FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Lenape" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Lenape
Linne lenope
Total population

13,500 Unami and 400 Munsee [1]

Regions with significant populations
United States (Oklahoma, Kansas, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,Delaware)
Canada (Ontario)
Language(s)
English, Lenape
Religion(s)
Christianity, other
Related ethnic groups
other Algonquian peoples

The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, organized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguistic characteristics. Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Lenape (also called Delaware) is a language in the Algonquian language family spoken by the Lenape people. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Lenape (also called Delaware) is a language in the Algonquian language family spoken by the Lenape people. ... Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


They practiced large-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western . In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and...


The Lenape are the people living in New Jersey, in the Delaware Valley at the time of the arrival of the Europeand in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and continue to live in this area today. Their Algonquian language is known as either Lenape or "Delaware". This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Lenape (also called Delaware) is a language in the Algonquian language family spoken by the Lenape people. ...

Contents

History

Map showing the Lenapehoking region traditionally occupied by the Lenape.
Map showing the Lenapehoking region traditionally occupied by the Lenape.

Early Indian "tribes" are perhaps better understood as language groups, rather than as "nations." A Lenape individual would have identified primarily with his or her immediate family and friends, or village unit; then with surrounding and familiar village units; next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect; and ultimately, while often fitfully, with all those in the surrounding area who spoke mutually comprehensible languages, including the Mahican. Among other Algonquian peoples the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom all the other Algonquian peoples originated. Consequently, in inter-tribal councils, the Lenape were given the respect as one would to their elders. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (682x870, 490 KB) Map showing the Lenapehoking region. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (682x870, 490 KB) Map showing the Lenapehoking region. ... Map showing the Lenapehoking region. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ...


Those of a different language stock — such as the Iroquois (or, in the Lenape language, the Minqua) — were regarded as foreigners, often, as in the case of the Iroquois, with animosity spanning many generations. (Interestingly, ethnicity itself seems to have mattered little to the Lenape and many other "tribes," as illustrated by archaeological discoveries of Munsee burials that included identifiably ethnic-Iroquois remains carefully interred along with the ethnic-Algonquian Munsee ones. The two groups were bitter enemies since before recorded history, although intermarriage, perhaps through captive-taking, clearly occurred). For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Susquehannock The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. ...


Overlaying these relationships was a phratry system, a division into clans. Clan membership was matrilineal, that is, children inherited membership in a clan from their mother. On reaching adulthood, a Lenape traditionally married outside of the clan, a practice known by ethnographers as, "exogamy", which effectively served to prevent inbreeding, even among individuals whose kinship was obscure or unknown. A phratry (Greek φρατρία, brotherhood, kinfolk, derived from φρατήρ - brother, see also frater) is an anthropological term for a kinship division consisting of two or more distinct clans which are considered a single unit, but which retain separate indentities within the phratry. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... Look up mother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ...


Early Europeans who first wrote about Indians found matrilineal social organization to be unfamiliar and perplexing. Because of this, Europeans often tried to interpret Lenape society through more familiar European arrangements. As a result the early records are full of clues about early Lenape society, but were usually written by observers who did not fully understand what they were seeing. For example, a man's closest male ancestor was usually considered to be his maternal uncle (his mother's brother) and not his father, since his father belonged to a different clan. Such a concept was often unfathomable to early European chroniclers.


Land was assigned to a particular clan for hunting, fishing, and cultivation. Individual private ownership of land was unknown, but rather the land belonged to the clan collectively while they inhabited it (see New Amsterdam for discussion of the Dutch "purchase" of Manhattan). Clans lived in fixed settlements, using the surrounding areas for communal hunting and planting until the land was exhausted, at which point the group moved on to find a new settlement within their territories. This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ...


European contact

The early interaction between the Lenape and the Dutch was primarily through the fur trade, specifically the exchange of beaver pelts by the Lenape for European-made goods. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Binomial name Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 A taxidermied American Beaver The American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is a large semi-aquatic rodent native to Canada, most of the United States and parts of northern Mexico. ...


