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Encyclopedia > Lemon

This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Lemon (disambiguation) A lemon is the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus limon. ...

Lemon
Citrus x lemon
Citrus x lemon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Species: C. × lemon
Binomial name
Citrus × lemon
(L.) Burm.f.

The lemon (Citrus × lemon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants. It is the common name for the reproductive tissue surrounding the seed of the angiosperm lemon tree. The lemon is used for culinary and non culinary uses throughout the world.The fruit is used primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind (zest) are also used, primarily in cooking and baking. Lemon juice is about 5% acid, which gives lemons a tart taste, and a pH of 2 to 3. This makes lemon juice an inexpensive, readily available acid for use in educational science experiments. Image File history File links Koeh-041. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Orders See text The botanical Sub-class Rosidae is a large dicotyledonous flowering plant taxon, containing over 58,000 species grouped within 108 families. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article is about a biological term. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... Zest is the outer, colored shell of citrus fruit and is often used for baking. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Some examples of baked food. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The mention of the lemon in literature dates back to a tenth century Arabic treatise on farming, although it was probably first grown in Assam, India. The lemon was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens and used in enemas in ancient Babylon. Lemonade may have originated in medieval Egypt.[1] The name lemon was borrowed from Arabic līmūn لیمون through Italian & Old French, lemons also are very bright yellow and are very sour to eat thats also why some people say you are as sour as a lemon.[2][3][4] Arabic redirects here. ...


In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding Vitamin C to their diets through lemon juice. [5] James Lind (1716 in Edinburgh – 1794 in Gosport) was the pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ...


Culinary uses

A sliced lemon
A sliced lemon

Lemons are used to make lemonade, and as a garnish for drinks. Iced tea, soft drinks and water are often served with a wedge or slice of lemon in the glass or on the rim. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 1100 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A sliced lemon File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 1100 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A sliced lemon File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the drink made with lemons. ... Garnish is a substance used primarily as an embellishment or decoration to a prepared food or drink item. ... This article is about the drink. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ...


The average lemon contains approximately 3 tablespoons of juice. Allowing lemons to come to room temperature before squeezing (or heating briefly in a microwave) makes the juice easier to extract. Lemons left unrefrigerated for long periods of time are susceptible to mold. Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ...


Fish are marinated in lemon juice to neutralize the odor. The acid neutralizes the amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts. The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ...


Lemon juice, alone or in combination with other ingredients, is used to marinate meat before cooking: the acid provided by the juice partially hydrolyzes the tough collagen fibers in the meat (tenderizing the meat), though the juice does not have any antibiotic effects. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... In cooking, tenderizing is a process to break down collagens in meat to make it more palatable for consumption. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Lemons, alone or with oranges, are used to make marmalade. The grated rind of the lemon, called lemon zest, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings, rice and other dishes. Spicy pickled lemons are a Moroccan Jewish delicacy. A liqueur called limoncello is made from lemons. Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... For other uses, see Marmalade (disambiguation). ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ...


When lemon juice is sprinkled on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced, such as apples, bananas and avocados, it acts as a short-term preservative.


Health benefits

lemon, raw, without peel
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 30 kcal   120 kJ
Carbohydrates     9 g
- Sugars  2.5 g
- Dietary fiber  2.8 g  
Fat 0.3 g
Protein 1.1 g
Water 89 g
Vitamin C  53 mg 88%
Citric acid 5 g
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.

Some sources state that lemons contain unique flavonoid compounds that have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties.[6] These may be able to deter cell growth in cancers. Limonins found in lemons could also be anti-carcinogens. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ...


Because of its high Vitamin C content, lemon has been touted in alternative medicine as a tonic for the digestive system, immune system, and skin.[citation needed]There is a belief in Ayurvedic medicine that a cup of hot water with lemon juice in it tonifies and purifies the liver. In a Japanese study into the effects of aromatherapy, lemon essential oil in vapour form has been found to reduce stress in mice.[7] Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Gut redirects here. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Non-culinary uses

  • Lemon battery - A popular science experiment in schools involves attaching an electrode to the lemon and using it as a battery to power a light. The electricity generated in this way can also power a small motor. These experiments also work with other fruits and vegetables.
  • Lemon hair lightener - Lemon juice applied to the hair is a natural hair lightener.
  • Insecticide - The D-lemonene in lemon oil is used as a non-toxic insecticide treatment. See orange oil.
  • Acne Treatment - Applying lemon juice to facial blemishes is a popular form of treating acne.
  • Skin bleach - Lemon juice is also believed by many to lighten the skin when applied topically, as it has been suggested that the acids it contains inhibits melanin production.[8] The effectiveness, however, is largely a subject of debate.
  • Lemon is used in facial masks for refreshing the skin.

The lemon battery is an experiment proposed as a project in many science textbooks around the world. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... Orange oil is also know as d-limonene. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ...

Lemon alternatives

Several other plants have a similar taste to lemons. In recent times, the Australian bush food lemon myrtle has become a popular alternative to lemons.[9] The crushed and dried leaves and edible essential oils have a strong, sweet lemon taste but contain no citric acid. Lemon myrtle is popular in foods that curdle with lemon juice, such as cheesecake and ice cream. Limes are often used instead of lemons. The Australian bush The bush is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in many places, such as Australia, New Zealand, Sub-Saharan Africa, Canada, and Alaska. ... Scientific name: Backhousia Citriodora. ... For the meaning of pin-up photo, see Pin-up girl. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Many other plants are noted to have a lemon-like taste or scent. Among them are Cymbopogon (lemon grass), lemon balm, lemon thyme, lemon verbena, scented geraniums, certain cultivars of basil, and certain cultivars of mint. Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus herba-barona... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Not to be confused with germanium. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... “Mint” redirects here. ...

Lemon and lime output in 2005

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of lemon and lime output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Mexico - 1,806,780 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of lemon and lime output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Mexico - 1,806,780 tonnes). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...

References

Pickled lemons, a Moroccan Jewish delicacy
Pickled lemons, a Moroccan Jewish delicacy
  1. ^ http://www.cliffordawright.com/history/lemonade.html
  2. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/61/55/L0115500.html
  3. ^ http://food.oregonstate.edu/faq/janfaq/lemon2.html
  4. ^ http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/lemon
  5. ^ http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/iss/library/speccoll/exhibitions/skilsail/scurv.html
  6. ^ Healthiest foods
  7. ^ Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice.. PubMed.gov (2006-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  8. ^ http://www.makeuptalk.com/forums/f12/lemon-juice-applied-topically-59182.html
  9. ^ Lemon Myrtle

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 512 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (641 × 750 pixel, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by Gila Brand. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 512 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (641 × 750 pixel, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by Gila Brand. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • (Purdue University) Morton, Julia F. 1987. "Lemon". pp. 160–168, in Fruits of warm climates. (Julia F. Morton, Miami)
  • PlantFiles: Citrus x meyeri 'Meyer'

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


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