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Encyclopedia > Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
Download high resolution version (500x700, 25 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. Please see its image description page on the Commons. Lenin Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of...
Term of Office: Years: 1914 1915 1916 - 1917 - 1918 1919 1920 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1917 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1917- Years: 1921 1922 1923 - 1924 - 1925 1926 1927 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1924 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1924
Predecessor: Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the... Aleksandr Kerensky
Successor: Joseph Stalin Iosif (Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი... Joseph Stalin
Date of Birth: April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). There are 253 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... April 22, Years: 1867 1868 1869 - 1870 - 1871 1872 1873 Decades: 1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1870 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1870
Place of Birth: Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск, previously Simbirsk (Симби́рск)) is a city on the Volga River in Russia. Both Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Kerensky were born there. Population (2002):635,600. Ulyanovsk is the administrative center of... Simbirsk, The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic    Russian Official status... Russia
Date of Death: January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 344 days remaining (345 in leap years). January Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... January 21, Years: 1921 1922 1923 - 1924 - 1925 1926 1927 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1924 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1924
Place of Death: For other uses, see Moscow can refer to the following locations: Moscow - the capital of Russia Moscow, Idaho - a city in Idaho, in the United States Moscow, Kansas - a city in Kansas, in the United States Moscow, Maine - a city in Maine, in the United States Moscow, Ohio - a city... Moscow, The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic    Russian Official status... Russia
Profession: A politician is an individual involved in politics, sometimes this may include political scientists. In other settings, a politician is a type of political figure who participates in a government. In Western democracies, the term is generally restricted to those either holding or seeking elected office for themselves, rather than... Politician
Political party: For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). This article is part of the Communism series. Schools of Communism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism Stalinism Maoism Left communism Council communism Anarcho-Communism Eurocommunism Juche Communist states Afghanistan (1978-1992) Albania (1945-1991) Angola (1975-1991) Benin (1975-1990) Bulgaria (1946... Soviet Communist Party

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic    Russian Official status Official language of... Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this icon. Click on the back button of your browser to go back to the article and try again... Sound listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). There are 253 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... April 22 (April 10 ( The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. It was chosen after consultation with the Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes and was probably designed to approximate the tropical year, known at least since Hipparchus. It has a regular year... O.S.)), Years: 1867 1868 1869 - 1870 - 1871 1872 1873 Decades: 1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1870 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1870 January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 344 days remaining (345 in leap years). January Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... January 21, Years: 1921 1922 1923 - 1924 - 1925 1926 1927 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1924 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1924), was a The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic    Russian Official status... Russian This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. For other meanings of the word, see revolution (disambiguation). A revolution is a relatively sudden and absolutely drastic change. This may be a change in the social or political institutions over a relatively short period of time, or... revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized power... Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars (or Sovnarkom)(1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946-1991) (Председател... Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of This article is part of the Communism series. Schools of Communism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism Stalinism Maoism Left communism Council communism Anarcho-Communism Eurocommunism Juche Communist states Afghanistan (1978-1992) Albania (1945-1991) Angola (1975-1991) Benin (1975-1990) Bulgaria (1946-1989) Burma (1974-1988) Cambodia (1975-1991) Congo (1969-1991... Leninism.


"Lenin" was one of his revolutionary A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. Contents // 1 Pseudonyms in print 2 Noms de guerre: Pseudonyms in war and guerilla 3 Pseudonyms in entertainment 4 Other pseudonyms 5 See also 6 External... pseudonyms. He is believed to have created it to show his opposition to Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. He was a founder of the Social-Democratic movement in Russia. Plekhanov contributed many ideas to Marxism in the area of philosophy and... Georgi Plekhanov who used the pseudonym Volgin, after the For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Volga Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1.35 million km² Origin Valdai Hills Mouth Caspian Sea Basin countries Russia The Volga river (Russian... Volga River; Ulyanov picked the This article is about the Lena river. Also see Lena for a description of the famous image used in digital image processing. The Lena River (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. Rising at the... Lena which is longer and flows in the opposite direction. However, there are many theories on where his name came from and he himself is not known to have ever stated exactly why he chose it. He is sometimes erroneously referred to in the West as "Nikolai Lenin", though he has never been known as such in Russia.

