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Encyclopedia > Leiden
Leiden
Official flag of Leiden
Flag
Coat of arms of Leiden
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 52°10′N 4°29′E / 52.16, 4.49
Country Netherlands
Province South Holland
Area (2006)
 - Municipality 23.16 km²  (8.9 sq mi)
 - Land 21.99 km² (8.5 sq mi)
 - Water 1.16 km² (0.4 sq mi)
Population (1 January 2007)
 - Municipality 117,530
 - Density 5,345/km² (13,843.5/sq mi)
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website: www.leiden.nl
The Old Rhine in Leiden

Image:Ltspkr.pngLeiden (also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It forms a single urban area with Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten, Valkenburg, Rijnsburg and Katwijk, with 254,000 inhabitants. It is located on the Old Rhine, close to the cities of The Hague and Haarlem. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... South Holland (Dutch Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country on the North Sea coast. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Old Rhine in Leiden. ... Old Rhine in Leiden. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... South Holland (Dutch Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country on the North Sea coast. ... Oegstgeest (population: 21,188 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Leiderdorp (population: 26,182 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland near to the city of Leiden. ... Voorschoten (population: 22,505 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Valkenburg aan de Geul - a town in the Netherlands. ... Rijnsburg (population: 14,941 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Katwijk Location Flag Country Netherlands Province South Holland Population 61. ... The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ...


Its geographical coordinates are 52°10′N, 4°29′E (in decimals: 52.16N, 4.49E). RD coordinates (94, 464). Geography of the Netherlands Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany Geographic coordinates: ca. ...


A university town since 1575, Leiden houses:

Contents

Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands[1]. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. ... Leiden University Medical Centre is the university hospital and medical faculty of Leiden University in the city of Leiden. ...

History

Although it is true that Leiden is an old city, its claimed connection with Roman Lugdunum Batavorum is spurious; Roman Lugdunum is actually the modern town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern Leiden was called Matilo. However, there was a Roman fortress in Leiden in the 4th century. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Katwijk Location Flag Country Netherlands Province South Holland Population 61. ...


Leiden formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine). In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holtland or Holland. Burgrave, the Eng. ...


Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada. Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... Ada (1188–1223) was countess of Holland between 1203 to 1207. ... William I (ca. ...


Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4000 persons. City rights are a medieval phenomenon in the history of the Low Countries. ...


Siege of 1420

In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city. Since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daugther of Count William VI of Holland. The army was well equipped and had some guns. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local Hoekse noblemen assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the canons with his army but one too heavy went per ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. The Hook and Cod wars (Dutch: Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) comprise a series of wars and battles in Holland between 1350 and 1490. ... John III, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing (died 1425) of the House of Wittelsbach was bishop of Liege. ... Goudas 15th Century Town Hall Flag of Gouda Goudas Cheese Market Gouda (population 71,797 in 2004) is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... The Counts of Holland ruled over the county of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. ... Jacqueline, Countess of Hainault and Holland Jacoba of Bavaria or Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (1401 – 1436, Dutch: Jacoba van Beieren, French: Jacqueline de Bavière) was Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Hainaut and Holland from 1417 to 1432. ... Duke William II of Bavaria-Straubing was also count William VI of Holland, count William IV of Hainaut and count William V of Zeeland. ...


On June 24 the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On August 17, 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered itself to John of Bavaria. The citadel earl Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ...


16th and 17th centuries

Otto van Veen: Relief of Leiden (1574), Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.
Otto van Veen: Relief of Leiden (1574), Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.
17th century houses along the Herengracht.
17th century houses along the Herengracht.

Leiden flourished in the 16th and 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important printing and publishing industry. The influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir (1547-1617), who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1038 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1038 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Otto van Veen, Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, c. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (4224 × 2376 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (4224 × 2376 pixel, file size: 4. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Baize is a coarse woollen or cotton cloth, often coloured red or green. ... Camlet, also commonly known as camelot or camblet, is a woven fabric that might have originally been made of camel or goats hair, now chiefly of goats hair and silk, or of wool and cotton. ... Christophe Plantin by Peter Paul Rubens Christoffel Plantijn (in French Christophe Plantin) (ca. ... Lodewijk Elzevir (1546? - 1617) was a significant Dutch printer. ...


