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Encyclopedia > Leisure
A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool.
A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool.

Leisure, often referred to as free time, is "time spent out of work and essential domestic activity". It is the period of discretionary time before or after compulsory activities such as eating and sleeping, going to work or running a business, attending school and doing homework, household chores, and day-to-day stress. The distinction between leisure and compulsory activities is loosely applied, people sometimes do work-oriented tasks for pleasure as well as for long-term utility[1]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4368x2912, 4265 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swimming Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4368x2912, 4265 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swimming Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For eat or EAT as an abbreviation or acronym, see EAT. In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming nutrition, i. ... Sleeping girl Sleep is the fundamental anabolic process common to all life forms, plant and animal. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... Look up Education in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Homework, short for homework assignments, refers to tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed mostly outside of class, and derives its name from the fact that most students do most of such work at home. ... A household chore is a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee, related to or used in the running of a household. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ...


For an experience to qualify as leisure, it must meet three criteria: 1) The experience is a state of mind. 2) It must be entered into voluntarily. 3) It must be intrinsically motivating of its own merit. (Neulinger, 1981)

Contents

History

The word leisure comes from the Latin word licere, meaning "to be permitted" or "to be free", via Old French leisir, and first appeared in the early 14th century. [2]. The notions of leisure and leisure time are thought to have emerged in Victorian Britain in the late nineteenth century, late in the Industrial Revolution. Early factories required workers to perform long shifts, often up to eighteen hours per day, with only Sundays off work. By the 1870s though, more efficient machinery and the emergence of trade unions resulted in decreases in working hours per day, and allowed industrialists to give their workers Saturdays as well as Sundays off work. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Watt steam engine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... The god Saturn, after whom Saturday is named. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Affordable and reliable transport in the form of railways allowed urban workers to travel on their days off, with the first package holidays to seaside resorts appearing in the 1870s, a trend which spread to industrial nations in Europe and North America. As workers channeled their wages into leisure activities, the modern entertainment industry emerged in industrialised nations, catering to entertain workers on their days off. This Victorian concept - the weekend - heralded the beginning of leisure time as it is known today. A package holiday or package tour consists of transport and accommodation advertised and sold together by a vendor known as a tour operator. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The entertainment industry consists of a large number of sub-industries devoted to entertainment. ... Week End The weekend is a part of the week lasting one or two days in which most paid workers do not work. ...


Types of leisure

  • Active leisure activities involve the exertion of physical or mental energy. Low-impact physical activities include walking and yoga, which expend little energy and have little contact or competition. High-impact activities such as kick-boxing and soccer consume much energy and are competitive. Some active leisure activities involve almost no physical activity, but do require a substantial mental effort, such as playing chess or painting a picture. Active leisure and recreation overlap significantly.
  • Passive leisure activities are those in which a person does not exert any significant physical or mental energy, such as going to the cinema, watching television, or gambling on slot machines. Some leisure experts discourage these types of leisure activity, on the grounds that they do not provide the benefits offered by active leisure activities. For example, acting in a community drama (an active leisure activity) could build a person's skills or self-confidence. Nevertheless, passive leisure activities are a good way of relaxing for many people.

An animated demonstration of a six-legged insect walking. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Categories: Martial arts stubs | Martial arts ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... People participating in summer luge as a form of recreation, in the Vosges. ... The term gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ...

Examples of leisure activities

A woman relaxes in an urban park and enjoys a book during her lunch break.
A woman relaxes in an urban park and enjoys a book during her lunch break.

People who work indoors and spend most of their time sitting and doing sedentary office work can add physical activity to their lives by doing sports during their leisure time, such as playing a ball game, going camping, hiking or fishing. On the other hand, people whose jobs involve a lot of physical activity may prefer to spend their free time doing quiet, relaxing activities, such as reading books or magazines or watching TV. Some people find that collecting stamps, postcards, badges, model cars or ships, bottles, or antiques is a relaxing hobby. Image File history File links Sole-of-foot. ... Image File history File links Sole-of-foot. ... An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ...