Contents

Early life

Lenin circa 1887, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old...
Lenin circa 1887, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Enlarge
Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) circa 1887

Born in Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск, previously Simbirsk (Симби́рск)) is a city on the Volga River in Russia. Both Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Kerensky were born there. Population (2002):635,600. Ulyanovsk is the administrative center of... Simbirsk, Russia, Lenin was the son of Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyan§ov ( Years: 1828 1829 1830 - 1831 - 1832 1833 1834 Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s - 1830s - 1840s 1850s 1860s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1831 in art 1831 in literature 1831 in rail transport 1831 in science 1831 in music 1831 in sports List of state leaders in 1831 List of... 1831 - 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) Years: 1883 1884 1885 - 1886 - 1887 1889 1889 Decades: 1850s 1860s 1870s - 1880s - 1890s 1900s 1910s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1886 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science... 1886), a Russian civil service official who worked for increased democracy and free universal education in Russia, and his liberal wife Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova (Blank) (Мария Александровна Ульянова (Бланк) in Russian) (2.22(3.6).1835 — 7.12(25).1916) was Vladimir Lenin... Maria Alexandrovna Blank ( Years: 1832 1833 1834 - 1835 - 1836 1837 1838 Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s - 1830s - 1840s 1850s 1860s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1835 in art 1835 in literature 1835 in rail transport 1835 in science 1835 in music 1835 in sports List of state leaders in 1835 List of... 1835 - 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Years: 1913 1914 1915 - 1916 - 1917 1918 1919 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1916 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation... 1916). Like many Russians, he was of mixed ethnic and religious ancestry. He had The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Kalmyk ancestry through his paternal grandparents, The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. Many Volga Germans immigrated to the American mid-west in the 19th century. After she displaced Peter III from the Russian... Volga German ancestry through his maternal grandmother, who was a The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism for further discussion. Contents // 1 History of Lutheranism 1.1 Early history 1.2 Other Protestant reformers 1.3 Religious war 1.4 Results of the Lutheran Reformation 2 Lutheran doctrine 2.1... Lutheran, and Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish ancestry through his maternal grandfather (converted to Christianity). Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) himself was baptised into the Download high resolution version (500x630, 175 KB)Saint Basils Cathedral, 2004-07. Photo by David Crawshaw. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation... Download... Russian Orthodox Church.


Vladimir distinguished himself in the study of For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. It gained great importance as the formal language of the Roman Empire. All Romance languages are descended from Latin, and many words based on Latin are found in other modern languages... Latin and Greek (Ελληνικά) Spoken in: Greece, Cyprus, Albania and surrounding countries Region: The Balkans Total speakers: 12 million Ranking: 74 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Greek   Attic    Modern Greek Official status Official language of: Greece, Cyprus (and the European... Greek. Two tragedies occurred in his early life: in 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) Years: 1883 1884 1885 - 1886 - 1887 1889 1889 Decades: 1850s 1860s 1870s - 1880s - 1890s 1900s 1910s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1886 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science... 1886, his father died of a cerebral haemorrhage. The following year, in May of 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). Years: 1884 1885 1886 - 1887 - 1888 1889 1890 Decades: 1850s 1860s 1870s - 1880s - 1890s 1900s 1910s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1887 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science... 1887 his eldest brother Alexander Ulyanov Mugshot Aleksandr Ilyich Ulyanov (Александр Ильич Ульянов in Russian) (1866-May 8, 1887) was a Russian revolutionary, one of the leaders of Pervomartovtsi, older brother of V.I. Lenin. In... Alexander Ulyanov was hanged for participation in a plot threatening the life of Tsar ( Bulgarian (Български, Bulgarski) Spoken in: Bulgaria and surrounding areas Region: The Balkans Total speakers: 12 million Ranking: 88 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   South    Eastern     Bulgarian Official status Official language of... Tsar Painting of Tsar Alexander III (1886), by Ivan Kramskoi (1837-1887), original, 41 x 36 in. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov or Alexander III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 - November... Alexander III. This radicalized Vladimir and later that year he was arrested, and expelled from Kazan State University is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. It was founded in 1804. The famous Russian mathematician Lobachevsky was its rector from 1827 till 1846. The current rector is Myakzyum Salakhov (Mäğzüm Säläxev). Kazan University is also known as the birthplace of organic chemistry... Kazan University for participating in student protests. He continued to study independently and by Years: 1888 1889 1890 - 1891 - 1892 1893 1894 Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1891 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Events January 1 ? Paying... 1891 had earned a A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. The spelling license is usual in American English. In British English, licence is the noun form, and license is the verb, so a when a licensee has a licence, they are licensed by a Licensing Authority... license to practice This article is about law in society. For other possible meanings, see law (disambiguation). Law (a loanword from Danish-Norwegian lov), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations; as well as punishments for... law.

