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Encyclopedia > Lemkos

Lemkos (Ukrainian: Лeмки, in Lemko language/dialect: Лeмкы, translit. Lemky, singular Лeмкo, translit. Lemko) are one of four major ethnic groups who inhabit the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, and who speak the Lemko dialect/language. Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...

Contents

Location

Main article: Lemkivshchyna

The Lemkos' homeland is commonly referred to as Lemkivshchyna (Ukrainian: Лeмкiвщина, Polish: Łemkowszczyzna). Up until 1945, this included the area from the Poprad River in the east to the valley of Oslawa River in the west, areas situated primarily in present-day Poland, in the Lesser Poland and Subcarpathian Voivodeships. This part of the Carpathian mountains is mostly deforested, which allowed for an agrarian economy, alongside such traditional occupations as ox grazing and sheep herding. Lemkivshchyna, sometimes called Lemkovyna, Lemkivshchyna, or Łemkowszczyzna, is the land of the Lemkos (Lemki) includes the higher elevations of the Carpathians of modern-day Poland, extending to around the Poprad River to the west, and extending to the east as far as the region around Sanok, where it meets the... Lemkivshchyna, sometimes called Lemkovyna, Lemkivshchyna, or Łemkowszczyzna, is the land of the Lemkos (Lemki) includes the higher elevations of the Carpathians of modern-day Poland, extending to around the Poprad River to the west, and extending to the east as far as the region around Sanok, where it meets the... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... the river Poprad by SpiÅ¡ská Belá in the district Kežmarok The Poprad (German Popper) is a river in northern Slovakia and southern Poland, and a tributary of the Dunajec River (near Stary Sacz). ... Oslawa River near Zagorz Oslawa River near Mariemont hill, Zagorz, Poland Mariemont - Carmelites tower-monastry from 17th c. ... Lesser Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo maÅ‚opolskie) is an administrative region or voivodeship in southern Poland. ... Subcarpathia Voivodeship Subcarpathia Voivodeship (Polish: województwo podkarpackie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, in southeastern Poland. ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ...


This area was part of Austro-Hungarian Empire until its dissolution in 1918, at which point the Lemko-Rusyn Republic (Ruska Lemkivska) declared its independence. The independence did not last long, and the territory was incorporated into Poland in 1920. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Lemko-Rusyn Republic or Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv was founded in Florynka on December 5, 1918, in the aftermath of World War I, after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


As a result of Operation Wisła, the majority of Lemkos from this territory were resettled throughout Poland and in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, leaving a significant population only in the Prešov Region of present-day Slovakia. Tablet inscription in Polish (left) and Ukrainian: In memory of those expelled from Lemkivshchyna, on the 50th anniversary of Operation WisÅ‚a, 1947-1997. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... 7: PreÅ¡ov Region The PreÅ¡ov Region (in Slovak: PreÅ¡ovský kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions. ...


Etymology

The name "Lemko" derives from the common expression Lem (Лeм), which can mean "but", "only", or "like" in the Lemko dialect. "Lemko" came into use as an endonym after having been used as an exonym by the neighboring Boykos and Hutsuls, who do not use that expression in their respective dialects. Prior to this moniker, the Lemkos described themselves as Rusnaks ((Ukrainian: Руснaки, translit. Rusnaky) or Rusyns (Ukrainian: Русини, translit. Rusyny), as did the rest of the inhabitants of present-day Western Ukraine in the 19th century and first part of the 20th century. In the early 20th century, a majority of these peoples became active participants in the creation of the Ukrainian nation and came to call themselves Ukrainians (Ukrainian: Українці, translit. Ukrayintsi). However, while they may have accepted the new state of Ukraine, many Lemkos, including those in Poland and Slovakia, consider themselves to be a distinct ethnicity, while some claim to be Ukrainians and still others indentify as Rusyns. It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... Boyko or Boiko is the name for a distinctive group of Ruthenians (Ukrainian) montagnards of the Carpathian highlands. ... Hutsuls (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул, Romanian: HuÅ£uli, singular HuÅ£ul, Hutsul dialect: Hutsule, singular Hutsul; alternatively spelled as Huculs, Huzuls, Hutzuls, Gutsuls, Guculs, Guzuls, or Gutzuls ) are highlanders who for centuries have inhabited the Carpathian mountains, mainly in Ukraine, but also in the northern extremity of Romania, as well as in... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ...


History

Lemkos are generally considered to be descendants of Ruthenian settlers who arrived in 14th century or probably earlier to the area traditionally inhabited by Lemkos. Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...