In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on October 3, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes. Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The siege of Leiden occured during the Eighty Years War in 1573 and 1574. ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Leiden is also known as the place where the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam) [1] [2] lived for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam in the New World [3]. This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


In the 17th century, Leiden prospered, in part because of the impetus to the textile industry by refugees from Flanders. While the city had lost about a third of its 15000 citizens during the siege of 1574, it quickly recovered to 45000 inhabitants in 1622, and may have come near to 70000 circa 1670. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden was the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


From the late 17th century onwards Leiden slumped, mainly because of decline of the cloth industries. In the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up, although industry remained central to Leiden economy. This decline is painted vividly by the fall in population. The population of Leiden had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


19th and 20th century

On 12 January 1807, a catastrophe struck the city when a boat loaded with 17400 kg of gunpowder blew up in the middle of Leiden. 151 persons were killed, over 2000 were injured and some 220 homes were destroyed. King Louis Bonaparte personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ...


In 1842, the railroad from Leiden to Haarlem was inaugurated and one year later the railway to Den Haag was completed, resulting in some improvements to the social and economic situation. But the number of citizens was still not much above 50000 in 1900. Not until 1896 began Leiden to expand beyond its 17th century moats. After 1920, new industries established in the city, such as the canning and metal industries. This article is about the city in the Netherlands; there is also a region known as (the) Hague in France. ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ...


During World War II, Leiden was hit hard by Allied bombardments. The areas surrounding the railway station and Marewijk were almost completely destroyed.


Leiden Today

Leiden's west gate, the Morspoort
Leiden's west gate, the Morspoort

Today Leiden forms an important part of Dutch history. The end of the Spanish siege in 1574 is celebrated on 3 October by an annual parade, a day off, a fair and eating the traditional food of herring and white bread and hutspot. However, the most important piece of Dutch history contributed by Leiden was the Constitution of the Netherlands. Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (1798-1872) wrote the Dutch Constitution in April 1848 in his house at Garenmarkt 9 in Leiden. The western gate to the City of Leiden. ... The western gate to the City of Leiden. ... Hutspot is a dish of boiled and mashed potatoes, carrots and onions with a long history in traditional Dutch cuisine. ... The present constitution of the Netherlands dates back to 1815. ... Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (January 14, 1798 - June 4, 1872) was one of the most important Dutch politicians. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Leiden has important functions as a shopping and trade center for communities around the city. The University of Leiden is famous for its many developments including the famous Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, invented in Leiden by Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1746. (It was actually first invented by Ewald Georg von Kleist in Germany the year before, but the name "Leyden jar" stuck.) Another development was in cryogenics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913 Nobel prize winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908) and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above the absolute minimum. Albert Einstein also spent some time at Leiden University during his early to middle career. Original capacitor The Leyden jar was the original capacitor, invented in 1745 by Pieter van Muschenbroek (1700–1748) and used to conduct many early experiments in electricity. ... Pieter (Petrus) van Musschenbroek (14 March 1692 - 19 September 1761) was a Dutch scientist who is credited with the invention of the Leyden jar, the first capacitor. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist (June 1700 - December 10, 1748) was the dean of the cathedral at Kammin in Prussia and co-inventor of the Leyden jar. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (September 21, 1853 – February 21, 1926) was a Dutch physicist. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder, and no heat energy remains in a substance. ...