Download high resolution version (537x634, 91 KB)V. I. Ulyanov during his arrest in connection with the case of the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. Dec. 1896 mugshot, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder...
Download high resolution version (537x634, 91 KB)V. I. Ulyanov during his arrest in connection with the case of the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. Dec. 1896 mugshot, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder... Enlarge
Lenin's mugshot, Dec. 1895

Revolutionary

Rather than settle into a legal career, he became more involved in Revolutionary propaganda means dissemination of revolutionary ideas. While the term propaganda bears a mostly negative connotation in modern English language, this did not exist in the early 20th century, when the word propaganda was first coined. Revolutionary propaganda is supposed to carry a positive connotation, something along the lines of... revolutionary propaganda efforts and the study of This article is part of the Communism series. Schools of Communism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism Stalinism Maoism Left communism Council communism Anarcho-Communism Eurocommunism Juche Communist states Afghanistan (1978-1992) Albania (1945-1991) Angola (1975-1991) Benin (1975-1990) Bulgaria (1946-1989) Burma (1974-1988) Cambodia (1975-1991) Congo (1969-1991... Marxism, much of it in For other uses, see Saint Petersburg (disambiguation). Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингр... St. Petersburg. On December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the The Gregorian calendar is the calendar currently used in the Western world. A modification of the Julian calendar, it was first proposed by the Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII... December 7, Years: 1892 1893 1894 - 1895 - 1896 1897 1898 Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1895 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1895, he was arrested and held by authorities for an entire year, then exiled to the village of Shushenskoye (Шу́шенское) is a village in Siberia, Russia, at the South of Krasnoyarsk Krai, near the confluence of Yenisei and Shush.  Vladimir Lenin was in exile here from 1897 to 1900.  In 1970, a museum dedicated to Lenins... Shushenskoye in Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. It extends eastward from the Ural Mountains to the... Siberia.


In July Years: 1895 1896 1897 - 1898 - 1899 1900 1901 Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1898 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1898, he married Nadezhda Krupskaya Nadezhda K. Krupskaya (February 26, 1869 - February 27, 1939) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary. She married Bolshevik founder Vladimir Lenin in 1898. She was a functionary of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP from the early days. After the Russian Revolution, she was appointed deputy to Anatoli Lunacharsky... Nadezhda Krupskaya, who was a This page is protected from editing until disputes have been resolved on the discussion page. Protection is not an endorsement of the current version. To see other versions, use the page history. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. For information... socialist activist. In April Years: 1896 1897 1898 - 1899 - 1900 1901 1902 Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1899 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1899, he published the book The Development of Capitalism in Russia [1] (http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1899/devel/index.htm). In For the film, see 1900 (film). 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. Years: 1897 1898 1899 - 1900 - 1901 1902 1903 Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s - 1900s - 1910s 1920s 1930s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1900 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation... 1900, his exile ended. He travelled in Russia and elsewhere in This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) A comprehensive collection of continental features is found in Europe, albeit on a smaller scale than elsewhere. Mountain ranges, peninsulas, islands and more arid or cold regions can be seen in this satellite composite image of Europe Europe... Europe and published the paper Iskra (Spark) was the newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants in London about 1903. Iskras motto was Из искры возгорится пламя (From a spark there will conflame itself a fire) — a... Iskra as well as other tracts and books related to the revolutionary movement.


He was active in the The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая... Russian Social Democratic Labor Party ( The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая... RSDLP), and in Years: 1900 1901 1902 - 1903 - 1904 1905 1906 Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s - 1900s - 1910s 1920s 1930s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1903 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1903 he led the Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized power... Bolshevik faction after a split with the The Mensheviks were a faction of the Russian revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov, both members of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. At the second congress of the RSDLP, Lenin argued for a small party of professional revolutionaries with a... Mensheviks that was partly inspired by his pamphlet What is to be Done? [2] (http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1901/witbd/index.htm). In Years: 1903 1904 1905 - 1906 - 1907 1908 1909 Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s - 1900s - 1910s 1920s 1930s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1906 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1906 he was elected to the Presidium of the RSDLP. In Years: 1904 1905 1906 - 1907 - 1908 1909 1910 Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s - 1900s - 1910s 1920s 1930s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1907 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1907 he moved to The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland for security reasons. He continued to travel in Europe and participated in many This page is protected from editing until disputes have been resolved on the discussion page. Protection is not an endorsement of the current version. To see other versions, use the page history. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. For information... socialist meetings and activities, including the The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. It was an international socialist conference, which saw the beginning of the end of the coalition between left-wing socialists (communists) and right-wing socialists (social democrats) in the Second International. The conference had 38... Zimmerwald Conference of Years: 1912 1913 1914 - 1915 - 1916 1917 1918 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1915 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1915. When Inessa Armand left Russia and settled in Paris, she met Vladimir Lenin and other Bolsheviks living in exile. Inessa Armand became Lenin's mistress.