After World War I, Lemkos founded two short-lived republics, the Lemko-Rusyn Republic in the west of Galicia, which had a russophile orietation, and the Komancza Republic, with a Ukainophile orientation. Lemko-Rusyn Republic or Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv was founded in Florynka on December 5, 1918, in the aftermath of World War I, after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. ... Russophiles (Ukrainian: Pусофіли), also sometimes referred to in some contexts Moscowphiles, were participants in a cultural and political movement in Western Ukraine known as Russophilia. ... The Komancza Republic was an association of 30 Lemko villages, founded in eastern Lemkivshchyna in Komańcza on November 4 , 1918. ...


It is estimated that about 130,000-140,000 Lemkos were living in the Polish part of Lemkivshchyna in 1939. Mass emigration from this territory to the Western hemisphere began in the late 1800s, diminishing the cultural uniqueness of the Lemko homeland. Additional depopulation of these lands occurred when the Lemkos began to be removed in a forced resettlement, first to the Soviet Union (about 90,000 people) and later to Poland's newly-acquired western lands (about 35,000) in the Operation Wisła campaign of the late 1940s. This action was a state ordered solution to the struggle waged by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in south-eastern Poland. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... Tablet inscription in Polish (left) and Ukrainian: In memory of those expelled from Lemkivshchyna, on the 50th anniversary of Operation WisÅ‚a, 1947-1997. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic President  - 1947-1952 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1983-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981 Józef... UPA appeal poster. ...


While a minority of Lemkos returned (some 5,000 Lemko families returned to their home regions in Poland between 1957-1958[1], officially having been allowed the right to return in 1956), the Lemko population in the Polish part of Lemkivschyna only numbers around 10,000-15,000 today. Some 50,000 Lemkos live in the western and northern parts of Poland, where they were sent to populate former German villages in areas Stalin had ceded to Poland. Among those, 5,863 people identified themselves as Lemko in the 2002 census. However, it is estimated that no fewer than 80,000 ethnic Lemkos reside in Poland today. Within Lemkivshchyna, Lemkos live in the villages of Łosie, Krynica, Nowica, Zdynia, Gładyszów, Hańczowa, Zyndranowa, Uście Gorlickie, Bartne, Binczarowa and Bielanka. Additional populations can be found in Mokre, Szczawne, Kulaszne, Rzepedź, Turzańsk, Komańcza, Sanok, Nowy Sącz, and Gorlice. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Krynica-Zdrój (Rusyn: Krenycja) is a town in southern Poland inhabited by over 13 thousand people. ... Binczarowa (Rusyn: Bolcarjova or Borcalova Ukrainian Biltsareva) is a town in southern Poland. ... KomaÅ„cza is a village in the Sanok County in the East MaÅ‚opolska in the Lesser Beskid mountains, parish in loco. ... Sanok, Latin: Sanocum, German: Saanig, Yiddish: Sonik, Ukrainian: Сянiк (Sianik), in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok), part of The Land of Sanok (Polish: Ziemia Sanocka, and Ruthenian Voivodeship), is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,261 inhabitants (2005). ... Nowy SÄ…cz town in southern Poland; less often an administrative district (powiat) surrounding the town. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Towns in Poland ...


Religion

The Shelestove St Michael's wooden church (1777) is the classic example of Lemko architecture.
The Shelestove St Michael's wooden church (1777) is the classic example of Lemko architecture.

Christianity in the region is thought to date to the efforts of Saints Cyril and Methodius in the 800s. The religion of many Lemkos is Greek-Catholicism. In Poland, they belong to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and to the Ruthenian Catholic Church (see also Slovak Greek Catholic Church) in Slovakia. A substantial number belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church. Through the efforts of the martyred priest Fr. Maxim Sandovich in the early 1900's (canonized by the Polish Orthodox Church in the 1990s) Eastern Orthodoxy was reintroduced to many Lemko areas which had accepted the Union of Brest centuries before. The distinctive wooden architectural style of the Lemko churches is to place the highest cupola of the church building at the entrance to the church, with the roof sloping downward toward the sanctuary. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x641, 71 KB)The Shelestove (St Michaels) wooden church (1777) originally from the village of Shelestove. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x641, 71 KB)The Shelestove (St Michaels) wooden church (1777) originally from the village of Shelestove. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Statue of Saint Cyril at Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s Years: 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 Significant Events and Trends Swedish town of Birka founded as a centre of trade on the island of Björk... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Slovak Greek Catholic Church, or Slovak Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ... Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ...


