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Encyclopedia > Lenin's April Theses

The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to the capital of Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. He set out his analysis of where Russian politics should develop in his famous April Theses published in the newspaper, Pravda. Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин â–¶(?)), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an adaptation of Marxism to... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... This article treats the Soviet/Russian newspaper. ...

The theses dealt with various areas - for instance, the Bolshevik attitude to the First World War, their attitude to the Provisional Government, and how Russia should be governed in the future and the future of the Bolsheviks. Clockwise from top: Trenches in frontline, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel biplane. ...

Particular measures proposed by Lenin included no co-operation with the "bourgeois" Provisional Government; opposition to the war on the grounds that it was a war fought in bourgeois interests by bourgeois governments; and the abolition of the police, army and state bureaucracy which he argued held up the interests of Russia's ruling bourgeosie. Lenin also argued against parliamentary democracy and called for workers control of the state through the system of soviets. Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... A soviet (Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ...

In the theses Lenin also argued that the time had come for the Bolsheviks to consider changing their name to disassociate them from mainstream European social-democracy as he felt this term was devalued by many leading social-democrats supporting their respective country's participation in the war. This was an argument he first developed in his 1915 pamphlet Socialism and War where he called the pro-war social-democrats Social-Chauvinists. Social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Social-Chauvinism is a term created by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Bolshevik leader to criticise those in the Second International who supported their countries involvement in World War I. Lenin viewed such support as deviating away from the socialist ideal of international solidarity of the proletariat, and in his eyes...

Many of the arguments laid out by Lenin in his theses were aimed directly at the Bolsheviks themselves as much as the wider population. After the events of the February revolution returning Bolshevik leaders from exile such as Josef Stalin and Lev Kamenev were arguing a much more moderate line, that Russian involvement in the war could be justified and that there should be co-operation with the liberals. However, Lenin's arguments reflected those made by the leading Bolsheviks in Petrograd at the time of the February events, such as Alexander Shlyapnikov. February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Joseph Stalin Iosif (Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 18791 – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a political leader in the Soviet Union. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev Lev Borisovich Kamenev (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 6 (Old Style) / July 18 (New Style) 1883, Moscow - August 25, 1936, Moscow) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... Alexander Gavrilovich Shlyapnikov (in Russian, Александр Гаврилович Шляпников) (1885-1937) was a Russian communist. ...

Lenin succeeded in persuading the Bolsheviks of his arguments as laid out in the April Theses and they provided much of the ideological groundwork for the events leading up to their ascendency to power in the October Revolution. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...

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