On April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). There are 259 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... April 16, Years: 1914 1915 1916 - 1917 - 1918 1919 1920 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1917 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1917, he returned to For other uses, see Saint Petersburg (disambiguation). Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингр... Petrograd from Swiss redirects here; for other uses of that term, see Swiss (disambiguation) The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. The country has a strong tradition of political and military neutrality, but also of international co-operation, as... Switzerland following the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as soon... Nicholas II, and took a leading role within the Bolshevik movement, publishing the April Theses [3] (http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/apr/04.htm). After a failed workers' uprising in July, Lenin fled to Finland for safety. He returned in October, inspiring an armed revolution with the slogan "All Power to the Soviets!", against the The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. When the authority of the tsars government began to fail in March 1917, two rival institutions, the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, competed for governmental power. As a... Provisional Government. His ideas of government were expressed in his essay "State and Revolution" [4] (http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev/index.htm), which called for a new form of government based on the worker's councils, or A soviet (Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. The councils and the term later were adopted by the Bolsheviks who saw it as the basic organizing unit of society. Originally the soviets were a grassroots effort to practice direct... soviets.


Head of the Soviet state

Lenin in his Kremlin office, 1918, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert...
Lenin in his Kremlin office, 1918, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Enlarge
Lenin in his Kremlin office, 1918

On November 8, Lenin was elected as Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars (or Sovnarkom)(1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946-1991) (Председател... Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars by the Russian Soviet Congress. Faced with the threat of German invasion, Lenin argued that Russia should immediately sign a peace treaty. Other Bolshevik leaders, such as Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), (October 9 (September 27 Old Style) 1888 - March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and then a Soviet politician, and intellectual. Bukharin was born... Bukharin, advocated continuing the war as a means of fomenting revolution in Germany. 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Л... Leon Trotsky, who led the negotiations, advocated an intermediate position, calling for a peace treaty only on the conditions that no territorial gains on either side be consolidated. After the negotiations collapsed, Germany launched an invasion that resulted in the loss of much of Russia's western territory. As a result of this turn of events, Lenin's position consequently gained the support of the majority in the Bolshevik leadership, and Russia signed the eventual The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, under disadvantageous terms (March 1918).


In accepting that the soviets were the only legitimate form of a worker's government, Lenin shut down the The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratic representative constitutional body envisaged in Russia... Russian Constituent Assembly. The Bolsheviks lost the vote there, with the The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... Socialist Revolutionary Party winning the election and later breaking up into a pro-soviet Left SRs and anti-soviet Right SRs factions. The Bolsheviks had majority support in the Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. Congress of Soviets, 1917-1936 The initial full name was Congress of Soviets of Workers, Soldiers and Peasants Deputies. It is also known as... Congress of Soviets and they formed a coalition government with the left wing of the The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... Socialist Revolutionaries. However, their coalition collapsed after the Social Revolutionaries opposed the Brest-Litovsk treaty, and they joined other parties in seeking to overthrow the government of the soviets. The situation degenerated, with non-Bolshevik parties (including some of the socialist groups) actively seeking the overthrow of the soviet government. Lenin responded by (unsuccessfully) trying to shut down their activities.


On August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... August 30, Years: 1915 1916 1917 - 1918 - 1919 1920 1921 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1918 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1918, Fanya Kaplan (1883-1918), a.k.a. Fanny Kaplan, was a political revolutionary and an attempted assassin of Vladimir Lenin. Kaplan was born into a Jewish peasant family, one of seven children. She became a political revolutionary at an early age and joined a socialist group, the Socialist Revolutionaries. In... Fanya Kaplan, a member of the The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... Socialist Revolutionary Party, approached Lenin after he'd spoken at a meeting and was on his way to his car. She called out to Lenin, and when he turned to answer, fired three shots, two of which struck him in the shoulder and lung. Lenin was taken to his private apartment in The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin (Russian citadel). It is a fortified complex (see Kremlin towers) which includes the Kremlin Palaces and Kremlin Cathedrals, overlooking the Red Square... the Kremlin, and refused to venture to a hospital, believing other assassins would be waiting there. Doctors were summoned, but decided that it was too dangerous to remove the bullets. Lenin eventually recovered, though his health declined from this point, and it is believed that the incident contributed to his later strokes.


In March, Years: 1916 1917 1918 - 1919 - 1920 1921 1922 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1919 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1919, Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders met with revolutionary socialists from around the world and formed the The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. The slogan at the top says proletarians of all countries, unite! The Comintern (from Communist International), also known as the Third International, was an international Communist organization founded in... Communist International. Members of the Communist International, including Lenin and the Bolsheviks themselves, broke off from the broader socialist movement. From that point onwards, they would be known as This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. For issues regarding the organization of the communist movement, see the Communist party article. For issues regarding one-party states ruled by Communist Parties (and everything associated... communists. In Russia, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the " Communist Party of Russia could reasonably refer to Russian Social Democratic Labour Party the precessor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or two modern parties: Communist Party of the RSFSR Communist Party of the Russian Federation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)", which eventually became the For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). This article is part of the Communism series. Schools of Communism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism Stalinism Maoism Left communism Council communism Anarcho-Communism Eurocommunism Juche Communist states Afghanistan (1978-1992) Albania (1945-1991) Angola (1975-1991) Benin (1975-1990) Bulgaria (1946... CPSU.