According to Dutch settler Isaac de Rasieres, who observed the Lenape in 1628, the Lenape's primary crop was maize, which they planted in March after breaking up the soil. The metal tools of the Europeans were adopted quickly for this task. In May, the Lenape planted kidney beans in the vicinity of the maize plants which would serve as props for the climbing vines. The summers were devoted to field work and the crops were harvested in August. Most of the field work was carried out by women, with the agricultural work of men limited to clearing the field and breaking the soil. Isaac de Rasieres was a Dutch settler who settled in New Jersey in the early 1600s. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Dry kidney beans The kidney bean is a medium-sized variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with dark red skin. ...



Hunting was the primary activity during the rest of the year. Dutch settler David de Vries, who stayed in the area from 1634 to 1644, described a Lenape hunt in the valley of the Achinigeu-hach (or "Ackingsah-sack," the Hackensack River), in which one hundred or more men stood in a line many paces from each other, beating thigh bones on their palms to drive animals to the river, where they could be killed easily. Other methods of hunting included lassoing and drowning deer, as well as forming a circle around prey and setting the brush on fire. The Hackensack River, as seen from the New Jersey Turnpike. ...


The quick dependence of the Lenape on European goods, and the need for fur to trade with the Europeans, eventually resulted in a disaster with an over-harvesting of the beaver population in the lower Hudson. The fur source thus exhausted, the Dutch shifted their operations to present-day Upstate New York. The Lenape population fell into disease and decline. Likewise, the differences in conceptions of property rights between the Europeans and the Lenape resulted in widespread confusion among the Lenape and the loss of their lands. After the Dutch arrival in the 1620s, the Lenape were successful in their efforts to restrict Dutch settlement to present-day Jersey City along the Hudson until the 1660s, when the Dutch finally established a garrison at Fort Bergen, allowing settlement west of the Hudson within the province of New Netherlands. The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ...

Lapowinsa, Chief of the Lenape, 1737

The Treaty of Easton, signed between the Lenape and the English in 1766, removed them westward, out of present-day New York and New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, then Ohio and beyond — although sporadic raids on English settlers continued, staged from far outside the area. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 509 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (889 × 1046 pixels, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Lapowinsa, Chief of the Lenape, 1737 Source: Library of Congress, Washington (Rare Book and Special Collections Division) Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 1 Feb 2007 Other... The Treaty of Easton was an colonial agreement in North America signed in October 1758 between the colonial British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country, including the Shawnee and Lenape. ...


The Lenape were the first Indian tribe to enter into a treaty with the future United States government during the American Revolutionary War. The Lenape supplied the Revolutionary army with warriors and scouts in exchange for food supplies and the promise of a role at the head of a future native American state[1].


The nineteenth and twentieth centuries

In the early nineteenth century, a naturalist named Rafinesque "discovered" the Walam Olum, an alleged religious history of the Lenape, which was published in 1836. However, only Rafinesque's manuscript has come down to us; the tablets that his writings were based upon either were never found, or never existed. Some consider the document a hoax. C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... The Walam Olum, usually translated as Red Record or Red Score, is said to be a Lenape or Delaware Indian account (although some consider it a spurious account) of their history and migrations across the globe from the Old Word into the New. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Lenape continually were crowded out by European settlers and pressed to move in several stages over a period of 175 years, with the main body arriving in the Northeast region of Oklahoma in the 1860s. Along the way many smaller groups struck off in different directions to settle, to join established communities with other native peoples, or, electing to stay where they were and survive when their brothers and sisters moved on. Consequently today, from New Jersey to Wisconsin to southwest Oklahoma, there are groups which retain a sense of identity with their ancestors that were in the Delaware Valley in the 1600s and with their cousins in the vast Lenape diaspora. The two largest are: Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to...

Most members of the Munsee branch of the Lenape live on three Indian reserves in Western Ontario, Canada, the largest being that at Moraviantown, Ontario where the Turtle clan settled in 1792. Price Tower, located in downtown Bartlesville, was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and is the only one of Wrights skyscraper plans ever constructed. ... Anadarko Townsite, Oklahoma Territory, August 8, 1901. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ... Western Ontario is a region of Ontario centred on London, Ontario. ...


