays of Lent. ... The Copts, the Christians of Egypt, who belong mostly to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, observe Fasting periods according to the Coptic Calendar. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... The Last Supper - museum copy of Master Pauls sculpture, from the main altar in St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Quinquagesima is the name for the Sunday before Ash Wednesday. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Pancakes with strawberry syrup and black currants Shrove Tuesday is the term used in the United Kingdom,[1] Ireland,[2] and Australia[3] to refer to the day after Shrove Monday (or the more old fashioned Collop Monday) and before Ash Wednesday (the liturgical season of Lent begins on Ash... Tisha BAv (Hebrew: תשעה באב or ט׳ באב), or the Ninth of Av, is an annual fast day in Judaism. ... Vassa (Thai พรรษา, pansa or phansaa), also called Rains Retreat, is the traditional retreat during the rainy season lasting for three lunar months from July to October. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1675 words)
In Eastern Christianity, the period before Easter is known as Great Lent to distinguish it from the Winter Lent, or Advent (known in Greek as the "Great Fast" and the "Nativity Fast", respectively).
Lent is a season of sorrowful reflection that is punctuated by breaks in the fast on Sundays (the day of the resurrection); thus, Sundays are not counted in the forty days of Lent.
Because Lent is a season of grief that necessarily ends with a great celebration of Easter, it is known in Eastern Orthodox circles as the season of "Bright Sadness".
Lent (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (132 words)
Lent, a commune in the Jura département, in France.
Lent, Netherlands, a village in the municipality Nijmegen, Netherlands.
"lent", the past tense and past participle of the verb "lend".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m