Meanwhile, a History of Russia History of Russia series, History of Ukraine, and History of Belarus Early East Slavs Kievan Rus’ Volga Bulgaria Khazaria Mongol invasion Golden Horde Muscovy Imperial Russia Revolution of 1905 Revolution of 1917 Russian Civil War Soviet Union Russian Federation The East Slavs are the ethnic group... civil war raged across Russia. A wide variety of political movements and their supporters took up arms to support or overthrow the soviet government. Although many different factions were involved in the civil war, the two main forces were the This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. See Red Army Faction for the German militant group; Japanese Red Army for the Japanese militant group; and Peoples Liberation Army for the Chinese Red Army. Red Army flag Red Army and RKKA are abbreviations for Workers and... Red Army (communists) and the The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы... White Army (monarchists). Foreign powers such as France, Britain, United States and Japan also intervened in this war (on behalf of the White Army). Eventually, the Red Army won the civil war, defeating the White Russian forces and their allies in 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Years: 1917 1918 1919 - 1920 - 1921 1922 1923 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1920 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation... 1920 (although smaller forces remained for several more years).


In the later months of 1919, successes against White Russian forces convinced Lenin that it was time to spread the revolution to the West, by force if necessary. The newly independent Polish history series Polish statehood Kingdom of Poland (Piasts) Kingdom of Poland (Jagiellonian) Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Duchy of Warsaw Congress Poland Free City of Kraków Kingdom of Poland Second Polish Republic Polish government-in-exile Peoples Republic of Poland Poland The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name... Second Polish Republic was under strong influence of Polish statesman Józef Piłsudski, who envisioned a This article is about federal states. For alternative meanings, see Federation (disambiguation). A federation (from the Latin fœdus, covenant) is a state comprised of a number of self-governing regions (often themselves referred to as states) united by a central (federal) government. In a federation the self-governing... federation (the "Federation of Międzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef Piłsudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. The name may be rendered in English as Tween-Seas: the federation was meant to emulate the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the... Międzymorze") to comprise Poland, The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania, western Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine (centered at Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number... Kyiv) and other Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. There are no physical landmarks that would commonly be seen as its borders. Rather, it is a concept of shared history, in opposition against the East represented by the Ottoman Empire and Imperial Russia, and... Central and Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. Generally this means that it lies between the Ural and Caucasus mountains and the western border of Russia, or alternatively also includes those countries adjacent to Russias western... East European countries emerging from crumbling empires after the First World War, with the goal of creating an entity able to restrain any Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. The term is used by some to... imperialistic intentions of both Russia and Germany. When Poland began securing its eastern territories annexed by Russia in the The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). They involved Prussia, Russia and Austria dividing up the Polish lands between themselves. The three partitions occurred: February... partitions of Poland in late (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. Historians will sometimes specifically refer to the 18th century as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death... 18th century, and clashed with Bolshevik forces for dominance on Ukraine and nearby provinces, with Revolutionaries at machine gun posts, Berlin, November 1918 The German Revolution describes a series of events that occurred in 1918-1919, culminating in the overthrow of the Kaiser and the establishment of a democratic republic. Like the Russian February Revolution, no single political party led the rebellion, and workers councils... revolution in Germany and This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. See International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) for the group currently named the Spartacist League. The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the... Spartacist League on the rise, Lenin viewed this a perfect time and place to "to probe Europe with the Bayonet OKC_3S _ Ontario Knife Company. A bayonet is a knife- or dagger_shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle or similar France, the peasants of the Southern French town of Bayonne, having run out of powder and shot, rammed their long-bladed hunting knives... bayonets of the Red Army." The Battle of Warsaw. Painting by Wojciech Kossak. Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory Combatants Russia Poland Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef Piłsudski Strength ~800,000 on the Polish front (August, 1920) ~738,000 (August, 1920... Polish-Soviet War began in 1919. Lenin saw Poland as the bridge that the Red Army would have to cross in order to link up the Russian Revolution with the communist supporters in the German Revolution, and to assist other communist movements in Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. However, these boundaries of Europe are subject to considerable overlap and fluctuation, which makes differentiation difficult. Thus the concept of Western Europe is associated with liberal democracy; and its countries... Western Europe. However those plans were crippled along with the Red Army in the Battle of Warsaw, August 1920. Painting by Wojciech Kossak. Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 13 to August 25, 1920 Place near Warsaw, Poland Result Decisive Polish victory Combatants Poland Bolshevist Russia Commanders Józef Piłsudski, Tadeusz Rozwadowski, Władysław Sikorski Mikhail Tukhachevski... Battle of Warsaw and the The Peace of Riga signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. Background Amidst the Russian Civil War the Poles were eager to retake all the territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from their traditional enemy, Russia. The historian J.F.C. Fuller... Peace of Riga was signed with Poland on March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). There are 288 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 18, Years: 1918 1919 1920 - 1921 - 1922 1923 1924 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1921 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1921.


