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Encyclopedia > Leiria
Leiria
Coat of arms of Leiria
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Leiria
Location  
 - Country Portugal  
 - Region Centro
 - Subregion Pinhal Litoral
 - District or A.R. Leiria
Mayor Isabel Damasceno Campos Costa
 - Party PSD
Area 564,66 km² km²
Population
 - Total 119,870 hab. (2001)
 - Density 210/km²
No. of parishes 29
Coordinates 39° 46' N 08° 53' W
Municipal holiday Our Lady of the Assumption
May 22
Website: http://www.cm-leiria.pt

Leiria (pron. IPA [lɐi'ɾiɐ]) is a city in central Portugal. It is the capital of the District of Leiria. Image File history File links LRA.png Crest of Leiria municipality (Portugal) Author: Sérgio Horta The author has agreed to usage of his works under the GNU-FDL, as long as he is quoted as the source: Caro Senhor, Manuel Anastácio File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links LocalLeiria. ... Centro Region (Região Centro, pron. ... Map showing the location of the Pinhal Litoral subregion Pinhal Litoral is a NUTS3 subregion of Portugal integrating the Centro region. ... Leiria is a district of Portugal. ... Political parties in Portugal lists political parties in Portugal. ... The Social Democratic Party (Portuguese: Partido Social Democrata, pron. ... A freguesia (pron. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Map showing Leiria District in Portugal The District of Leiria (pron. ...

Contents

Parishes

The 29 parishes of Leira are:

  • Amor
  • Arrabal
  • Azoia
  • Bajouca
  • Barosa (Leiria)
  • Barreira (Leiria)
  • Bidoeira de Cima
  • Boa Vista
  • Caranguejeira
  • Carreira
  • Carvide
  • Chainça
  • Coimbrão
  • Colmeias
  • Cortes
  • Leiria
  • Maceira
  • Marrazes (Leiria)
  • Memória
  • Milagres
  • Monte Real
  • Monte Redondo
  • Ortigosa
  • Parceiros (Leiria)
  • Pousos
  • Regueiros de Pontes
  • Santa Catarina da Serra
  • Santa Eufémia
  • Souto da Carpalhosa
Castle of Leiria with its characteristic arched galleries.
Castle of Leiria with its characteristic arched galleries.
Leiria seen from its castle.
Leiria seen from its castle.
Gothic gallery in the Castle of Leiria.
Gothic gallery in the Castle of Leiria.
Palace of King John I in the Castle of Leiria.
Palace of King John I in the Castle of Leiria.
Gothic window of the chapel of the Castle of Leiria.
Gothic window of the chapel of the Castle of Leiria.

Municipality Leiria Area 12. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1704, 1657 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1704, 1657 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 661 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 661 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1945 KB) Author: Orium Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1945 KB) Author: Orium Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... See also Gothic art. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2324 KB) Author: Orium Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2324 KB) Author: Orium Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 697 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 697 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Leiria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create...

Geography and Location

Leiria is located halfway between Lisbon and Porto. The distance to Lisbon is 146 km and to Coimbra 72 km. The historic city centre spreads between the castle hill and the river Lis. Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisbon  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... District Coimbra Mayor   - Party Carlos Encarnação PSD Area 316. ...


Climate

Leiria is close to the Atlantic Ocean, therefore Spring and Summer months are usually sunny and the temperatures very high during July and August, with highs usually above 30°C only rarely reaching 40°C. Autumn and Winter are typically rainy and windy, yet sunny days are not rare either, the temperatures rarely fall below 5°C, usually staying at an average of 10°C. Leiria's climate is classified as Atlantic-Mediterranean.


Demographics

According to the 2001 census, the population of the city is 50,200. The city is divided into 6 parishes, and the municipality as a whole has a population of 119,870 in 29 parishes.


History

The region around Leiria has been inhabited for a long time, although its early history is very obscure. The Turduli, an indigenous people from Iberia, established a settlement near (around 7 km) present-day Leiria. This settlement was later occupied by the Romans, who expanded it under the name Collippo. The stones of the ancient Roman town were used in the Middle Ages to build much of Leiria. The Turduli were an ancient celtiberian tribe akin to the Lusitanians, living in the south of modern Portugal, in the east of the province of Alentejo, along the Guadiana valley. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Little is known about the area in Visigoth times, but during the period of Arab domination Leiria was already a village with a garrison. Moorish Leiria was captured by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques in 1135, during the so-called Reconquista. The settlement was shortly retaken by the Moors in 1137 and then in 1140. In 1142 Afonso Henriques reconquered Leiria, dating from this year its first foral (compilation of feudal rights) to stimulate the colonisation of the area. Leiria was still conquered by the Moors in 1190 and 1195, only to be retaken again by King Sancho I. Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Moorish invasion of Iberia (711–718) commenced when the Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the caliph at Damascus, and led by the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, they landed... Afonso I of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. ... The Reconquista (English: Reconquest) was the process encompassing almost 8 centuries, by which the Christian kingdoms of northern Hispania (modern Portugal and Spain) reconquered the Iberian peninsula from the Muslim and Moorish states of Al-Ándalus. ... Sancho I of Portugal, known as the Populator (Port. ...