The Oklahoma branches were established in 1867, with the purchase of land by Delawares from the Cherokee nation; two payments totaling $438,000 were made. A court dispute then followed over whether the sale included rights for the Delaware within the Cherokee nation. In 1898, the Curtis Act dissolved tribal governments and ordered the allotment of tribal lands to individual members of tribes. The Lenape fought the act in the courts, but lost: the courts ruling, in 1867, that they had only purchased rights to the land for their lifetimes. The lands were allotted in 160 acre (650,000 m²) lots in 1907, with any land left over sold to non-Indians. For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


In 1979, the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs revoked the tribal status of the Delaware living among Cherokee in Oklahoma, and included the Delaware as Cherokee. This decision was finally overturned in 1996. The Cherokee nation then filed suit to overturn the recognition of the Delaware as a tribe. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ...


In 2000, the Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma took possession of 11.5 acres of land in Pennsylvania[2]. The Lenape are not a federally recognized tribe in the United States. The Delaware Tribe of Oklahoma, Bartlesville, are in negotiations to become recognized by the U.S. with the support of the Cherokee Nation, located in Oklahoma also. Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ...


Lenape nations today

Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... The Nanticoke Indian Tribe is a Native American tribe from Sussex County, Delaware comprising the Nanticoke River watershed which empties into the Chesapeake Bay. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... The Christian Munsee were a group of Lenape native American Indians, primarily Munsee, who converted to Christianity, following the teachings of the Moravian missionaries. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Ramapough Mountain Indians (also known as Ramapo Mountain Indians or the Ramapough Lenape Nation) are a group of approximately 5,000 [1] people living around the Ramapo Mountains of northern New Jersey and southern New York. ... The Unalachtigo, properly pronounced Wnalātchtko, comprise the southernmost of the three main divisions of the Delaware Indian tribe (originally called Lenape or Lenni-Lenape). ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Price Tower, located in downtown Bartlesville, was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and is the only one of Wrights skyscraper plans ever constructed. ... The Delaware Nation is the only federally recognized tribe of Delawares in Oklahoma; their main complex is located 2 miles north of Anadarko, Oklahoma on Highway 281. ... Anadarko Townsite, Oklahoma Territory, August 8, 1901. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Moravian No. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... The Munsee-Delaware Nation No. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... The Stockbridge-Munsee Community is an Indian Reservation located in Shawano County, Wisconsin in the towns of Bartelme and Red Spring. ...

Notable Lenape Indians

In the seventeenth century:

In the French and Indian War (1754-63) era: Tamanend or Saint Tammany (c. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...

  • Neolin -- the "Delaware Prophet"
  • Teedyuscung -- "King" of the eastern Delawares
  • Shingas -- Turkey clan war leader
  • Tamaqua -- Turkey clan civil leader, aka "King Beaver"

In the American Revolution (1776-83) era: Neolin (the Delaware Prophet) was a prophet of the Lenni Lenape, who was derided by the British as The Imposter. Beginning in 1762, Neolin believed that Native Americans should reject European goods abandon dependancy on foreign settlers in order to return to a more traditional aboriginal lifestyle. ... Shingas (fl. ... Tamaqua is a borough located in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...

White Eyes (c. ... Gelelemend (1737–1811), known to whites as Killbuck or John Killbuck Jr. ... Buckongahelas (1725?–May 1805) was a Delaware (Lenape) war leader who led his followers against the United States during the American Revolutionary War and again in the Northwest Indian War; in the latter war he helped win the most devastating military victory ever achieved by American Indians against the United... Statue of Hopocan (Captain Pipe) in Barberton, Ohio Captain Pipe (Hopocan) was a chief of the Delaware Lenape Indians and a member of the Wolf Clan. ...

References to the Lenape in literature

The Delawares feature prominently in The Last of the Mohicans and the other Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper. For other uses, see The Last of the Mohicans (disambiguation). ... The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, each featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by European settlers as Leatherstocking, and by the Native Americans as Pathfinder, Deerslayer, or Hawkeye. Listed chronologically by story action, the books are: Note that these are the dates... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ...