Dialect

The Lemko dialect is the western-most dialect of the Ukrainian language[2]. Lemko speech, however, includes patterns matching those of the surrounding Polish and Slovak languages, leading some to refer to it as a transitional dialect between Polish and Slovak (some even consider the dialect in Eastern Slovakia to be a dialect of the Slovak language). Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Slovak (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk) is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish and Sorbian). ...


Language

Metodyj Trochanovskyij published a Lemko Primer ('Lemkivskj bukvar') and a First Reader ('Persa knyzecka') for use in schools in the Lemko-speaking area of Poland in the 1930's. These were banned by the Polish government in 1938. In the late 20th century, some Lemkos/Rusyns, mainly emigres from the region of the southern slopes of the Carpathians in modern-day Slovakia, began an effort to codify and standardize a grammar for the Lemko dialect. This happened on the 27-th Jan. 1995 in Presov, Slovakia. The Lemko/Rusyn language became a language. For the surname, see Grammer. ...


Famous Lemkos

Thomas Bell (1903–1961) was an American novelist. ... Patriarch Dymytriy (Yarema) (b. ... In 1921 a Sobor created the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) in Kyiv and ordained Metropolitan Vasyl (Lypkivsky) as head of the UAOC. The UAOC was at that point independent of all other churches. ... Oleksandr Dukhnovych (Ukrainian: ) (April 24, 1803 — March 30, 1865) was a poet, writer, pedagogue and social activist (portrait)of Ukrainian and Rusyn nations. ... Volodymyr Kubijovyc (ukr. ... Monument to Nikifor in Krynica. ... Piotr Trochanowski (1947 – living) was born in Silesia in the southwestern part of Poland to Lemko parents from Binczarowa. ... Michael Verbytsky (1815 - 1870) was a Ukrainian songwriter. ... Ukraines glory hasnt perished (Ще не вмерла Україна) is the national anthem of Ukraine. ... Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist who became a central figure in the movement known as pop art. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Waldemar Januszczak (born January 12, 1954) is a British art critic, who writes for the Sunday Times and a film maker of television arts documentaries. ...

See also

Boyko or Boiko is the name for a distinctive group of Ruthenians (Ukrainian) montagnards of the Carpathian highlands. ... Hutsuls (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул, Romanian: Huţuli, singular Huţul, Hutsul dialect: Hutsule, singular Hutsul; alternatively spelled as Huculs, Huzuls, Hutzuls, Gutsuls, Guculs, Guzuls, or Gutzuls ) are highlanders who for centuries have inhabited the Carpathian mountains, mainly in Ukraine, but also in the northern extremity of Romania, as well as in... Lemko-Rusyn Republic or Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv was founded in Florynka on December 5, 1918, in the aftermath of World War I, after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Rusyn, though by most outsiders considered one language and even having only one SIL code rue, is in fact the name of two independent languages spoken by Rusyns: Carpatho-Rusyn (also called Ruthenian) Pannonian-Rusyn (also called Rusnak) Carpatho-Rusyn (Ruthenian) The Rusyn language of the Carpathian Mountains is an... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Shlakhtov Ruthenians are the westernmost Ruthenian ethnic group in Poland, formerly inhabiting 4 villages around Szlachtowa in the Pieniny Mountains (between the Poprad and Dunajec Rivers). ...

References

  1. ^ Lemko Republic of Florynka / Ruska narodna respublika Lemkiv
  2. ^ Ukrainian language. The Encyclopedia.
  3. ^ Figures of the culture and sciences of Lemkivshchyna (Science)
  4. ^ Petro Trochanowski
  5. ^ Figures of the culture and sciences of Lemkivshchyna (Art)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lemko region (786 words)
Lemkos forms an ethnographic peninsula 140 km long and 25–50 km wide within Polish and Slovak territory.
Lemkos in Galicia in 1939 was estimated at (depending on whether or not the transitional groups were included) 140,000 to 200,000, and in the
Lemkos took part in the Austrian-Transylvanian struggle in the 17th century and in the Ferenc II Rákóczi uprising at the beginning of the 18th century.
The Rusyns - Rusyn (440 words)
The Lemko Region was until 1918 part of the Austrian Habsburg province of Galicia, specifically the southern parts of the *districts of Nowy Sacz, Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Krosno, Sanok, Lesko, and a very small portion (four villages) of Nowy Targ (see Map 9).
The entire Lemko population was resettled and forcibly deported between 1945 and 1947, so that at present only about 20,000 returnees and their descendants live in villages scattered throughout the area.
Nevertheless, the term Lemko Region, in the sense of all the villages where Lemko Rusyns had lived before 1945, continues to be used in publications and by organizations that promote historical and civic Lemko interests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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