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Encyclopedia > Lemko

Lemko - one of four major groups of Ruthenian montagnards of the northwest Carpathian mountain chain, having a unique dialect and culture. Until 1945 their settlements were scattered from the Poprad River on the west to the valley of Oslawa River on the east. Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... Poprad (Hungarian: Poprád, German: Deutschendorf) is a town in northern Slovakia at the foot of the High Tatra Mountains. ...

Contents


Name and self-description

Their name derives from their common use of an expression of speech,Lem, which means but or only or like. In the past, Lemko was the description given to them by their eastern neighbors - the Boykos and Hutsuls, who though speaking a dialect similar to the Lemko dialect, do not use the expression, lem. Formerly, the Lemkos described themselves as Rusiny or Rusnaky. In the early 20th century, many, but not all of the Lemkos in Poland accepted the name change of their national identity from Rus'/Rusyn (Rus'ian, Rusnyak) or Ruthenian to the more modern term, Ukrainian. This phenomenon was less widespread in Slovakia. After WWII, it was forced by degree to call these people not Ruthenians but Ukrainians because it was the example of the Soviet Union. In the Soviet Union, nobody spoke about Ruthenians, they were only Ukrainians’. There have been tensions between the members of the Ukrainian and Ruthenian minorities living in Slovakia since the 1950s. Many representatives of this minority were appointed to the top communist functions because of their origin. That might be also why in Slovakia the word “Rusyn” still bears unpopular connotations of a village person. Boyko is the name for a distinctive group of Ukrainian montagnards of the Carpathian highlands. ... Hutsuls or Huculs (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул) are a group of Ukrainian highlanders, considered a subgroup of Rusyns by some references. ... The origins of the Rus (or Rus , Русь) are controversial. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the...


Lemkivshchyna

The land of the Lemkos (Lemki), sometimes called "Lemkovyna," "Lemkivshchyna," or "Lemkowczyzna," includes the higher elevations of the Carpathians of present-day Poland, extending to around the Poprad River to the west, and extending to the east as far as the region around Sanok, where it meets the Boyko region. The corresponding latitudes of the adjacent highlands of modern-day Slovakia are also included by some in the description of Lemko-land. Poprad (Hungarian: Poprád, German: Deutschendorf) is a town in northern Slovakia at the foot of the High Tatra Mountains. ... Sanok (in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,400 inhabitants (1995). ... Boyko is the name for a distinctive group of Ukrainian montagnards of the Carpathian highlands. ...


Dialect

The Lemko dialect is considered by many linguists to be the western-most dialect of the Ukrainian language. Lemko speech, however, includes patterns matching those of the surrounding Polish and Slovak languages, and might be seen as a transitional dialect to Polish and Slovak (some even consider the dialect in Eastern Slovakia to be a dialect of the Slovak language). Besides, vocabulary of Lemko dialect is influenced by Romanian language, like other Slavic dialects of carpathian mountagnards. Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayins’ka mova) is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... The Slovak language (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk) is an Indo-European language, more precisely a West Slavic language (together with mainly the Czech, Polish, and Sorbian languages). ... Romanian (limba română IPA ), the official language of Romania, is considered to be identical to the Moldovan language. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ...


In the late 20th century, some Lemki, mainly emigres from the region, mainly from the southern slopes of the Carpathians in modern-day Slovakia, began an effort to codify and standardize a grammar for the local speech, under the designation "Lemko" or Ruthenian–Rusyn. Rusyn, though by most outsiders considered one language and even having only one SIL code rue, is in fact the name of two independent languages spoken by Rusyns: Carpatho-Rusyn (also called Ruthenian) Pannonian-Rusyn (also called Rusnak) Carpatho-Rusyn (Ruthenian) The Rusyn language of the Carpathian Mountains is an...


History

Lemkos are remainder of Valachian and Ruthenian settlers who arrived to the area later inhabited by the Lemkos in 14th century. Following linguistic assimilation of Valachians their Romanian dialect was replaced by Ruthenian. However, Romanian dialect strongly influenced Slavic dialect of Lemkos. Also the material culture of Lemkos bears clear resemblance to the culture of Romanian countryside . Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ...


In 1939, about 130,000-140,000 Lemkos used to live in the Polish part of Lemkivshchyna. Mass emigration from Lemko-land to the Western hemisphere began in the late 1800s, diminishing the cultural uniqueness of the homeland areas. Cultural assimilation, most especially among the Slovaks to the south, has also diminished the numbers of Lemkos in their ancient mountainous homeland.


In Poland, perhaps most of the Lemkos were removed by forced resettlement, first to the Soviet Union (about 90,000 persons) and later to Poland's newly-acquired western lands in the Wisla Action campaign of the late 1940s (about 35,000). A minority have since returned. Today in the Polish part of the traditional Lemko region, the Lemki number some 10,000-15,000. About 50,000 live in the western and northern parts of Poland. Amongst them, 5,863 people declared Lemko nationality during the census in 2002. Events and trends The 1940s were dominated by World War II, the most destructive armed conflict in history. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The word Lemko is known to all Poles. In 1946 the entire minority was deported to the north and west of the country in an ethnic cleansing operation. This was the communist government's solution to the struggle waged by the Ukrainian National Army, UPA, in south-eastern Poland. It was not until 1956 that some of them were allowed to return to the region bordering Slovakia. But many of those hoping to return found that their villages had been burnt down. Also, the Lemkos were deported to former German villages in areas Stalin had given to Poland. Many chose to stay because of the higher living standards in the former German villages. Many were afraid to reveal they were Lemkos until the fall of communism, and even beyond that, so they stayed. 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


Christianity in the region is thought to date to the efforts of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the 800s. The religion of most Lemkos is Greek Catholic: they belong to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Poland; and, to the Ruthenian Catholic Church (see also Slovak Catholic Church) in Slovakia. A substantial minority belong to the Orthodox Church. The distinctive wooden architectural style of the Lemko churches is to place the highest cupola of the church building at the entrance to the church, with the roof sloping downward toward the sanctuary. The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... The Ruthenian Catholic Church is a sui iuris Catholic Church of the Byzantine Eastern Rite. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


See also

Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Boyko is the name for a distinctive group of Ukrainian montagnards of the Carpathian highlands. ... The Shlakhtov Ruthenians are the westernmost Ruthenian ethnic group in Poland, formerly inhabiting 4 villages around Szlachtowa in the Pieniny Mountains (between the Poprad and Dunajec Rivers). ...

External links

  • [http://www.radio.com.pl/polonia/article.asp?tId=24039&j=2 Lemko revival

in Poland]


http://lemko.org


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lemko region (786 words)
Lemkos forms an ethnographic peninsula 140 km long and 25–50 km wide within Polish and Slovak territory.
Lemkos in Galicia in 1939 was estimated at (depending on whether or not the transitional groups were included) 140,000 to 200,000, and in the
Lemkos took part in the Austrian-Transylvanian struggle in the 17th century and in the Ferenc II Rákóczi uprising at the beginning of the 18th century.
The Rusyns - Rusyn (440 words)
The Lemko Region was until 1918 part of the Austrian Habsburg province of Galicia, specifically the southern parts of the *districts of Nowy Sacz, Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Krosno, Sanok, Lesko, and a very small portion (four villages) of Nowy Targ (see Map 9).
The entire Lemko population was resettled and forcibly deported between 1945 and 1947, so that at present only about 20,000 returnees and their descendants live in villages scattered throughout the area.
Nevertheless, the term Lemko Region, in the sense of all the villages where Lemko Rusyns had lived before 1945, continues to be used in publications and by organizations that promote historical and civic Lemko interests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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