Rivers, canals and parks

The two branches of the Old Rhine, which enter Leiden on the east, unite in the centre of the town. The town is further intersected by numerous small canals with tree-bordered quays. On the west side of the town, the Hortus Botanicus and other gardens extend along the old Singel, or outer canal. The Van der Werff Park is named after the mayor Pieter Adriaanszoon van der Werff, who defended the town against the Spaniards in 1574. The town was beleaguered for months and many died from hunger. According to legend van der Werff was accused by a frantic crowd of secretly hiding food reserves. He denied this vehemently and to prove his sincerity offered to cut off his arm to serve as food for those who nearly died from hunger. This made people back off, ashamed of their mistrust. The open space for the park was formed by the accidental explosion of a ship loaded with gunpowder in 1807, which destroyed hundreds of houses, including that of the Elsevier family of printers. The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... A quay, pronounced key, kay, is a wharf or bank where ships and other vessels are loaded. ... The Hortus Botanicus of Leiden is the oldest botanical garden of the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Singel is an old Dutch word meaning a circle (connected to German umzingeln, to surround), and hence is the name of a number of circular canals in the Netherlands. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Elseviers logo. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ...


Buildings of interest

Because of the economic decline from the 17th to the early 20th century, much of the 16th and 17th century town centre is still intact. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Fortifications

At the strategically important junction of the two arms of the Old Rhine stands the old castle De Burcht, a circular tower built on an earthen mound. The mound probably was a refuge against high water before a small wooden fortress was built on top of it in the 11th century. Of Leiden's old city gates only two are left, the Zijlpoort and the Morspoort, both dating from the end of the 17th century. Apart from one small watch tower on the Singel nothing is left of the town's city walls. Another former fortification is the Gravensteen. Built as a fortress in the 13th century it has since served as house, library and prison. Presently it is one of the University's buildings. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Brama MÅ‚yÅ„ska in Stargard SzczeciÅ„ski one of two water gates in Europe. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Churches

Hooglandse kerk, Leiden
Hooglandse kerk, Leiden

The chief of Leiden's numerous churches are the Hooglandsche Kerk (or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and containing a monument to Pieter Adriaanszoon van der Werff) and the Pieterskerk (church of St Peter (1315) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars. From a historical perspective the Marekerk is interesting too. Arent van 's Gravesande designed the church in 1639. Other fine examples of his work in Leiden are De Lakenhal, in which the municipal museum is located, and the Bibliotheca Thysiana. The growing town needed another church and the Marekerk was the first church to be built in Leiden (and in Holland) after the Reformation. It is an example of Dutch Classicism. In the drawings by Van 's Gravesande the pulpit is the centrepiece of the church. The pulpit is modelled after the one in the Nieuwe Kerk at Haarlem (designed by Jacob van Campen). The building was first used in 1650, and is still in use.Marekerk Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1002 KB) Licensing Basilica of the Virgin, Valencia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1002 KB) Licensing Basilica of the Virgin, Valencia. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... St Pancras was a Roman citizen who converted to Christianity, and was beheaded for his faith at the age of just 14 around the year 304. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) was the tenth child and third son of Julius Caesar Scaliger and Andiette de Roques Lobejac. ... Herman Boerhaave (December 31, 1668 _ September 23, 1738) was a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in Stedeboeck der Nederlanden, Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... Mauritshuis Jacob van Campen (1596 - 1657) was a Dutch artist and architect. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


University buildings

Looking along the Witte Singel (White Moat) towards the 1860 Leiden Observatory building
Looking along the Witte Singel (White Moat) towards the 1860 Leiden Observatory building