The long years of war had taken their toll on Russia, however, and much of the country lay in ruins. In March 1921, Lenin replaced the policy of War communism or wartime communism was the harsh economic policy adopted by Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations being destroyed by the war. The war... War communism (which had been used during the civil war) with the The New Economic Policy, or NEP was a system of economic reforms, partly market-oriented, that Vladimir Lenin instituted in the Soviet Union in 1921. The emergency policy of War communism, introduced during the Russian Civil War, was terminated, and the NEP replaced it in 1921 as a recovery measure... New Economic Policy (NEP), in an attempt to rebuild For other uses of this term, see Industry (disambiguation) An industry is an area of economic production which involves large amounts of upfront capital investment before any profit can be realized. The most successful industries in a given sector tend, to be either companies started with a great deal of... industry and especially Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). Agriculture is also known as farming. Most people in the world are involved in agriculture as their primary economic activity. Contents // 1 Overview 2 History 3... agriculture. But the same month saw the suppression of an uprising among sailors at Kronstadt ("the Red Army troops attack Kronstadt The Kronstadt rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising of Soviet sailors against the government of the early Russian SFSR. It proved to be the last major rebellion against Bolshevik rule. The rebellion took place in the first weeks of March, 1921 in Kronstadt, a naval fortress... Kronstadt rebellion").

public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on...
public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on... Enlarge
Nadezhda Krupskaya, Lenin, and American journalist Lincoln Eure in the Kremlin, Feb. 1920

Premature Death

Lenin's health had already been severely damaged due to the intolerable strains of revolution and war. The assassination attempt earlier in his life also added to his health problems. The bullet was still lodged in his neck too close to his spine for medical techniques of the time to remove. In May Years: 1919 1920 1921 - 1922 - 1923 1924 1925 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1922 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1922, Lenin had his first This article is about stroke as medical term. For other uses of stroke, see stroke (disambiguation) A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke) or by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke). The former, ischemia... stroke. He was left partially paralyzed (on his right side) and his role in government declined. After the second stroke in December of the same year, he resigned from active politics. In March Years: 1920 1921 1922 - 1923 - 1924 1925 1926 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1923 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1923 he suffered the third stroke and was left bedridden and no longer able to speak.


Lenin died on January 21, Years: 1921 1922 1923 - 1924 - 1925 1926 1927 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1924 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1924. Rumors of Lenin's Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment Syphilis (historically called lues) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has many alternate names, such as: Miss Siff, the Pox, and has been given many national attributions, e.g. the French... syphilis sprang up shortly after his death. The official cause given for Lenin's death was cerebral Atherosclerosis is a disease of arterial blood vessels. Venous vessels are not involved unless surgically moved to function as an artery. Atherosclerosis is commonly referred to as a hardening of blood vessels, but this is an over_simplification. Vascular lesions known as atheromatous plaques or atheromata (singular: atheroma) are formed in... arteriosclerosis, or a This article is about stroke as medical term. For other uses of stroke, see stroke (disambiguation) A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke) or by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke). The former, ischemia... stroke (his fourth), but out of the 27 physicians who treated him, only eight signed onto that conclusion in his autopsy report. Therefore, several other theories regarding his death have been put forward. For example, a posthumous diagnosis by two Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). The term alienist is an old term for a psychiatrist, and the term shrink (from head shrinker) is a (sometimes offensive) slang term for a psychotherapist. Note that psychiatry is practiced by psychiatrists... psychiatrists and a A neurologist is a physician who is specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic diseases. Famous neurologists include Alois Alzheimer (Germany) Jean-Martin Charcot (France) Jules Cotard (France) Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt (Germany) Anita Harding Alfons Maria Jakob (Germany) Oliver Sacks See also List of neurologists ... neurologist recently published in the European Journal of Neurology claimed to show that Lenin died from syphilis.


Documents released after the fall of the Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Р... U.S.S.R, along with memoirs of Lenin's physicians, suggest that Lenin was treated for syphilis as early as Years: 1892 1893 1894 - 1895 - 1896 1897 1898 Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1895 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1895. Documents also suggest that Alexi Abrikosov, the Pathology (in ancient Greek pathos = pain/pation and logos = word) is the study of diseases. It is a form of science and a branch of medicine that involves testing samples and diagnosing physical health problems from their evidence. Pathologists are skilled in interpreting test results and physical evidence. See also... pathologist in charge of the autopsy, was ordered to prove that Lenin did not die of syphilis. Abrikosov did not mention syphilis in the autopsy; however, the blood-vessel damage, the paralysis and other incapacities he cited are typical of syphilis. Upon a second release of the autopsy report, none of the organs, major arteries or brain areas usually affected by syphilis were cited.