Free time is organized in many schools and institutions. Schools offer many extra-curricular activities including hobby groups, sports activities, and choirs. Other institutions such as retirement homes and hospitals also offer activities such as clubs and meetings for playing games. .


Most people like socializing with friends for dinner or a drink after a hard day at work. For many young people, having a regular night out a week is a normal part of their free time, whether it is joining friends for a drink in a pub, dining out in a restaurant, watching a film, playing video games or dancing the night away at a club.


Some people do leisure activities that also have a longer-term goal. In some cases, people do a leisure activity that they hope to turn into a full-time activity (e.g., volunteer paramedics who hope to eventually become professional paramedics). Many people also study part-time in evening university or college courses, both for the love of learning, and to help their career prospects.


Cultural differences

Capitalist societies often view active leisure activities positively, because active leisure activities require the purchase of equipment and services, which stimulates the economy. Capitalist societies often accord greater status to members who have more wealth. One of the ways that wealthy people can choose to spend their money is by having additional leisure time.


"Workaholics" are those who work compulsively at the expense of other activities. They prefer to work rather than spend time socializing and engaging in other leisure activities. Many see this as a necessary sacrifice to attain high-ranking corporate positions. However, these days increasing attention is being paid to the effects of such imbalance upon the worker and the family. Throughout its early history, American society was driven by the Protestant work ethic a cultural view inspired by the Protestant preacher John Calvin. A workaholic is a person addicted to work. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


According to the philosopher Marcus Verhaegh, there were Europeans and Americans who, in the 1960s and 1970s, advocated what might be termed a 'leisure socialism.' They believed if everyone is content with a smaller piece of the pie, everyone can then have their basic needs met. If everyone's basic needs are met, many in society can use their free time to pursue the arts, mysticism, athletics, various hobbies and other leisure activities.[3] Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an...


Socialist writer Belfort Bax wrote in 1884 of a similar vision for socialist Europe in the article "Socialism and the Sunday Question" for Justice Again that work should be spread about so that everyone is provided with times of rest. His focus was on the elimination of one universal day of rest, but the general ideas are quite similar to those that emerged in nineteenth century America.[4] Ernest Belfort Bax (July 23, 1854 - November 26, 1926) was a socialist journalist and philosopher, associated with the Social Democratic Federation in Britain. ...


See also

The Theory of the Leisure Class is a book, first published in 1899, by the American economist Thorstein Veblen while he was a professor at the University of Chicago. ... Construction workers generally work long hours for their pay Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market and dynamics for labour. ... Conspicuous leisure is a term introduced by the American economist Thorstein Veblen, in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899). ... Conspicuous consumption is a term introduced by the American economist Thorstein Veblen, in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899). ... People participating in summer luge as a form of recreation, in the Vosges. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ...

References

  1. ^ Goodin, Robert E.; Rice, James Mahmud; Bittman, Michael; & Saunders, Peter. (2005). "The time-pressure illusion: Discretionary time vs. free time". Social Indicators Research 73 (1), 43–70. (PDF file)
  2. ^ The 'u' first appeared in the early 16th century, probably by analogy with words such as pleasure [1]
  3. ^ Leisure Socialism
  4. ^ Socialism and the Sunday Question, from Justice, 16 August 1884

August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

External links

  • The Idler magazine
  • Images of places to relax
  • Leisure Projects Canadian Artist/Curator Duo

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leisure Jobs UK - Sport, fitness, travel, hospitality & catering jobs in London, UK & Europe (80 words)
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Leisure is a basic resource which is necessary for, and which is used up in, the performance of any action whatever, and therefore in pursuit or enjoyment of any value whatever.
Leisure is the end of those other values; we derive a certain amount of leisure from them, i.e., those other values sustain our lives for some period of time.
Leisure came first: men have had the potential to measure values in terms of leisure for as long as they have been able to count, while money can only exist in a social context, and only then when trade is quite advanced.
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