The town centre contains many buildings that are in use by the University of Leiden. The Academy Building is housed in a former 16th century convent. Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the museum of antiquities (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden); and the ethnographical museum, of which P. F. von Siebold's Japanese collections was the nucleus. The Bibliotheca Thysiana occupies an old Renaissance building of the year 1655. It is especially rich in legal works and vernacular chronicles. Noteworthy are also the many special collections at Leiden University Library among which those of the Society of Dutch Literature (1766) and the collection of casts and engravings. In recent years the university has built the Bio Science Park at the city's outskirts to accommodate the Science departments. The second observatory in Leiden (1860). ... The second observatory in Leiden (1860). ... The Leiden Observatory (Sterrewacht Leiden) is an optical observatory in the city of Leiden in the Netherlands. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... The Hortus Botanicus of Leiden is the oldest botanical garden of the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Leiden Observatory (Sterrewacht Leiden) is an optical observatory in the city of Leiden in the Netherlands. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... The Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (National Archeological Museum) is a museum in Leiden, The Netherlands. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... statue in Akashicho (near Tsukiji), chuo-ku,Tokyo Japan Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (February 17, 1796 in Würzburg - October 18, 1866 in Munich) was a German physician. ... University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in Stedeboeck der Nederlanden, Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in Stedeboeck der Nederlanden, Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Other buildings

Some other interesting buildings are the town hall (Stadhuis), a 16th century building that was badly damaged by a fire in 1929); the Gemeenslandshuis van Rynland (1596, restored in 1878); the weigh house (Waag), built by Pieter Post; the former court-house (Gerecht); a corn-grinding windmill, now home to a museum (Molen de Valk) (1743); the old gymnasium (Latijnse School) (1599) and the city carpenter's yard and wharf (Stadstimmerwerf) (1612), both built by Lieven de Key (c. 1560-1627). Another building of interest is the "pesthuis", which was built at that time just outside the city for curing patients suffering the bubonic plague. However, after it was built the feared disease didn't occur in the Netherlands anymore so it was never used for its original purpose, it now serves as the entrance of Naturalis, one of the largest natural history museums in the world. Oudt Leyden, the so called oldest pancake house (pannekoekenhuis in Dutch) in Europe is home to its famous large pancakes and delft croquery, it's also known for serving the likes of Winston Churchill and the Dali Lama. Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Pieter Post (Born 1608-Died 1669) was a Dutch architect, painter, printmaker. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Metung Wharf on Bancroft Bay, Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia A wharf is a fixed platform, commonly on pilings, roughly parallel to and alongside navigable water, where ships are loaded and unloaded. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Vleeshal at the Grote Markt in Haarlem is a prime example of the work of Lieven de Key. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... The National Museum of Natural History, or Naturalis, originated from the merger of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (abbreviated RMNH) and the Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie (abbreviated RGM) in 1984. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Dalai Lama (song) The Dalai Lama belongs to the Gelug sect of Tibetan Buddhism. ...


Public transport

Bus lines

  • Connexxion Region West: [4]
    • Bus stops and lines in Leiden: [5] (links to schedules by stop and line)
    • Bus lines with schedules by line in the region [6]

Connexxion-bus in Katwijk Connexxion is the largest public transport bus company in the Netherlands, operating in the west, middle, east and far northern part of the country. ... A bus stop or omnibus stop is a designated place where a public transport bus stops for the purpose of allowing passengers to board or leave the bus. ...

Railway

Railway Den Haag to Leiden (part of line 10), with stations (with municipalities bolded), and official station abbreviations:
  • Den Haag HS (gv) nl / CS (gvc) nl (mun. The Hague; see also public transport connecting to The Hague)
  • Den Haag Laan v NOI (nl) (laa) (mun. The Hague)
  • Den Haag Mariahoeve (nl) (gvm) (mun. The Hague)
  • Voorschoten (vst)
  • De Vink railway station (dvnk) (mun. Voorschoten/Leiden)
  • Leiden Centraal (ledn) nl edit
Railway Leiden Centraal to Schiphol (part of line 10), with stations (municipalities in bold) and official station abbreviations:
Railway Leiden Centraal to Haarlem (part of line 10), with stations (municipalities in bold) and official station abbreviations:
Railway Leiden Centraal to Woerden (line 14), with stations (with municipalities bolded), and official station abbreviations:

All trains continue to Utrecht (city) on a stretch joined with line 50. edit “railroads” redirects here. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Railway network. ... Den Haag Centraal Den Haag Centraal, main hall Den Haag Centraal (in English: The Hague Central) is the largest train station in the Dutch city The Hague. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Voorschoten (population: 22,505 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... De Vink is, among other things, a train station in the Netherlands, shared between the municipalities of Voorschoten and Leiden. ... Railway network. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Platforms 2 side platforms Tracks 2 Other information Opened 3 August 1912 Closed 1 January 1936 Rebuilt 31 May 1981 Code NVP Services Nieuw Vennep is a railway station in Nieuw Vennep, Netherlands. ... Haarlemmermeer (population: 127,750 in 2004) is a municipality in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Platforms 2 island platforms Tracks 4 Other information Opened 31 May 1981 Code HFD Services Hoofddorp is a railway station in Hoofddorp, Netherlands. ... Schiphol railway station is a major passenger station located directly beneath the terminal complex of Amsterdam Schiphol Airport and operated by the Dutch national railway company, Nederlandse Spoorwegen. ... Railway network. ... Voorhout (population: 14,792 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Probably Sassenheim, Voorhout and Warmond will be merged on 1 January 2006. ... Hillegom (population: 20,588 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Heemstede (population 25,660 in 2004) is a town in the northwestern Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Aerdenhout is a small town in the municipality of Bloemendaal. ... Bloemendaal (population: 16,922 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Station Haarlem is the main trainstation of Haarlem, the Netherlands. ... Railway network. ... Alphen aan den Rijn (population: 70,477 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 38. ... Woerden is a municipality and a city in the central Netherlands. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ...

Famous and important Leidenaren throughout History

See also People from Leiden

Johann Friedrich Bachstrom, (24 December 1688 - ? 1742) was a Dutch writer, scientist and Lutheran theologian who lived in Leyden. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Herman Boerhaave (December 31, 1668 - September 23, 1738) was a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Voorhout (population: 14,792 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Several notable persons were named William Brewster: William Brewster (Pilgrim) (1567-1644), Pilgrim and Mayflower passenger William Brewster (ornithologist) (1851-1919), ornithologist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Armin van Buuren (born December 25, 1976) is a trance music DJ and producer from Leiden, the Netherlands. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trance is a style of electronic music that developed in the 1990s. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Gerard Dou (spelling variants Gerrit, Douw, Dow) (April 7, 1613–February 9, 1675) was a Dutch painter. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cornelis Engelbrechtsen (ca. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... River Scene Jan van Goyen (January 13, 1596, Leiden - April 27, 1656, The Hague) was a Dutch landscape painter. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... John of Leiden (Dutch: Jan van Leiden, Jan Beukelsz or Jan Beukelszoon; aka John Bockold or John Bockelson) (1509? - 1536) was an Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leiden. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek... The Münster Rebellion was an attempt by radical Anabaptists to establish a theocracy in the German city of Münster. ... Lucas van Leyden (b. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Mugshot of van der Lubbe Marinus (Rinus) van der Lubbe (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist accused of, and eventually executed for, setting fire to the German Reichstag building on February 27, 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Gabriel Metsu, The Sick Child (c. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Willebrord Snel Willebrord Snel (1580–October 30, 1626), also known as Snel van Royen or Snellius, was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, most famous for the law of refraction now known as Snells law. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... // Steen was born in Leiden, where his well-to-do, Catholic family had run the tavern The Red Halbert for several generations. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Johannes Diderik van der Waals (November 23, 1837 – March 8, 1923) was a Dutch scientist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids which describe the relation between the pressure, volume, and temperature of fluids (gases and liquids). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen (1654) William II of Holland, (February 1228-28 January 1256), was a count of Holland (1235-1256) and king of Germany (1247-1256). ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...

Town twinning

Leiden's twin towns are: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Buffalo City is a municipality situated on the east coast of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, at the coordinates of (27. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Juigalpa is the capital city of the Chontales department of Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Motto: Durabo (lat. ...