In 1923, Lenin's doctors treated him with Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. It was the first modern chemotheraputic agent. Paul Ehrlich, in his search for a magic bullet that would attack a disease-causing agent, and leave human tissue untouched, found this drug (the 606th... Salvarsan, the only drug at the time specifically used to treat syphilis, and potassium iodine, which was also customary at the time in treating the disease.


Although he might have had syphilis, so did a large percentage of Russia at this time. Also he had no visible lesions on his body that accompany the last stages of the disease. Most historians still agree that the most likely cause of his death was a stroke induced by the bullet still lodged in his neck from the assassination attempt.


The city of For other uses, see Saint Petersburg (disambiguation). Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингр... Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor; this remained the name of the city until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 is a This is the calendar for a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F), e.g. 2002, 1991, 1985, 1974, 1963... (A common year is a year with 365 days -- in other words, not a leap year.) January Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1... 1991, when it reverted to its original name, St Petersburg.

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Lenin's preserved body is on permanent display in Moscow.

After his first stroke, Lenin published a number of papers indicating future directions for the government. Most famous of these is Lenin's Testament, which among other things criticized top-ranking communists such as 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Л... Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin Iosif (Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი... Joseph Stalin. Of Stalin, who had been the Communist Party's general secretary since April 1922, Lenin said that he had "unlimited authority concentrated in his hands" and suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post". These sharp criticisms of the internal party were not more widely released.


During the early 1920s the Russian movement of cosmism was quite popular and there was an intent to Cryonics is the practice of preserving organisms, or at least their brains, for possible future revival by storing them at cryogenic temperatures where metabolism and decay are almost completely stopped. The motivation for this practice is not obvious to many people. Advocates say that even a slim chance of revival... cryogenically preserve Lenin's body in order to revive him in the future. Necessary equipment was purchased abroad, but for a variety of reasons the plan was not realised. Instead his body was Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. It has a long history, and other cultures had embalming processes that had much greater religious meaning. History of embalming Embalming has been... embalmed and placed on permanent exhibition in the Lenin Mausoleum in For other uses, see Moscow can refer to the following locations: Moscow - the capital of Russia Moscow, Idaho - a city in Idaho, in the United States Moscow, Kansas - a city in Kansas, in the United States Moscow, Maine - a city in Maine, in the United States Moscow, Ohio - a city... Moscow.


Despite Lenin's expressed wish shortly before death that no memorials be created for him, various politicians sought to better their own position vicariously by association with Lenin after his death, and his character was elevated to almost mythical status, with statue after monument after memorial springing up in his honor.


Lenin's brain study

Download high resolution version (942x608, 74 KB)relieving sentries of Lenin tomb from zh wiki File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date...
Download high resolution version (942x608, 74 KB)relieving sentries of Lenin tomb from zh wiki File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date... Enlarge
Relieving the sentries of Lenin Mausoleum

Lenin's For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. Although the brain is usually cited as the supervisory center of vertebrate nervous systems, the same term can also be used for... brain was removed before his body was Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. It has a long history, and other cultures had embalming processes that had much greater religious meaning. History of embalming Embalming has been... embalmed. The Soviet government commissioned the well-known German neuroscientist Oskar Vogt to study Lenin's brain and to locate the precise location of the brain cells that are responsible for genius. The Institute of Brain was created in Moscow for this purpose. Vogt published a paper on the brain in 1929 where he reported that some A pyramidal cell is a multipolar neuron located in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These cells have a triangular-shaped soma, or cell body with both apical dendrites and basal dendrites. Categories: Cell biology stubs ... pyramidal neurons in the third layer of Lenin's The largest part of brain is the cerebrum which is divided into left and right hemispheres. The surface of each cerebral hemisphere is covered by a highly folded layer of tissue called the cerebral cortex. In the higher animals (especially the higher mammals), the surface of the cerebral cortex becomes... cerebral cortex were very large. However the conclusion of its relevance to genius was contested. Vogt's work was considered unsatisfactory by the Soviets. Further research was continued by Soviet team, but the work on Lenin's brain was no longer advertised.


Modern Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). The major branches of anatomy include comparative anatomy and human anatomy. Animal anatomy may include the study... anatomy no longer believes that morphology alone can determine the functioning of the brain.