Both Afonso Henriques and Sancho I rebuilt the walls and the castle of the village to avoid new Moorish incursions. Most of the population lived inside the protective city walls, but already in the 12th century part of the population lived outside the walls. The oldest church of Leiria, the Church of Saint Peter (Igreja de São Pedro), built in romanesque style in the last quarter of the 12th century, served the parish located outside the walls. Romanesque St. ...


During the Middle Ages the importance of the village increased, and it was the setting of several cortes (feudal parliaments). The first of the cortes held in Leiria were in 1245, under King Afonso II. In the early 14th century, King Dinis I restored the keep tower of the citadel of the castle, as can be seen in an inscription in the tower. He also built a royal residence in Leiria (now lost), and lived for long periods in the town, which he donated as feud to his wife, Isabel. The King also ordered the plantation of the famous Pine Forest of Leiria (Pinhal de Leiria) near the coast. Later, the wood from this forest would be used to build the ships used in the Portuguese Navigations of the 15th and 16th centuries. Afonso II of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), known as the Fat (Port. ... Dinis of Portugal (in archaic Portuguese Diniz; in English Denis), the Farmer (Port. ... The keep of Scarborough Castle. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... Elizabeth of Portugal (1271–1336) was queen consort of Portugal and a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ...


In the late 15th century, King John I built a royal palace within the walls of the castle of Leiria. This palace, with elegant gothic galleries that offered wonderful views of the town and surrounding landscape, was totally in ruins but was partially rebuilt in the 20th century. John I also sponsored the rebuilding in late gothic style of the old Church of Our Lady of the Rock (Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Pena), located inside the castle. João I (pron. ...


Towards the end of the 15th century the town continued to grow, occupying the area from the castle hill down to the river Lis. In Leiria was printed the first book in Portugal. King Manuel I gave it a new foral in 1510, and in 1545 it was elevated to the category of city and became seat of a Diocesis. The Cathedral of Leiria was built in the second half of the 16th century in a mix of late gothic (manueline) and late renaissance (mannerist) styles. Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... In architecture, manueline is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral. ... Mannerism is the usual English term for an approach to all the arts, particularly painting but not exclusive to it, a reaction to the High Renaissance, emerging after the Sack of Rome in 1527 shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to their foundations, and even Religion had split apart. ...


Compared to the Middle Ages, the subsequent history of Leiria is of relative decadence. In the 20th century, however, its strategic position in the Portuguese territory favoured the development of a diversified industry.


Events

The 2004 European Football Championship, commonly called EURO 2004 took place in several stadiums in Portugal, one of them Dr. Magalhães Pessoa Stadium situated down the hill of the castle. The city of Leiria has also its own football (soccer) team: União Desportiva de Leiria, commonly called just União de Leiria. They currently play in the top of Portuguese football, the Liga betandwin.com. Euro 2004 Logo The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly called Euro 2004, was held in Portugal between 12 June and 4 July 2004. ... Estádio Dr. Magalhães Pessoa is a football stadium in Leiria, Portugal, built as a venue for Euro 2004 and as a new home for the citys main football club, UD Leiria. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England (and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man). ... União Desportiva de Leiria, known simply as União de Leiria is a Portuguese football team that currently plays in the top tier SuperLiga. ... Liga Betandwin. ...


Economy

Leiria has an economy concentrated on services. It also has several industries related with plastics and moulds, as well as animal food, milling, cement, civil construction, tourism and others.


Transportation

Leiria is connected to its suburbs and the rest of Portugal by a motorway network. There are two motorways paasing the city; the A1 and the A8.


Education

Leiria hosts a regional public polytechnic institution of higher education, the Instituto Politécnico de Leiria [1]. The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (IPL) begun its activities on April 20th, 1987. ...


See also

Centro Region (Região Centro, pron. ...

External links

  • Municipality of Leiria
  • Photos from Leiria


 
Municipalities of the District of Leiria
Flag of Portugal
Alcobaça | Alvaiázere | Ansião | Batalha | Bombarral | Caldas da Rainha | Castanheira de Pera | Figueiró dos Vinhos
Leiria | Marinha Grande | Nazaré | Óbidos | Pedrógão Grande | Peniche | Pombal | Porto de Mós

  Results from FactBites:
 
Leiria at AllExperts (886 words)
It is the capital of the District of Leiria.
Moorish Leiria was captured by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques in 1135, during the so-called Reconquista.
The Cathedral of Leiria was built in the second half of the 16th century in a mix of late gothic (manueline) and late renaissance (mannerist) styles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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