The Delawares are the subject of a legend which inspired the Boy Scouts of America honor society known as the Order of the Arrow. For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The Order of the Arrow (OA) is the national honor society of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). ...


The Walam Olum, which purported to be an account of the Delawares' migration to the lands around the Delaware River, emerged through the works of Rafinesque in the nineteenth century and was considered by scholars for many decades to be genuine, until around the 1980s and 1990s, when newer textual analysis suggested it was a hoax. Nonetheless, some Delawares, upon hearing of it for the first time, found the account to be plausible. The Walam Olum, usually translated as Red Record or Red Score, is said to be a Lenape or Delaware Indian account (although some consider it a spurious account) of their history and migrations across the globe from the Old Word into the New. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ...


In Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian the group of American head hunters are aided by two Delaware Indians, who serve as scouts and guides through the western deserts. For the musician, see Cormac McCarthy (musician). ... For the Canadian band, see Blood Meridian (band). ...


In Philip Roth's 2004 novel, The Plot Against America, there is a brief mention of "a band of Lenni Lenapes" who "were said by… [a] third-grade teacher to have lived" near the protagonists in present-day Newark, New Jersey. Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey) is an American novelist. ... The Plot Against America: A Novel (ISBN 0-618-50928-3) is a novel by Philip Roth published in 2004. ...


In The Light in the Forest, True Son is adopted by a band of Lenapes. The Light in the Forest is a novel first published in 1953 by U.S. author Conrad Richter. ...


Further reading

  • Adams, Richard Calmit, The Delaware Indians, a brief history, Hope Farm Press (Saugerties, NY 1995) [originally published by Government Printing Office, (Washington, DC 1909)]
  • Bierhorst, John. The White Deer and Other Stories Told by the Lenape. New York: W. Morrow, 1995. ISBN 0688129005
  • Brown, James W. and Rita T. Kohn, eds. Long Journey Home ISBN 978-0-253-34968-2 Indiana University Press (2007).
  • Burrows, Edward G. and Wallace, Mike, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1989 ISBN 0-19-514049-4 Oxford Univ. Press (1999).
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. (editor) The Encyclopedia of New York City ISBN 0-300-05536-6 Yale University Press (1995).
  • Kraft, Herbert C., The Lenape: archaeology, history and ethnography, New Jersey Historical Society, (Newark, NJ 1986)
  • O'Meara, John, Delaware-English / English-Delaware dictionary, University of Toronto Press (Toronto, 1996) ISBN 0-8020-0670-1.
  • O'Meara, John, Delaware reference grammar, University of Toronto Press (Toronto, 2006) ISBN 0-8020-4386-0.
  • Otto, Paul, The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006). ISBN 1-57181-672-0
  • Weslager, Clinton Alfred, The Delaware Indians: A history, Rutgers University Press, (New Brunswick, NJ 1972).
  • Richter, Conrad, The Light In The Forest, (New York, NY 1953)

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lenape
  • Powhatan — Possible relatives of, and certainly bearing a language close to the one of, the Lenapes

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about the Algonquian tribe. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Lenape Lady, Delaware Treaty, 1778.
  2. ^ Turtle Track.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lenape Language and the Delaware Indian Tribe (Lenapé, Unami, Unalachtigo, Lenni Lenape Indians) (600 words)
Language: Lenapé or Unami Delaware is an Algonquian language originally spoken in New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania.
There are no fully fluent speakers of Lenape Delaware anymore, but the younger generation of Lenapes has undergone a resurgence of interest in reviving the Delaware language.
Most Lenape Indians were eventually forced to relocate to Oklahoma in the 1860's, where they entered an uneasy union with the Cherokee Nation and regained independent tribal status only in 1996.
Lenape - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1461 words)
The Lenape were the people living in the vicinity of New York Bay and in the Delaware Valley at the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th and 17th century.
On reaching adulthood, a Lenape traditionally married outside of his or her phratry, a practice known by ethnographers as "exogamy", which effectively served to prevent inbreeding even among individuals whose kinship was obscure or unknown.
The Lenape were continually crowded out by European settlers and pressured to move in several stages over a period of about 175 years with the main body arriving in the Northeast region Oklahoma in the 1860s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m