See also

  • [edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:History_of_Russia&action=edit)] History of Russia Early East Slavs Khazars Kievan Rus Volga Bulgaria Mongol invasion Golden Horde Muscovy Crimean Khanate Imperial Russia Revolution of 1905 Revolution of 1917 Civil War Soviet Union Russian Federation The Russian Revolution... Russian Revolution
  • This article is about communism as a form of A society is a group of people living or working together. There are various different uses of the term society. The casual meaning of society simply refers to a group of people living together in an ordered community.1 The social... Communism
  • This is a list of places, mostly in the former Soviet Union or other formerly communist countries, named or renamed in honor of Vladimir Lenin. Lenin himself created his pseudonym, possibly, in reference to the Lena River. Cities Leninabad, 1936-1992 — Khudjand, Tajikistan Leninakan, 1924-1990 — Gyumri, Armenia... List of places named after Lenin
  • In the Soviet Union, every city had several monuments of Vladimir Lenin. The same was true for major cities of the rest of the Soviet Empire. With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, many statues of Vladimir Lenin were torn down. This happened even earlier in the European... List of statues of Lenin

Selected works

Further reading

  • Revolution at the Gates: A Selection of Writings from February to October 1917 by V. I. Lenin, Slavoj Žižek (born March 21, 1949) is a Slovenian sociologist, philosopher and cultural critic. Slavoj Žižek Žižek was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia (then part of Yugoslavia). He received a Ph.D. in Philosophy in Ljubljana and studied Psychoanalysis at the University... Slavoj Zizek (Editor), Verso Books, ISBN 1859846610
  • Louis Fischer, The Life of Lenin, ISBN B00005W8VC (This is an Amazon.com, Inc. Type Public Slogan ...and youre done Founded 1995 Location Seattle, Washington Key people Jeffrey Bezos, President/CEO/Chairman Rick Dalzell, Senior VP/CIO Employees 7,800 (2003) Products A9.com Alexa Internet IMDb Web site www.Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com/) Amazon.com, Inc... Amazon.com number; many other options are available through The Advanced Book Exchange (ABE) is an international internet based listing service for booksellers based in Victoria, British Columbia. Many millions of new and used books are listed on ABE. For a modest monthly payment and a commission on sales booksellers list books on ABE. When a customer orders the... ABE)
  • Leszek Kołakowski (born 23 October 1927 in Radom, Poland) is a Polish philosopher. Kołakowski is one of the outstanding living Polish philosophers. He has lived in exile since 1968 and is currently a Fellow of All Saints College at Oxford. His primary interest is the history... Leszek Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism
  • Robert Service is a historian of Russia. He is a writer, broadcaster and fellow of Oxford University. He was one of the first historians to gain access to the Soviet archives after the collapse of the USSR. Many critics have praised him for his dispassionate analyses of Russias past... Robert Service, Lenin: A Biography
  • John Gooding, Socialism In Russia: Lenin and His Legacy, 1890-1991
  • Anton Pannekoek (January 2, 1873 – April 28, 1960) was a Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist. He is sometimes known as Antonie Pannekoek. Pannekoek studied mathematics and science in Leiden from 1891. Even before he went to college he was interested in astronomy and studied the variability of Polaris. He... Anton Pannekoek, Lenin as Philosopher
  • Dmitri Volkogonov, Lenin: A New Biography

External links

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Vladimir Lenin
  • Marxists.org Lenin Internet Archive (http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/index.htm) - extensive site with lots of writings, biography, and many photographs
  • Reminiscences of Lenin by N. K. Krupskaya (http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/marxists/archive/krupskaya/works/rol/index.htm)
  • Impressions of Soviet Russia, by John Dewey (http://geocities.com/deweytextsonline/isr.htm)
  • Information on Lenin's Grave (http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=617&pt=Vladimir%20Lenin)


Preceded by:
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the... Aleksandr Kerensky (as Head of the The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. When the authority of the tsars government began to fail in March 1917, two rival institutions, the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, competed for governmental power. As a... Provisional Government of 1917)
An approximately chronological listing of Soviet leaders (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). The formal structure of power in the Soviet Union consisted of three main branches that gave rise to three top positions. The first position of importance was that... Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
1917—1924
Succeeded by:
Joseph Stalin Iosif (Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი... Joseph Stalin



  Results from FactBites:
 
Leninism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (695 words)
Leninism was developed mainly by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, and it was also put into practice by him after the October Revolution.
According to Lenin, the revolution should be followed by a period of dictatorship of the proletariat (a system of workers' democracy, in which workers would hold political power through councils known as soviets; see also soviet democracy).
One of the central concepts of Leninism is a view of imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism.
Leninism - definition of Leninism in Encyclopedia (688 words)
Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920's).
Lenin's theories have been a source of controversy ever since their inception, having critics both on the Left (for example, social democrats, anarchists, and even other Marxists), from the center (for example, liberals), and on the Right (for example, conservatives, fascists, etc).
Lenin believed in the destruction of the capitalist state through a proletarian revolution, and in replacing that state with the dictatorship of the proletariat (a system of workers' democracy, in which workers would hold political power through councils known as soviets).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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