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Encyclopedia > Lengyel culture
Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. 3 500 BC.
Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. 3 500 BC.

The Lengyel culture, ca. 5000–4000 BC, was an archaeological culture located in the area of modern-day southern Moravia, western Slovakia, western Hungary, parts of southern Poland, and in adjacent sections of Austria, Slovenia, and Croatia. Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the European Late Neolithic (c. ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the European Late Neolithic (c. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ...


It was a successor to the Linear pottery culture, and in its northern extent, overlapped the somewhat later but otherwise approximately contemporaneous Funnelbeaker culture. The Linear Pottery culture or (German) Linearbandkeramik (abbr. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ...


Agriculture and stock raising (mainly cattle, but also pigs, and to a lesser extent, ovicaprids) was practiced, though a large number of wild faunal remains have also been recovered. Settlements consisted of small houses as well as trapezoid longhouses. These settlements were sometimes open, sometimes surrounded by a defensive ditch. A longhouse at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia. ...


Inhumation was in separate cemeteries, in the flexed position with apparently no preference for which side the deceased was laid out in. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ...


Interpretation

It was associated with the cover-term Old Europe by Marija Gimbutas, though may have been undergone "kurganization" by the Proto-Indo-Europeans and become integrated into the successor Globular Amphora culture. Some archaeologists and ethnographers use the term Old Europe to characterize the autochthonous (aboriginal) peoples who were living in Neolithic southeastern Europe before the immigration of Indo-European peoples (for this reason also called Pre-Indo-European). ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren, ca. ...


See also

The Cucuteni culture (also Cucuteni-Tripolie, after the Romanian Cucuteni and the Ukrainian Trypillia villages) is an early 5th millennium BC neolithic culture of Central Europe, in the area of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine, in the Dniestr-Dnjepr region. ... The Vinča culture was an early culture of Europe (between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC), stretching around the course of Danube in Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia, although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ...

Sources and external links

  • J. P. Mallory, "Lengyel Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  • The Lengyel Culture Sphere by Maximilian O. Baldia

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The Lengyel Culture Sphere (1030 words)
Lengyel is really a wide spread interaction sphere, rather than a narrowly defined, unified culture.
Lengyel pottery is found not only in Hungary, but also in Czech and Slovak Republics, Austria, Poland and some parts of the former Yugoslavia.
The Lengyel houses are of sturdy construction, that appears to use deeper bedding trenches for the posts.
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