Miscellaneous

  • The mayor is Henri Lenferink (since 2003).
  • The coat of arms of Leiden is two red keys, crossed in an X-shape on a white background. These keys are those to the gates of heaven held by St.Peter, for whom a large church in the city center is named.
  • Factor V Leiden is named after the city of Leiden where it was discovered in 1994.
  • For a time Leiden held the title "The Coldest Place on Earth": in a laboratory, because of the developments in cryogenics that have happened there. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913 Nobel prize winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908), and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above Absolute zero.
  • The Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, was invented here by Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1746. It was actually first invented by Ewald Georg von Kleist the year before, but the name "Leyden jar" stuck.
  • Leiden is on the planned route of the RijnGouweLijn, the Netherland's first Light rail project. Within Leiden its route would have been: Leiden Lammenschans - Korevaarstraat - Breestraat - stop Haarlemmerstraat - Stationsplein - Joop Walenkamptunnel - Albinusdreef (LUMC) - Sandfortdreef - Zernikedreef (Hogeschool) - (Einsteinweg) - Ehrenfestweg - (Plesmanlaan) - Transferium A44. This route, however, has been rejected by Leiden citizens in a referendum.
  • There are plans for a mega movie theater and disco (see nightclub) [10] next to the bus station. There is also opposition, because it would damage the exploitation of other cinemas.
  • Postal codes are in the range 2300-2334.
  • The telephone area code is 071.
  • Leyden High School District 212 in Franklin Park, Illinois, USA got its name from this town.
  • Roadsign:
Leiden

Factor V Leiden (sometimes Factor VLeiden) is the name given to a variant of human factor V that causes a hypercoagulability disorder. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (September 21, 1853 – February 21, 1926) was a Dutch physicist. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder, and no heat energy remains in a substance. ... Original capacitor The Leyden jar was the original capacitor, invented in 1745 by Pieter van Muschenbroek (1700–1748) and used to conduct many early experiments in electricity. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... Pieter (Petrus) van Musschenbroek (14 March 1692 - 19 September 1761) was a Dutch scientist who is credited with the invention of the Leyden jar, the first capacitor. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist (June 1700 - December 10, 1748) was the dean of the cathedral at Kammin in Prussia and co-inventor of the Leyden jar. ... Light rail train The RijnGouweLijn or RGL is a light rail project in South Holland, Netherlands. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Leiden University Medical Centre is the university hospital and medical faculty of Leiden University in the city of Leiden. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ... This article is about the music genre. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... The Leyden High School District 212 operates two high schools (9-12) in Cook County, Illinois, USA. The district has 207 teachers (FTEs) serving 3,477 students. ... Incorporated Village in 1892. ...

See also

Wireless Leiden is a wireless community network in Leiden, Netherlands. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Leiden

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Museums and libraries

For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... The Hortus Botanicus of Leiden is the oldest botanical garden of the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. ... This article is about the colonists of North America. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in Stedeboeck der Nederlanden, Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649. ...

Region

  • map

Adjacent municipalities

Clockwise, with maps.

nl:Afbeelding:GemeentenZuid-HollandNrs. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Leiden - definition of Leiden in Encyclopedia (1310 words)
Leiden's medieval name was Leithen, and it was governed until 1420 by burgraves, the representatives of the courts of Holland.
Leiden is also known as one of the places where some of the Pilgrim Fathers lived for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to the New World.
The population of Leiden which, it is estimated, reached 100,000 in 1640, had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044.
Leiden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2021 words)
Leiden's medieval name was Leithon, and it was governed until 1420 by burgraves, the representatives of the courts of Holland.
Leiden is also known as one of the places where some of the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam) [1] [2] lived for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to the New World [3].
The chief of Leiden's numerous churches are the Hooglandsche Kerk (or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and containing a monument to Pieter Adriaanszoon van der Werff) and the Pieterskerk (church of St Peter (1315) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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